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Role of Community Participation and Indigenous Knowledge in Flood Defence in India.

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Presentation on theme: "Role of Community Participation and Indigenous Knowledge in Flood Defence in India."— Presentation transcript:

1 Role of Community Participation and Indigenous Knowledge in Flood Defence in India

2 FLOOD SCENARIO AREA (Mha) GEOGRAPHICAL 328 FLOOD PRONE 40 12% FLOOD AFFECTED AV MAX MIN PROTECTABLE 32 80% PROTECTED (3/06) %

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4 DAMAGES DUE TO FLOODS ( ) AV. ANN. FLOOD DAMAGE US$ 451 M MAX. FLOOD DAMAGE (2000) US$ 2216 M AV.ANN. HUMAN LIVES LOST 1589 MAX. HUMAN LIVES LOST (1977)

5 STRATEGIES MODIFY FLOODS (PHYSICAL CONTROLS) MODIFY SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DAMAGE (FF, FLOOD PROOFING, PREPAREDNESS…) MODIFY LOSS BURDEN (FLOOD RELIEF, RECONSTRUCTION, INSURANCE…) LIVING WITH FLOODS (BEARING LOSS)

6 STRUCTURAL & NON-STRUCTURAL MEASURES ACHIEVEMENTS(3/06) EMBANKMENTS 33,929 Km DRAINAGE CHANNELS 38,810 Km STORAGE RESERVOIRS 4,525 (No.) TOWN/VILLAGE WORKS 2,458 (No.) VILLAGES RAISED 4,716 (No.) FF STATIONS 175 (147 ST.+28 (RI)

7 NEW PARADIGM FROM POST-DISASTER RESPONSE/RELIEF TO PREPAREDNESS/PREVENTION DEVELOPMENT NOT SUSTAINABLE WITHOUT DISASTER MITIGATION INVESTMENT IN MITIGATION MORE COST- EFFECTIVE THAN RELIEF EXPENDITURE MITIGATION TO BE MULTI-DISCIPLINARY NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

8 PANCHAYATS 73 RD CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT ACT, VILLAGE LEVEL Admn. VILLAGE AND DISTRICT PANCHAYATS ELECTIONS TO BE HELD EVERY 5 YEARS RESERVATION FOR WOMEN & DISADVANTAGED SECTIONS

9 PANCHAYATS (CONTD.)  33% TO WOMEN; 50% IN BIHAR & MP  OVER 1 MILLION ELECTED WOMEN REPRESENTATIVES (38% OF ALL PERSONS ELECTED)  SEPARATE MINISTRY OF PANCHAYAT RAJ  SOME STATES ARE TARDY

10 COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER PREPAREDNESS PANCHAYATS NOW NECESSARY ELEMENT IN PREPAREDNESS THEIR EXPERIENCE AND PRACTICES MAIN FOCUS OF RISK REDUCTION PROGRAM

11 COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER PREPAREDNESS (CONTD.)  TRADITIONAL COPING PRACTICES AND SURVIVAL MECHANISM HANDY  COMMUNITY BASED VOLUNTEER TEAMS MORE EFFECTIVE IN PREPAREDNESS AND POST-FLOOD MITIGATION  DISASTER MGMT PLANS PREPARED FOR 8643 VILLAGES, 1046 PANCHAYATS, 188 BLOCKS IN 82 DISTRICTS

12 COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER PREPAREDNESS (CONTD.) CBDM IS CRUCIAL TO NDF AND DEVOLVES UPON: EMPOWERING AND CAPACITY BUILDING OF VULNERABLE COMMUNITIES SETTING UP AND TRAINING DMCs & DMTs OF PANCHAYATS AND MUNICIPALITIES IN IDENTIFICATION OF SHELTERS, STOCKPILING OF RELIEF MATERIALS, EARLY WARNING DISSEMINATION, FIRST-AID ETC.

13 CBDP (CONTD.) DMPs TO BE MADE INTEGRAL TO DEVELOPMENT PLANS DMPs TO GET PRIORITY UNDER VARIOUS DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES OF PANCHAYATS AND URBAN LOCAL BODIES

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23 LOCAL KNOWLEDGE TECHNICAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIO-CULTURAL HISTORICAL

24 LOCAL KNOWLEDGE (CONTD.) PEOPLE’S ADAPTIVE AND COPING PRACTICES CONSTITUTE  PREVENTIVE MEASURES  PROTECTIVE MEASURES, RISK REDUCTION MECHANISM AND IMPACT MINIMIZING STRATEGIES  AVOIDANCE MEASURES

25 LOCAL KNOWLEDGE (CONTD.) TRADITIONAL RURAL COMMUNITIES COMMUNICATE:  ORALLY THRO’ STORIES, SONGS, POEMS, PROVERBS & THEATRE  PRACTICES LIKE WORSHIP, CEREMONIES AND RITUALS

26 LOCAL KNOWLEDGE (CONTD.) EARLY FLOOD WARNING EARLY WARNING ASSESSMENT OF PROBABILITY & FLOODING EXTENT BY: COLOUR OF CLOUDS, LOCATION, INTENSITY & FREQUENCY OF RAINFALL, UNUSUAL SOUNDS & CHANGES IN WATER FLOW, WATER COLOUR, WIND DIRECTION UNUSUAL BEHAVIOUR OF WILDLIFE LIKE ANTS, BIRDS, RATS AND SNAKES

27 LOCAL KNOWLEDGE (CONTD.) FLOOD PREPAREDNESS  STORING ESSENTIAL ITEMS LIKE FOOD GRAINS, FUEL ETC.  KEEPING SEEDS IN BASKETS, HANGING FROM CEILINGS OR WITH FRIENDS/RELATIVES LIVING IN FLOOD FREE AREAS  HARVESTING CROPS EARLY

28 LOCAL KNOWLEDGE (CONTD.) FLOOD PREPAREDNESS  STORING DRY FODDER AT HIGHER ELEVATIONS - ON TOP OF HOUSE-ROOFS OR HIGH BRANCHES OF TREES  CONSTRUCTING RAISED PLATFORMS MADE OF BAMBOO, WOODEN STICKS ETC. IN HOUSES FOR CHILDREN/WOMEN

29 LOCAL KNOWLEDGE (CONTD.) FLOOD PREPAREDNESS  MAKING BOATS/FLOATING PLATFORMS WITH LOCAL MATERIALS e.g. BAMBOO STICKS & BANANA STEMS  CONSTRUCTING HOUSES ON STILTS  STOCKPILING STONE BOULDERS, SAND BAGS, BURNT OR UNBURNT BRICKS, OILSKINS ETC.

30 LOCAL KNOWLEDGE (CONTD.) FLOOD PREPAREDNESS  PRESERVING RICE, PULSES, OIL, DRIED FISH AND FUEL FOR COOKING  PATROLLING EMBANKMENTS TO KEEP WATCH ON KNOWN VULNERABLE POINTS  DURING FLOODS, WEAKER SECTIONS START TAKING ONE MEAL A DAY

31 LOCAL KNOWLEDGE (CONTD.) POST FLOOD RECONSTRUCTION USING EXPERTISE AND LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS IN DWELLING UNITS, CATTLE SHEDS AND TEMPORARY SHELTERS CARRYING-OUT POST FLOOD REPAIR & MAINTENANCE OF APPROACH ROADS, BRIDGES, CULVERTS, PUBLIC UTILITIES, SHELTERS, BOATS, FISH NETS, WATER PURIFICATION, VETERINARY CARE, RESCUE & RELIEF

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36 THANK YOU

37 Political Economy DevelopmentEnvironment Disaster Risk Assessment, Reduction and Management, NDM ACT, 2005 & National Policy on DM Prevention & PreparednessResponse & Recovery Structural Measures Infrastructure Environmental shield Retrofitting Early warning system Non-structural measures Mass awareness Poverty alleviation Community Participation Warning dissemination Empowerment of the women Capacity building Search & rescueShelters Relief Sustainable Development

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39 PAST PERSPECTIVES ON DISASTERS INDIAN HISTORY CITES MANY INSTANCES OF COPING WITH NATURAL AND HUMAN-MADE DISASTERS - FROM INVASIONS AND WARS TO FLOODS, DROUGHTS, FAMINES, EARTHQUAKES AND CYCLONES THE LOCATION OF THE SUB CONTINENT WITH ITS UNIQUE GEOCLIMATIC FEATURES, MAKES FOR AN INTERESTING MIX OF VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE

40 PAST PERSPECTIVES ON DISASTERS (CONTD.) IN ADDITION TO RELIGIOUS LITERATURE PROMOTING NEED FOR HARMONY BETWEEN HUMANS AND NATURE, SCHOLASTIC AND SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE IN ANCIENT INDIA DEALT WITH ASPECTS OF DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND MITIGATION

41 PAST PERSPECTIVES ON DISASTERS (CONTD.) PHILOSOPHER-ASTRONOMER- MATHEMATICIAN VARAHAMIHIRA( AD) GAVE DIRECTIONS IN BRIHAD SAMHITA ABOUT EARTHQUAKES, THEIR CAUSES AND PREDICTABILITY, SIGNS, CORRELATION WITH COSMIC/PLANETARY INFLUENCES, GROUND WATER AND UNDER SEA ACTIVITIES, UNUSUAL CLOUD FORMATIONS AND ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR OF ANIMALS

42 PAST PERSPECTIVES ON DISASTERS (CONTD.) ATHARVA VEDA DISCUSSES DROUGHT MITIGATION STRATEGIES AND ARTHSHASTRA(4 TH CENTURY B.C.) HAS A SECTION ON FAMINE RELIEF AND MITIGATION MEASURES THESE BECAME PART OF FOLKLORE AND FORM BASIS OF COPING MECHANISMS EXTANT AT COMMUNITY LEVEL TODAY


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