2Ad Hominem (Personal Attack) VOCABULARY WORD MAP Definition / Denotation Use in a sentence of your own.An attack on the person ____________________________rather than the issues at ____________________________hand (a common logical fallacy) ____________________________Ad Hominem(Personal Attack)ExampleBill: "I believe that abortion is morally wrong." Dave: "Of course you would saythat, you're a priest." Bill: "What about the arguments Igave to support my position?" Dave: "Those don't count. Like I said, you're a priest, so youhave to say that abortion iswrong. Further, you are just alackey to the Pope, so I can'tbelieve what you say."Note:A logical fallacy is an error in reasoning.
3Vocabulary Word Map Epistrophe Example: Definition/Denotation: Use the word in a sentence of your own:a minor device, this the ending of _____________________________________a series of lines, phrases, clauses, _____________________________________or sentences with the same word _____________________________________or words.EpistropheExample:"Don't you ever talk about my friends! You don't know any ofmy friends. You don't look at any of my friends. And you certainlywouldn't condescend to speak to any of my friends." (Judd Nelson as John Bender in The Breakfast Club, 1865)
4Vocabulary Word Map Euphemism Example: Definition/Denotation:1. To use a safer or nicer word for something others find inappropriate or unappealing2. Substitution of an expression that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the receiverwith an agreeable or less offensive expression or to make it less troublesome for the speakerEuphemismExample:"To pass away" is a euphemism for "to die."Often people say “Excuse me” or “May I be excused” instead of “I need to go to the bathroom.”One might refer to pornography as “adult entertainment.”
5Vocabulary Word Map Juxtaposition Example: Definition/Denotation:making one or more idea more dramatic by placing it next to its oppositeThe word juxtaposition means literally “to place side by side.”In a literary sense has the same idea but it is the act of positioning to close together words, phrases, or ideas in order to compare or contrast. The purpose of this literary device is to accentuate the relationship between the two ideas and to create an insightful meaning.JuxtapositionExample:Henry David Thoreau used an example of juxtaposition when he said,“Wealth and poverty, guilt and grief, orange and apple, God and Satan; let us settle ourselves and work and wedge our feet downward through the mud and the slush of opinion, and prejudice, and tradition, and delusion, and appearance..”This example shows juxtaposition because Henry David Thoreau used opposing ideas to illustrate equality and that we all experience the same feelings and emotions.
6Vocabulary Word Map non sequitur Example: Definition/Denotation:A logical fallacy, or error in reasoning, in which the argument being madeis misdirected from the original issue and is therefore logically irrelevant1. An inference or conclusion that does not follow from the premises or evidence.2. A statement that does not follow logically from what preceded it.Non Sequitur literally means “it does not follow.”non sequiturExample:Arguing at length that your religion is of great help to many people. Then, concluding that the teachings of your religion are undoubtedly true."Bill lives in a large building, so his apartment must be large."Steven Johnson grew up in poverty. Therefore, he will make a fine President of the United States.
7Definition/Denotation: Vocabulary Word MapDefinition/Denotation:a sentence with several dependent clauses that precede the independent clauseThe periodic sentence emphasizes its important point by putting first all subordinate clauses and other modifiers to its main idea.The sentence unfolds gradually, so that the thought contained in the subject/verb group becomes available only at the sentence's end. Obviously artificial, it is used mostly in what in oratory is called the grand style.The periodic sentence is used "to arouse interest and curiosity, to hold an idea in suspense before its final revelation. In the words, "the effect...is to keep the mind in a state of uniform or increasing tension until the dénouement."Periodic SentenceExample:A "now-famous periodic sentence" occurs in Nikolai Gogols short story "The Overcoat":Even at those hours when the gray Petersburg sky is completely overcast and the whole population of clerks have dined and eaten their fill, each as best he can, according to the salary he receives and his personal tastes; when they are all resting after the scratching of pens and bustle of the office, their own necessary work and other people's, and all the tasks that an overzealous man voluntarily sets himself even beyond what is necessary; when the clerks are hastening to devote what is left of their time to pleasure; some more enterprising are flying to the theater, others to the street to spend their leisure staring at women's hats, some to spend the evening paying compliments to some attractive girl, the star of a little official circle, while some—and this is the most frequent of all—go simply to a fellow clerk's apartment on the third or fourth story, two little rooms with a hall or a kitchen, with some pretensions to style, with a lamp or some such article that has cost many sacrifices of dinners and excursions—at the time when all the clerks are scattered about the apartments of their friends, playing a stormy game of whist, sipping tea out of glasses, eating cheap biscuits, sucking in smoke from long pipes, telling, as the cards are dealt, some scandal that has floated down from higher circles, a pleasure which the Russian do never by any possibility deny himself, or, when there is nothing better to talk about, repeating the everlasting anecdote of the commanding officer who was told that the tail had been cut off the horse on the Falconet monument—in short, even when everyone, was eagerly seeking entertainment, Akaky Akakievich did not indulge in any amusement.
8Vocabulary Word Map Periodic Sentence . Definition/Denotation:a sentence with several dependent clauses that precede the independent clauseThe periodic sentence emphasizes its important point by putting first all subordinate clauses and other modifiers to its main idea.The sentence unfolds gradually, so that the thought contained in the subject/verb group becomes available only at the sentence's end. Obviously artificial, it is used mostly in what in oratory is called the grand style.The periodic sentence is used "to arouse interest and curiosity, to hold an idea in suspense before its final revelation. In the words, "the effect...is to keep the mind in a state of uniform or increasing tension until the dénouement."Periodic SentenceExample:THE PERIODIC SENTENCE:In this sentence, additional details are placed before the basic statement.Delay, of course, is the secret weapon of the periodic sentence.Basic statement: John gave his mother flowers.Periodic sentence: John, the tough one, the sullen kid who scoffed at any show of sentiment, gave his mother flowers.Basic statement: The cat scratched Sally.Periodic sentence: Suddenly, for no apparent reason, the lovable cat scratched Sally..
9Definition/Denotation: Vocabulary Word MapDefinition/Denotation:A complex sentence in which the main clause comes first and the subordinate clause follows.Loose sentences are the most natural for English speakers, who almost always talk in loose sentences: even the most sophisticated English writers tend to use loose sentences much more often than periodic sentences.It is important to remember that you have to structure a loose sentence as carefully as you would structure a periodic sentence: it is very easy to lose control of a loose sentence so that by the end the reader has forgotten what your main point was.Loose SentenceExample:I am willing to pay slightly higher taxes for the privilege of living in Canada, considering the free health care, the cheap tuition fees, the low crime rate, the comprehensive social programs, and the wonderful winters.
10Grammatical arrangement of words. Syntax/ Sentence Variety Vocabulary Word MapDefinition/Denotation:Grammatical arrangement of words.Syntax/ Sentence VarietyWhy You Need It:Writers who use only simple sentences are like truck drivers who do not know how to shift out of first gear: they would be able to drive a load from Montréal to Calgary (eventually), but they would have a great deal of trouble getting there.Just as a good driver uses different gears, a good writer uses different types of sentences in different situations:a long complex sentence will show what information depends on what other information;a compound sentence will emphasize balance and parallelism;a short simple sentence will grab a reader's attention;a loose sentence will tell the reader in advance how to interpret your information;a periodic sentence will leave the reader in suspense until the very end;a declarative sentence will avoid any special emotional impact;an exclamatory sentence, used sparingly, will jolt the reader;an interrogative sentence will force the reader to think about what you are writing; andan imperative sentence will make it clear that you want the reader to act right away.
11Vocabulary Word Map Diction Example: Definition/Denotation:Word choice, particularly as an element of style;Choice of words in speech or writingDiction"Your diction, the exact words you choose and the settings in which you use them, means a great deal to the success of your writing. While your language should be appropriate to the situation, that generally still leaves plenty of room for variety. Skillful writers mix general and particular, abstract and concrete, long and short, learned and commonplace, connotative and neutral words to administer a series of small but telling surprises. Readers stay interested because they don't know exactly what's coming next." (Joe Glaser, Understanding Style: Practical Ways to Improve Your Writing. Oxford Univ. Press, 1999)Example:"Words strain, Crack and sometimes break, under the burden, Under the tension, slip, slide, perish, Decay with imprecision, will not stay in place, Will not stay still." (T.S. Eliot, "Burnt Norton")
12The art of speaking and writing effectively Vocabulary Word MapDefinition/Denotation:The art of speaking and writing effectivelyRhetoric"'Rhetoric' refers but to 'the use of language in such a way as to produce a desired impression upon the hearer or reader.'" (Kenneth Burke, Counter-Statement, 1952)1999)Example:Rhetoric involves everything a writer or speaker does to make the message meaningful and effective – syntax, diction, connotation, use of literary devices, organization, etc.
13Vocabulary Word Map Zeugma Example: Definition/Denotation: the use of a word to modify or govern two or more words when it isappropriate to only one of them or is appropriate to each but in a different wayZeugmaExample:"You are free to execute your laws, and your citizens, as you see fit." (Star Trek: The Next Generation)"Kill the boys and the luggage!" (Fluellen in William Shakespeare's Henry V)to wage war and peaceOn his fishing trip, he caught three trout and a cold.
14Vocabulary Word Map Allusion Example(s): Definition/Denotation:1. a reference that recalls another work, another time in history,another famous person, and so forthAn indirect reference to a person, place, event, or literary workwith which the author believes the reader will be familiarAllusionExample(s):"I violated the Noah rule: predicting rain doesn't count; building arks does." (Warren Buffett)
15Vocabulary Word Map Asyndeton Definition/Denotation:A rhetorical term for a writing sytle that omitsconjunctions between words, phrases, or clausesAsyndetonExample(s):"He was a bag of bones, a floppy doll, a broken stick, a maniac." (Jack Kerouac, On the Road, 1957)"Speed up the film, Montag, quick. Click, Pic, Look, Eye, Now, Flick, Here, There, Swift, Pace, Up, Down, In, Out, Why, How, Who, What, Where, Eh? Uh! Bang! Smack! Wallop, Bing, Bong, Boom!" (Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451, 1953)
16Definition/Denotation: Vocabulary Word MapDefinition/Denotation:The emotional implications and associations that a word may carry, in contrast to its denotative or dictionary meaningsConnotationExample(s):Happy: So why do they call him "The Joker"? Dopey: I heard he wears make-up. Happy: Make-up? Dopey: Yeah, to scare people. You know, war paint. (William Smillie and Michael Stoyanov in The Dark Knight, 2008)"The name reservation has a negative connotation among Native Americans--an intern camp of sorts." (John Russell)
17Vocabulary Word Map allegory Definition/Denotation:The rhetorical strategy of extending a metaphor through anentire narrative so that objects, persons, and actions in the textare equated with meanings that lie outside the text.allegoryExample(s):One of the most famous allegories in English is John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1678), a tale of Christian salvation. Modern allegories include the films The Seventh Seal (1957) and Avatar (2009) as well as the novels Animal Farm (1945) and The Lord of the Flies (1954)."There are obvious layers of allegory [in the movie Avatar]. The Pandora woods is a lot like the Amazon rainforest (the movie stops in its tracks for a heavy ecological speech or two), and the attempt to get the Na'vi to 'cooperate' carries overtones of the U.S. involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan." (Owen Gleiberman, review of Avatar. Entertainment Weekly, Dec. 30, 2009)
18Vocabulary Word Map Example(s): Definition/Denotation: (1) An exaggeration, fairly common in non-fiction prose arguments, that bolsters an argument(2) A figure of speech (a form of irony) in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect; an extravagant statement.From the Greek, "excess" hyperboleExample(s):"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. (John B. Watson, Behaviorism, 1924)"I'm experienced now, professional. Jaws been broke, been knocked down a couple of times, I'm bad! Been chopping trees. I done something new for this fight. I done wrestled with an alligator. That's right. I have wrestled with an alligator. I done tussled with a whale. I done handcuffed lightning, thrown thunder in jail. That's bad! Only last week I murdered a rock, injured a stone, hospitalised a brick! I'm so mean I make medicine sick!" (Muhammad Ali)
19Vocabulary Word Map Example(s): Definition/Denotation: (1) A minor figure of speech in which the name of one thing is substitutedfor another with which it is closely associatedFrom the Greek, "change of name" metonymyExample(s):Royalty in England is sometimes referred to as “the crown”The American film industry is sometimes referred to as “Hollywood”
20Vocabulary Word Map Example(s): Definition/Denotation: (1) An inversion in the second of two parallel phrases(2) This is an ABBA syntactical structure rather than the more commonparallel ABAB structure(3) a verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first with the parts reversedFrom the Greek, "mark with the letter X." chaismusExample(s):"Nice to see you, to see you, nice!" (catchphrase of British TV entertainer Bruce Forsyth)"You forget what you want to remember, and you remember what you want to forget." (Cormac McCarthy, The Road, 2006)
21Vocabulary Word Map Example(s): Definition/Denotation:1. The presence of two or more possible meanings in any passage.2. doubtfulness or uncertainty of meaning or intention3. A n unclear, indefinite, or equivocal word, expression, meaning, etc.From the Latin, "wandering about“ AMBIGUITYExample(s):Ambiguous image: a woman or a saxophone player?We saw her duck.Prostitutes Appeal to Pope (newspaper headline)Union Demands Increased Unemployment (newspaper headline)
22Vocabulary Word Map From the Latin, "deceive" FALLACY Example(s): Definition/Denotation:(1) An error in reasoning that renders an argument invalidFrom the Latin, "deceive" FALLACYExample(s):Segregation is a natural instinct of all animals (including man).Source: Hubert Eaton in a speech in 1964 defending racial segregation, cited in Morris Kominsky'sThe Hoaxers (Branden Press: 1970), p. 103.Jane and Bill are talking: Jane: "I'll be able to buy that car I always wanted soon." Bill: "Why, did you get a raise?" Jane: "No. But you know how I've been playing the lottery all these years?" Bill: "Yes, you buy a ticket for every drawing, without fail." Jane: "And I've lost every time." Bill: "So why do you think you will win this time?" Jane: "Well, after all those losses I'm due for a win."
23Vocabulary Word Map Example(s): Definition/Denotation: The specialized language of a professional, occupational, or other group,often meaningless to outsidersFrom Old French, "the twittering of birds, meaningless talk" JARGONExample(s):"Ahead in the count" If someone refers to your business as one that is "ahead in the count", you're doing very well. This is an example of baseball jargon that refers to when the pitcher - ahead in the count - has more strikes than balls against a batter. In the business world, to be ahead of the count means you have pulled out in front of your competitors and are doing well in your market. In order to stay ahead in the count, you may to continue doing what you're doing, but also re-evaluating ways to stay ahead of your competition."Plug and Play" - It literally means when you buy an electronic device, all you need to do is plug it in the electrical receptacle, turn it on, and it will work properly. In business, this term does not need to refer to an electrical device, but virtually anything that should work properly with not much thinking involved."Cookies" Some examples of jargon just don't always mean what you may think! This is one example. The term "cookies" is computer jargon. It refers to data placed on your computer from a web server that records the websites you visit, your passwords (if you so choose), your shopping cart preferences, and a record of your website preferences. How are cookies helpful to you? If you use the Internet regularly, cookies allow the websites to "know" you when you return. Pages can load faster, passwords can be remembered so you don't have to key them in each time, etc. Although cookies are not absolutely necessary, they are very helpful when it comes to operating efficiently on the Internet.
24Vocabulary Word Map Example(s): Definition/Denotation: The way in which information is presented in a text.The four traditional modes are narration, description, exposition, and argument.MODES OF DISCOURSEExample(s):Narration: recounts an event or a series of related eventsDescription: uses sensory details to portray a person, place or thingExposition: intended to give information about (or an explanation of) an issue, subject, method, or ideaArgument: A course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating truth or falsehood.
25Vocabulary Word MapDefinition/Denotation:Reasoning or arguing from parallel cases.A simile is an expressed analogy; a metaphor is an implied one.ANALOGYExample(s):"I am to dancing what Roseanne is to singing and Donald Duck to motivational speeches. I am as graceful as a refrigerator falling down a flight of stairs." (Leonard Pitts, "Curse of Rhythm Impairment." Miami Herald, Sep. 28, 2009)"If you want my final opinion on the mystery of life and all that, I can give it to you in a nutshell. The universe is like a safe to which there is a combination. But the combination is locked up in the safe." (Peter De Vries, Let Me Count the Ways. Little Brown, 1965)
26Vocabulary Word MapDefinition/Denotation:Conjoining contrasting ideas.The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases or clausesANTITHESISExample(s):"Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing." (Goethe)"Everybody doesn't like something, but nobody doesn't like Sara Lee." (advertising slogan)"Hillary has soldiered on, damned if she does, damned if she doesn't, like most powerful women, expected to be tough as nails and warm as toast at the same time." (Anna Quindlen, "Say Goodbye to the Virago." Newsweek, June 16, 2003)
27Definition/Denotation: Vocabulary Word MapDefinition/Denotation:A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole or the whole for a partSYNECDOCHEExample(s):“ABCs for Alphabet“Give us this day our daily bread . . .” from the Lord’s Prayer – bread here is used to represent all food"The sputtering economy could make the difference if you're trying to get a deal on a new set of wheels.“ (Al Vaughters, WIVB.com, Nov. 21, 2008)All hands on deck.General Motors announced cutbacks."Take thy face hence.” (William Shakespeare, Macbeth)9/11"And let us mind, faint heart n'er wan A lady fair.“ (Robert Burns, "To Dr. Blalock")white-collar criminals
28Vocabulary Word MapDefinition/Denotation:Vulgar error through an attempt to seem learned.Absurd or humorous misuse of a word, especially by confusion with one of similar sound.Malapropisms are sometimes called, more formally, phonological word substitutions.Pronunciation: MAL-i-prop-izmMALAPROPISMExample(s):"Well I try to look at the bright side. I guess you could say I'm an internal optometrist." (Steve Carell as Barry in Dinner for Schmucks, 2010)"A witness shall not bear falsies against thy neighbor." (Archie Bunker in All in the Family) "groin-acologist" for "gynecologist" (Archie Bunker in All in the Family)