Presentation on theme: "SHIP TO SHIP (STS) TRANSFER OF CARGO: LATEST DEVELOPMENTS AND OPERATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT N.P. Ventikos1 , D.I. Stavrou2 National Technical University."— Presentation transcript:
1SHIP TO SHIP (STS) TRANSFER OF CARGO: LATEST DEVELOPMENTS AND OPERATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT N.P. Ventikos1 , D.I. Stavrou2National Technical University of Athens School of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering1. Assistant Professor, Laboratory for Maritime Transport, School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, NTUA2. PhD Candidate, Laboratory for Maritime Transport, School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, NTUA
2OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Legislative regime 3. Factors in consideration4.Risk assessment5.Lessons learned from accidents6.ConclusionsSTS transfer operation4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
3INTODUCTION Significant development due to: Operational factors (optimization of the distribution plan)Trading factors (offshore storage - contango situation)4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
4Contango is when the investor or producer puts the commodity into storage waiting for the prices to improve-before selling.Markets get into contango when the prices don't reflect the actual value of the commodity.if the investors feel that they could get better returns, say, after six months, they store the commodity instead of selling it immediately. This is called contango.the March 2011 contract for oilpriced at $86.99 per barrel, whilethe February 2012 contract was priced at $99.53.That is a spread of $12.54.If you had a place to store that oil, you could have bought it on the spot market for around $87 and sold a February 2012 contract, collecting a guaranteed return of 14.4%.Imbalances that big do not stick around for very long.
5INTRODUCTION Describe the latest developments, AIM OF THIS STUDY :Describe the latest developments,Preliminary risk analysis/assessment of the procedure,Importance of lessons learnt from case studiesPhD: development of a dynamic risk framework for STS transfers.4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
6Ore lightering (Rarely) INTRODUCTIONPetroleum products (Usaly)STS transfer of cargoOre lightering (Rarely)LNG, LPG transfer(Under development)4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
7INTRODUCTIONInitially used on the decade of 1960s in the Gulf of Mexico.Transfer of cargo between seagoing ships positioned alongside.“Constant heading vessel” moves on a study direction with slow speed, while the other ship called “maneuvering vessel” approach the first shipObjective cause for both ships is to come on parallel courses with similar speed and their manifolds in line so to continue with the transfer procedure.Stationary or underway.“Lightering” transshipment from a larger ship to a smaller one or “Reverse Lightering” transshipment vice versa4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
8PHASES OF A STS TRANSFER OPERATION The pre-arrival planning STS management, ship compatibility, transfer area & coastal State requirements, STS equipment.The arrival control of operation, communications, safety issues & emergencies, navigational issues.The berthing Maneuvering alongside, maneuver control, mooring arrangement, weather considerationsThe transfer of cargo Pre-transfer procedure, cargo transfer, operations after completion of cargo transferThe departure unmooring plan, unmooring procedures and unberthing procedure, report to Authorities, record the operation.4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
9LEGISLATIVE REGIME FOR STS OPERATIONS The STS transfer operations were initially based on guidelines or recommendations made primarily from:ICSOCIMFIMOAlthough few accidents or spills, public concerns about consequences of oil spills led to the adoption of international regulationsFirst significant action:Addition of Chapter 8 to MARPOL Annex I of the Protocol of 1978 related to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships.4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
10LEGISLATIVE REGIME FOR STS OPERATIONS The IMO resolution MEPC 186(59)/2009 entered into force on April 1st, 2012 and it comprises three regulations of interest;Regulation 40. Scope of Application:Apply to oil tankers above 150 GTexceptions: Bunkering, FPSOs & FSUs, offshore platforms, warships.Regulation 41. General Rules on Safety and Environmental Protection:STS operation PlanQualified Person in Overall Advisory Control (POAC)Records for inspection.Regulation 42. Notification:Applies to territorial waters/ EEZnotification to the Party 48 hours prior to the operation.4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
11FACTORS THAT AFFECT AN STS TRANSFER OPERATION IMO resolution MEPC 186(59)/2009,POAC supervise/control according to “STS operation plan”Approved by the AdministrationReduction of the likelihood of a potential accident with human losses and/or environmental consequences.STS operation plan contains information about:individual phases of an STS transfer operationmooring and unmooring procedures,cargo and ballast information,duties of the involved personnel,a contingency planprocedures for exercise of “Due Diligence”Procedures for risk assessmentOther related issues4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
12FACTORS THAT AFFECT AN STS TRANSFER OPERATION The development of an STS transfer operation depends on different factors:•The vessels and their technical specifications (dimensions, compatibility issues, propulsion installations, mooring and anchorage equipment etc.).•The human factor (master’s experience, training skills and qualifications, preparation of the crew for emergency conditions etc.).•The special STS equipment (transfer hoses, fenders etc.).4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
13FACTORS THAT AFFECT AN STS TRANSFER OPERATION •The Person of the Overall Advisory Control (POAC) and his assistants; complete the operation safely and in accordance with the regulations set by IMO; criteria to abort/suspend the operation.•Other external factors such as the selected transfer area (traffic density, geological factors, security threat, underwater pipelines and/or cables, water depth),prevalling weather and environmental conditions (sea state, wind, tidal currents, visibility etc.).Emergency STS transfer in the strong wind conditions and 2m swells4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
14FACTORS THAT AFFECT AN STS TRANSFER OPERATION Coastal AuthoritiesPOACSupervise/control the STS operationResponsible for the Ship/Ship InterfaceMaster of constant heading vessel Responsible for his own vesselMaster of maneuvering vesselResponsible for his own vesselVessel CrewSTS SuperintendentVessel CrewSTS Superintendent
15RISK ASSESSMENT OF AN STS TRANSFER OPERATION Scenarios into considerationOil leakagecollisionfirehuman injury/ losspiracy attack4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
16RISK ASSESSMENT OF AN STS TRANSFER OPERATION minimum level of absolute riskAnalysis conducted in 2004;1,270 STS transfer operations;a time window of 10 yearsNo major pollution incident;Oil leakage in 7 cases (5.5‰) from which only two ended up to the sea.Minor collisions was cases per 1000 operationsMajor collisions was 1.57 cases per 1000 operations.One fatality and one crew injury occurred.A rate of 3.6 accidents /year4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
17LESSONS LEARNED FROM STS ACCIDENTS Case 1: Collision between VLCC and Aframax tanker at the beginning of STS procedureCase 2: Collision between two Aframax oil tankers at the end of the STS procedure
18CASE 1: COLLISION AT THE BEGINNING OF STS PROCEDURE NarrativeTwo tankers conducted “run-in” procedure for STS operation; helmsman (maneuv. vessel) on the wheel for 1 ½ hours. Operation during the night. Poor exterior helm repeater illumination. When manifolds came in line the superintendent used steering orders to do final approach. The maneuvering vessel start swing towards to the constant heading vessel. The superintendent tried to correct the movement. He then noticed that the indicator of the helm was on the opposite direction to the one he ordered.The two ships collided.Wrong impression for steering orders
19CASE 1: COLLISION AT THE BEGINNING OF STS PROCEDURE Investigation analysisDelay of the initiation led STS to be conducted in darkness. That had adverse affection on the procedure.Poor visibility of the helm indicator in the wing bridge caused lack of control at the executed orders.Superintendent was not checking if his orders were executed correctly.Helmsman was executing orders to keep courses for 1 1/2h and during final approach he had to adjust to a different situation in which he had to execute specific helms angle. This led to a lapse of concentration.
20CASE 1: COLLISION AT THE BEGINNING OF STS PROCEDURE Lessons learntIt is of upmost importance to use persons with special qualifications when difficult operations are conducted including “run-in” or mooring procedures.The fatigue of the personnel must be taken under serious consideration.It is preferred that STS transfer operations are conducted with day light.Bridge instrumentation must be inspected and remedy measures must be taken.
21CASE 2: COLLISION AT THE END OF STS PROCEDURE NarrativeAfter STS operation completed the ships started procedure so to separate. While moving with 2.5 knots, the last lines slipped, causing movement of the stern of one vessel close towards the other. To correct movement superintendent used propulsion and steering orders. However, the engine did not start. Efforts of the superintendent to avoid collision between the ships using consecutive steering orders were ineffectual; the ships collidedEngine fail to start
22CASE 2: COLLISION AT THE END OF STS PROCEDURE Investigation analysisMain cause of the collision was the engines failure.The personnel of the engine room were not aware of the emergency procedures when the engine fails to start.Internal poor communications led to the delay of the relay of the engines problem from the officer on bridge to the superintendent;Superintendent had conducted 8 consecutive STS operations. Fatigue may have affected him adversely.
23CASE 2: COLLISION AT THE END OF STS PROCEDURE Lessons learntUnmooring procedure has many navigational hazards that must be very carefully examined.Communication between MCR-Bridge, and Bridge-superintendent is vital to avoid difficult situations.Training of crew for emergency procedures is very important. Exercises should be conducted prior STS.The long-time duration of STS transfer procedures in combination with the consecutive operations may adverse superintendent’s ability and alertness (human fatigue).
24CONCLUSIONSIMO resolution MEPC 186(59)/2009 gives to tanker vessels the full operational responsibility of an STS transfer operation.amendment of the respective IMO resolution so to conclude gas and chemical products.The law allows masters to perform as superintendents. It seems appropriate to keep the two roles separated and not to cause additional problems with aforementioned combination.The factor of human fatigue seems to be determinant in the occurrence and escalation of accidents.4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
25CONCLUSIONSUse of tugs; if tugs are not available then mooring and unmooring is better to happen underway.The success of an STS transfer operation is based on the experience of the POAC/superintendent and the masters as well as on the good training of the personnel involved.Guides and practices are to be revised and amended taking into account the lessons learned from the recorded accidents.4th Int. Symposium of MASSEP.
26THANK U!! D.I. Stavrou, N. P. Ventikos. STS transfer operation between three ships underway at Skagen reef in Denmark