Presentation on theme: "Introduction to alcohols. Alcohols Alcohols are those compounds containing the –OH group. Both the C–O and O–H bonds are polar, causing alcohol molecules."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to alcohols
Alcohols Alcohols are those compounds containing the –OH group. Both the C–O and O–H bonds are polar, causing alcohol molecules to be polar and to have stronger intermolecular forces than alkanes or alkenes of similar size, with correspondingly higher melting and boiling points. Methanol and ethanol are liquids at room temperature, with boiling points of 64 °C and 78 °C respectively.
Low-mass alcohols are also soluble in water because the polar –OH group is attractive to water molecules. As the hydrocarbon chain lengthens, the solubility decreases. This photo shows ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol in water. The first two are completely miscible in water, while butan-1-ol is not miscible in water. EthanolPropan-1-olButan-1-ol
Like alkanes, alcohols are covalently-bonded molecules, therefore they do not conduct electricity. Because the –OH group in alcohols is formed by electron sharing it is not an OH – ion. This means that when alcohols dissolve in water they do not form basic solutions.
A bottle of ethanol and a beaker of water with universal indicator added. Take a sample of the ethanol. Add to the beaker The indicator does not change colour. Ethanol is neutral.
Classification of alcohols Alcohols are classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°), or tertiary (3°), according to the number of carbon atoms bonded to the carbon atom attached to the –OH group. Methanol is considered a 1° alcohol. Primary Secondary Tertiary
Alcohols in everyday life Ethanol is the alcohol in wine, beer and other alcoholic drinks. Governments tax ethanol in drinks as a way to raise money. Methanol is very poisonous. People accidentally drinking small amounts of methanol suffer blindness and brain damage. Others die.
Methylated spirits used to be made by mixing ethanol with methanol – to make it poisonous and avoid the tax. Today’s ‘meths’ contains no methanol, but it still contains a very bitter compound to make it undrinkable. Purple dye is also added to make it easy to recognise.
Water has no effect on this permanent marker… … but the writing is easily removed using methylated spirits. Alcohols are good solvents. water meths
Alcohols are used as solvents in many food essences and perfumes
Like alkanes, alcohols burn easily. The flame is cleaner than with alkanes because of the oxygen molecule inside the alcohol. The methanol flame is so clean it is almost invisible. methanolethanol
Alcohols are useful fuels. Combustion products are carbon dioxide and water.
Making ethanol Ethanol, the alcohol people drink, can be made by the fermentation of sugars found in fruit, grain or milk. yeast 2CH 3 CH 2 OH + 2CO 2 ethanol C 6 H 12 O 6 glucose All alcoholic drinks, such as wine, beer, whiskey, vodka and rum, are made by fermentation. New Zealand exports ethanol made by fermentation of lactose (milk sugar), which is left over after cheese making.
Making methanol Methanol is made from methane in two stages: First the atoms in methane and steam are rearranged or reformed into carbon monoxide and hydrogen: CH 4 + H 2 O → CO + 3H 2 This reaction is done at 800 °C. Some of the hydrogen formed is burnt to supply the heat. The rest of the hydrogen and the carbon monoxide is converted into methanol under high pressure: CO + 2H 2 → CH 3 OH
Methanex New Zealand has two methanol manufacturing facilities, both in Taranaki. Together, when at full production, they can produce 2.4 million tonnes of methanol per year, most of which is exported to countries in Asia Pacific. Methanol production distillation tower at Methanex's Motunui facility. Photo courtesy of Methanex New Zealand Ltd