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7 Yojana and 7 yugas सप्त युञ्जन्ति रथमेकचक्रमेको अश्वो वहति सप्तनामा (ऋक्, १/१६४/२) –अस्यवामीयसूक्त युजिर् योगे, Yujir verb= to add, This forms yuga and.

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Presentation on theme: "7 Yojana and 7 yugas सप्त युञ्जन्ति रथमेकचक्रमेको अश्वो वहति सप्तनामा (ऋक्, १/१६४/२) –अस्यवामीयसूक्त युजिर् योगे, Yujir verb= to add, This forms yuga and."— Presentation transcript:

1 7 Yojana and 7 yugas सप्त युञ्जन्ति रथमेकचक्रमेको अश्वो वहति सप्तनामा (ऋक्, १/१६४/२) –अस्यवामीयसूक्त युजिर् योगे, Yujir verb= to add, This forms yuga and yojana-both unite in 7 ways. $ Two Yojanas by Bhāskarāchārya-II for 2 purposes- 1.Astronomy- Siddhānta-śiromaņi -earth is standard- Equator = 5000 yojanas, 1 yojana = 8 Kms. 2.Human use-Līlāvatī-Angula (finger width) is standard. 1 Yojana = 32,000 hands = 16 Kms. शत योजने ह वा एष (आदित्य) इतस्तपति (कौषीतकि ब्राह्मण उपनिषद् ८/३) Sun is at 100 Yojanas. Here, yojana is diameter of sun. It is at 108(about 100) yojanas. Jain astronomy-1 Pramāņa yojana = 500 Ātmā yojana =1000 Utsedha yojanas Modern Physics-(1) Definitions of Meter- (a) 10 part of distance between equator and north pole along Paris. (b) Distance between 2 marks on a rod at zero degree at Paris. ( c) 16,50,763,73 times wave-length of a radiation of Krypton86. (d) linked with second by speed of light-Light travels 2,99, Kms in 1 second. (2) Foot = length of Human foot = Cms. (3) Nautical Mile-1 minute arc on equator = feet or 1852 meter. Astronomical measures-(1) Astronomical unit (AU)-Semi major axis of earth orbit =distance of sun =1.496 x 10 Meters. (2) Persec (Pc)-This is distance at which 1 AU makes angle of 1 second 1 Persec = x 10 Meters = 3.26 Light years Kilo-persec (Kpc) = 1000 Pc, Mega-persec (Mpc) = 10 Pc. (3) Light year is distance travelled by light in 1 tropical year = x 10 Meter Gaja means elephant and measuring rod both, It indicates number

2 Nara yojana = Human measure Large measures-1 Angula (finger width) is standard. 12 angula = 1 Vitasti (palm spread). 2 Vitasti = 1 Hasta (hand) =45 Cm, 1 angula =1.875 Cm. 1 Daņɖa = 4 hasta. It is also called Puruşa (man)- height with hands raised=fathom of 6 feet Daņɖa = 1 yojana = hands =16 kms. Small measures-Bŗhat-samhitā (58/1-2) of Varāhamihira 8 Paramāņu (atom) = 1 Raja or dust particle (Ratha-reņu as per Mānasāra) 8 Raja =1 Vālāgra (hair end), 8 Vālāgra = 1 Likśā (lice) 8 Likśā = 1 Yūka, 8 Yūka = 1 Yava (barley grain width) 8 Yava = 1 Angula (finger width) = cm. 1Paramāņu Śrīpati calls it the size of dust particles seen in sun-rays. This is Trasareņu which has 60 Aņus (atom) as per Āyurveda. Thus, 1 atom = 1.2 x Cm. Lalita-vistara tells Paramāņu-raja = Angula x = 0.6 x Cm. This is actually radius of Hydrogen atom. Trasareņu of Tiloya-pannati =1 Angula x 8 -9 = 1.4 x Cm Any measure is in general called Angula. Puruşa sūkta-1 tells the whole world as angula. When measure is only 1 angula, it is called Anguşţha. Bālakhilya planets are called of 1 Anguşţha. Here earth is Puruşa of 96 angulas.

3 Bhū-Yojana with earth as Standard Sūrya-siddhānta (1/59)-Diameter = 1600 Yojana Pañcha-siddhāntikā (1/18) Circumference = 3200 yojana Āryabhaţīya (1/10) and Lalla- Diameter = 1050 Yojanas Siddhānta-śiromaņi, Golādhyāya, Bhuvana-koşa 52- Diameter =1582 1/24 yojanas, Circumference =4967 Yojana In space, earth has been called Padma (lotus) of 1000 petals-Padma-purāņa, Sŗşţi khaņɖa (40/2-3) Or Ŗgveda (6/16/13-14). Counting atmosphere as part of earth, its 1000 part is equal to Āryabhaţa yojana. Bhāgavata purāņa, part 5 calls planetary orbit up to Neptune as Disc-shaped earth of 100 Crore yojana diameter. Middle age astronomers have multiplied it by 360 to make It Divya yojana as diameter of Brahmāņɖa (galaxy). Half part of that is loka (lighted) part of 50 crore yojanas, in which 7 dvīpa (continents) and samudra (ocean) are described as same names found on earth. Remaining part is Aloka (dark) region. Here, 1 yojana = 1000 part of earth diameter = Kms.

4 Dvīpas and Samudras of Bhāgavata Purāņa Serial Radius Breadth (in 1000 yojana) Name Jambū-dvīpa Lavaņa (salt) samudra Plakśa-dvīpa Ikśu-rasa (sugar cane juice) samudra Śālmali-dvīpa Madya (liquor) samudra Kuśa-dvīpa Ghŗta (butter) samudra Krauñcha-dvīpa Kśīra (milk) sāgara Śaka-dvīpa , Dadhi (curd) samudra , Mānasottara-parvata , Puşkara-dvīpa , Madhura-jala (sweet water) samudra ,100 15,750 Loka-varşa (bright zone) 17. 1,25,000 83,900 Hiraņya-varşa 18. 2,50,000 1,25,000 Aloka-varşa (dark zone) Earth Sun Mercury Dv īpa Apparent rotation of a planet around earth or its orbit forms Dv īpa Inner radius=radius of earth orbit-planet Outer radius=sum of radii

5 Comparison of Dvīpa and Samudras with planetary orbits Serial-Planet Point Radius(1000 yojana) Radius of Dvīpa Error% Name of region 1.Mercury Near , K śīra-sāgara 2.Mercury Far 15, , Mānasottara parvata 3. Venus Near , Ghŗta-sāgara 4. Venus Far 18, , Puşkara-Dvīpa 5. Mars Near 4, , Krauñcha-Dvīpa 6.Mars Far 25, , Jala-samudra 7. Jupiter Near 43, , Jana-sthāna 8. Saturn Far 1,21, ,25, Hiraņya-varşa 9. Sun (mean) 10, , Mean of Dadhi samudra 10. Ceres* Near 16, , Mānasottara parvata 11. Ceres* Far 42, , Jana-sthāna 12.Urans Far 2,29, ,50, Aloka-varşa Note-1.* Ceres is the main body in the asteroid belt between mars and Jupiter. Its orbit is calculated for figures of 2000 AD. 2. Jambū-Dvīpa of 50,000 yojana radius is extent of gravitational field of earth in which an object will be in orbit. Its axis in direction of earth rotation in Meru of 1,00,000 yojanas. 3. Dadhi-samdra is solid planet zone. Its mean circle is orbit of earth-largest solid planet.

6 Bha Yojana=Star measure In astronomy texts, value of yojana is determined by comparing the standard measure of earth in diameter or circumference with modern measure in Kms. Without any reason, we assume that the same measure is used for distance of sun or star planets-which look like stars. There measure needs to be found by comparing sun diameter with current measures. Sūrya-siddhānta (1/59)-Diameter of earth = 1600 Yojana It is 12, Km. (equator) in modern measure. So, this yojana = 12,756.28/ 1600 = Km. Sun diameter = 6500 Yojana (Sūrya-siddhānta 4/17) It is 13,92,000 Km. in modern measures. So, this yojana= 13,92,000/ 6500 = Km. Solar yojana/earth yojana = / = or 27 approximately. Bha means star and indicates number 27. So, measure of sun (a star) and star-like planets can be called Bha-yojana which means star-measure or 27 (Bha) yojanas. (1) Sun orbit=43,31,500 Yojana (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/86) Diameter = 1.47 x 10 Kms., Modern value = 1.50 x 10 Kms. (2) Nakśatra Kakśā =Sun orbit x 60 (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/80) This is obviously within solar system as size of Brahmāņɖa is much larger. This is small planets called Bālakhilyas, 60,000 in number rotating round sun. Their size in Anguşţha = 1 angula (Bhāgavata purāņa 5/21/17) Earth can be taken as a puruşa of 96 angula = 12, Km. So, Bālakhilya size is 12,756.28/96 = 135 km. NASA estimate of 2005 is that there are 70,000 Plutonic bodies of more than 100 Km Diameter at 44-65AU distance (60 AU average in Bhāgavata) (3) Brahmāņɖa circumference = 1.87 x 10 Bha-yojana (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/90) Diameter = 1.3 x 10 Light year, Modern measure 10 LY

7 Dhāma yojana त्रिंशद्धाम वि-राजति वाक् पतङ्गाय धीमहि । प्रति वस्तोरहद्युभिः ॥ (ऋक्, १०/१८९/३) सदृशीरद्य सदृशीरिदु श्वो दीर्घं सचन्ते वरुणस्य धाम । अनवद्यास्त्रिंशतं योजनान्येकैका क्रतुं परियन्ति सद्यः ॥ (ऋक्, १/१२३/८) Measure of solar system is given in Ŗk veda (10/189/3) For 30 Dhāma brightness is more, which is understood as Vāk =field of Patanga =sun. Each Vasta (location) of Dyu (sky) is measured in Ahar. Ahar and vasta both mean day. Dhāma and yojana both words have been used in Řgveda (1/123/8) for measure of Uşā (twilight) They (Uşā) are same today and will be same tomorrow. They spread towards place of Varuņa, one by one. Dhāma of Varuņa are 30 without break. They are ahead of Kratu =sun by 30 Yojanas. 1.Meaning in space-Zone of Varuņa is galaxy. Within that, there are 30 zones one after other where light of sun is more than the background of galaxy. Light of each zone is more than darkness and less Sun itself and is called Uşā (twilight) of 30 levels in 30 zones called Dhāma. Measure of Dhāma here is not defined. Here measuring rod is earth itself as in Sūrya-siddhānta- मा छन्दः तत् पृथिवी, अग्निर्देवता.. (मैत्रायणी संहिता, २/१४/९३, काठक संहिता, ३९/३९) Measure of loka has started in Taittirīya upanişad (2/8) from Earth-called Manuşya-loka. Bŗhadāraņyaka upanişad (3/3/2)-...द्वात्रिংशतं वै देवरथाह्न्यन्ययं लोकस्तং समन्तं पृथिवी द्विस्तावत्पर्येति ताং समन्तं पृथिवीं द्विस्तावत्समुद्रः पर्येति..... (बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद् ३/३/२) = 32 ahar (Plural is aha̅ni) is measure of Deva-ratha, its double in all directions is Pŗthivī (enclosure of solar system), that is surrounded all around by Samudra (ocean) of twice size. Thus all measure starts from earth as measuring rod. But there are 3 Dh āmas within earth, so Dhāma 3 = earth. Distance from center of measure is equal to radius of earth. Radius of Dhāma 4 =2 x earth radius, Radius of Dhāma 5 = 4 x earth radius, and so on.

8 D = r x 2 n-3 r 2 1 Earth 3 4 ahargaŋa=2r 4r8r Ahargaŋa Scale

9 Kśara Dhāma Meaning of Dhāma on earth-Varuņa is lord of west direction. Uşā (twilight) goes up to 30 dhāmas in that direction ahead of place of sun rise. In India, it is taken as 15 degree west of sun-rise. This is called Sandhyā (joint) period and in Kali-yuga of 1200 years, 2 sandhyā are of 100 years each. Thus in a day of 24 hours, it will be of 1 hour each equal to 15 degree rotation of earth. In west, it is taken as 18 degree which is more correct for European latitudes. Thus 1 Dhāma = ½ degree longitude. This will differ for each latitude circle, will decrease as we move away from equator. On equator, it is fixed and can be called a Dhāma-yojana, equal to half degree arc. Thus, 1 Dhāma-yojana = 40,000/720 = 55.5 kms. Kaţha upanişad 1/3/1) gives measure of galaxy in that measure- ऋतं पिबन्तौ सुकृतस्य लोके गुहां प्रविष्टौ परमे परार्धे । छायातपौ ब्रह्मविदो वदन्ति पञ्चाग्नयो ये च त्रिणाचिकेताः ॥ (कठोपनिषद् १/३/१) = Persons doing good finally enter the largest cave of size (circumference) of para̅rdha yojana (0.5 x x 55.5 kms.). Knowers of Brahma call it a combination of light and shadow having 5 Agnis (condensations) called (1) Svayambhu̅ (universe as collection of galaxies), (2) Parameşţhī maņɖala (galaxy with stars), (3) solar system of 30 dha̅mas (2 30 x earth size), (4) Cha̅ndra maņɖala (sphere containing orbit of moon), and (5) earth. Out of these, the last 3 are jointly influencing us- called 3 eyes of Śiva. Chiketa = distinct, Nāchiketa =indistinct, mixed. Here diameter of galaxy comes to LY, between and LY estimates of NASA in 1990 and Same measure is used in Ŗgveda (1/164/12) etc. where Brahmāņɖa has always been called Pura (structure) of Parārdha size. Yojaana has been used only once in Ŗgveda, so it can have only this meaning.

10 Sun Earth to 17 ahargaņa Earth Moon aharga ņa Mars Mercury Venus

11 Solar system 33 aharga ņa 27 Maitreya 21 Rathantara s āma Saturn 17 aharga ņa Earth Sun

12 Solar System-Steps of Vișņu Sun Heat Zone 100 diameter Bright 1000 D 10 D 5 7 Light Ușā Sun as point Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Parama pada Brahmāņ ɖa

13 Zones of Solar system 1.Vaşaţkāra-Vāk (field of Sun) is şaţ (6), so it is called Vaşaţkāra. These are zones of 3 to 33at intervals of 6 ahargaņa each. (a)3 ahargaņa =Earth itself. (b)9 ahargaņa = earth x 2 6 = earth x 64. Moon is at 61 radius distance. (c)15 ahargaņa = earth x 2 12 = earth radius x x 10 7 = Varāha zone. Difference between radii of Earth and venus orbits = ( ) x 10 6 Km. Thus, Varāha zone = (26.125/42) x 100 = 62.2%. (d) 21 ahargaņa = earth x 2 18 = Radius of 1672 x 10 6 Km. Chakra of Ratha of sun has1000 yojana radius. Here, yojana =diameter of sun. So, radius is 13,92,000 x 1000 = 1392 x 10 6 Km. This is also called Sahasrākśa zone, where ākśa=sun. Thus 21 crosses ratha and is called Rathantara-sāma. (e) 27 ahargaņa = earth x 2 24 = Radius of 1.07 x Km. This is called Maitreya-maņɖala. In Vişņu purāņa (2/7) etc. it is stated of 10 5 yojana. Here, yojana is sun diameter. This is also called Sāvitrī =creative. It is 2 24 times earth and chhanda of 24 letters is called Gāyatrī. Gāyatrī also means Sāvitrī. (f) 33 ahargaņa = earth x 2 30 = Radius of x Km. Latest estimate of farthest objects is Oort cloud at distance between 75 to 150 thousand AU. Larger limit =1.5 x 10 8 x 1.5 x10 5 Km = 2.25 x10 13 Km (g) 34 ahargaņa is of double size called Prajāpati. 2. Sun centric Trişţup chhanda- Trişţup chhanda has 4 parts of 11 letters each. 3 parts are 3 zones of solar system called 3 steps of Vişņu. Complete Chhanda is of 44 letters. That is measure of Maharloka. It is taken 43 only as Chhanda can be of 2 letters more or less. It is equal to width of spiral arm of galaxy, called Śeşa-nāga. It has about 1000 stars called 1000 heads of Śeşa. The 3 zones or steps of Vişņu are zones of heat, brightness and light. 3. Two parts-Planetary zone is called Bŗhaspati, the largest planet. Outer zone is after 1000 Sun-diameters = Sahasrākśa or Indra- शं नो इन्द्रो बृहस्पति शं नो विष्णुरुरुक्रमः।

14 Galaxy and its spiral arm

15 Solar yojana For measure of solar system, diameter of sun itself has been taken as a yojana. It can be also called Ātmā-yojana, as sun is ātmā (soul) of universe (Yajurveda 7/42 etc.) It is seen from Vāyu purāņa (6/12) where Varāha is stated 100 yojana high and 10 yojana wide. As it is description of solar system, height of from sun is 100 yojana and in its body of 10 yojana, earth is like a dot on its tooth. Thus earth is between 100 and110 yojanas from sun. Taking sun-diameter as unit, it is diameters. Examples- (1)Heat zone (Tāpa-kśetra)-Up to 100 yojanas from sun- शत योजने ह वा एष (आदित्य) इतस्तपति (कौषीतकि ब्राह्मण उपनिषद् ८/३) स एष (आदित्यः) एक शतविधस्तस्य रश्मयः । शतविधा एष एवैक शततमो य एष तपति (शतपथ ब्राह्मण १०/२/४/३) (2) Bright zone (Raśmi-kśetra)-Up to 1000 yojanas from sun-युक्ता ह्यस्य (इन्द्रस्य) हरयः शतादशेति । सहस्रं हैत आदित्यस्य रश्मयः (इन्द्रः=आदित्यः) जैमिनीय उपनिषद् ब्राह्मण १/४४/५) असौ यस्ताम्रो अरुण उत बभ्रुः सुमङ्गलः । ये चैनं रुद्रा अभितो दिक्षु श्रिताः सहस्रोऽवैषां हेड ईमहे ॥ (वा.यजु.१६/६) (3) Maitreya Maņɖala -1 lakh yojanas-Vişņu purāņa (2/8) Wheel of ratha-1000 yojana =zone of Indra (Sahasrākśa, akśa or chakśu = eye which is sun, Sahasra =1000)-This is grand cycle of planetary motions up to Saturn, so it is wheel. That Is basis of yugas in which revolution of planets are stated (Bhagaņopapatti) Ratha = Diameter 9000 yojana. Radius = 4500 yojana, up to orbit of Pluto. Īşā-daņɖa (axle rod)-Extent of solar wind up to 9000 yojana. Its middle zone is at 6750, Which is Nakśatra-kakśā (orbit of small bodies, Bālakhilya = small planets at end) at 60 AU i.e. 60 times distance of sun (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/80) Spread of Solar Ratha (=body)-157 lakh yojanas x kms.= 2 LY diameter

16 Prakāśa Yojana-Length by Speed of Light Truţi has been defined as time taken by a sharp needle to pierce a petal of rose. -Vaţeśvara-siddhānta, madhyamādhikāra,7; Siddhānta-śiromaņi, madhyamādhikāra, 26 But this is not a definition of unit-hardness and width of rose-petal, sharpness of needle and force applied to it are unspecified. Bhāgavata purāņa (3/11/5) defines it as time taken by light to cross 3 Trasareņu or 3 units larger than it which are missing- जालार्क रश्म्यवगतः खमेवानुपतन्नगात् । त्रसरेणु त्रिकं भुङ्कते यः कालः स त्रुटिः स्मृतः (भागवत पुराण ३/११/५) Both can be explained by the fact that earth is called a big lotus in space – पद्भ्यां भूमिः-पुरुष सूक्त, यजुर्वेद (३१/१३) Last step of creation is earth, so it is foot. It is base (foot, pada) of life, so it is padma (lotus). This is the lotus coming from navel of Sun as Vişņu. Seen from earth, it is at focus of the apparent orbit of sun. That focus is navel (nābhi). Truţi is parts of 1 second. It is time taken by light to cross a yojana, which may be 1000 or 1600 parts of its diameter. Examples- (1)Radius of solar system is distance travelled by light in 1 year. That was the region whose material started creation of sun, so it is Āditya. Thus is called samvatsara (year)- संवत्सरः स्वर्गा (=सौरक्षेत्र) -कारः (तैत्तिरीय ब्राह्मण २/१/५/२) वाक् (=सौरक्षेत्र) संवत्सरः (ताण्ड्य महा ब्राह्मण १०/१२/७) Within this region, devas are created-प्रजापतिः (शतपथ ब्राह्मण १/६/३/३५, १०/२/६/१, ऐतरेय ब्राह्मण १/१, १३,२८,२/१७, ४/२५ आदि) संवत्सरो वैदेवानां जन्म (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ८/७/३/२१) After samvatsara is Varuņa region- संवत्सरो वरुणः (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ४/४/५/१८ आदि) (2) Tapah loka of Brahmā is the region which receives light (or heated) from other parts. It is Called visible universe in modern physics.ब्रह्मा तपसि (प्रतिष्ठितम्) ऐतरेय ब्राह्मण ३/६, गोपथ ब्राह्मण उत्तर३/२), तपोऽसि लोके श्रितम् । तेजसःप्रतिष्ठा। (तैत्तिरीय ब्राह्मण ३/११/१/२) (3) Vijñāna ātmā in heart region is connected up to Brahma-randhra by lanes in individual bodies. (Bŗhadāraņyaka upanişad 4/4/8,9; Chhāndogya upanişad 8/6/1,2,5; Brahma-sūtra 4/2/17-20) From that it goes to Sun at speed of light. Ŗgveda (3/53/8) tells that this link goes and returns 6 times in a muhūrtta (48 minutes). Light travels 3 lakh kms. In 1 second. It will take 500 seconds or 8 minutes to reach. It will go and return 3 times in 8 x 6= 48 minutes.- अथ या एता हृदयस्य नाड्यः…।१। तद्यथा महापथ …आदित्यात् प्रतायन्ते … नाड़ीभ्यः प्रतायन्ते ॥२॥ …रश्मिभिरूर्ध्वमाक्रामते …॥३ ॥ (छान्दोग्यउपनिषद् ८/६/१-३) त्रिर्यद्दिवःपरिमुहूर्त्तमागात् स्वैर्मन्त्रैरनृतुपा ऋतावा (ऋक् ३/५३/८)

17 Pramāņa Yojana Jain Astronomy By S.S. Lishk-Vidyasagar Publication, Delhi-53, Pages 28,29- 1 Pramāņa yojana = 500 Ātmā yojana = 1000 Utsedha Yojana. Here Sun is ātmā of universe, so its diameter is ātmā-yojana. …… सूर्य आत्मा जगतस्थुषश्च (यजुर्वेद ७/४२) Each start of measure is earth, next loka is Pramā measured in Pramāņa yojana. Lower divisions of standard earth are utsedha yojana divided into 1000 parts. मा छन्दः, तत् पृथिवी…। प्रमा छन्दः, तदन्तरिक्षम् । (मैत्रायणी संहिता २/१४/९३, काठक संहिता ३९/३९) Bhāgavata purāņa, part 5, Vişņu purāņa 2/7 etc give the following measures of 7 lokas- (1)Bhū-loka (Earth) 1000 yojana. In utsedha yojana = 1000 parts of earth. (2) Bhuvar loka-1 lakh yojana. In earth yojanas, it is Varāha of 1000 times bigger spread. (3)Svar loka-It is solar system whose ratha size is 157 lakh yojans = 157,00,000 x kms = about 2 light years diameter. (4) Mahar loka is 1 crore yojana. It looks smaller than solar system of 1.57 crore size, but it is in Pramāņa yojana = sun diameter x 500) Thus, radius of mahar-loka =1 crore yojana = 10 7 x 500 sun diameters =6.96 x Kms. = 735 Light years. This is a sphere of width of spiral arm of galaxy near sun. (5) Janah loka-Radius is 2 crore yojanas in unit again bigger by 500 times. Thus it is 6.96 x Kms. =73,500 LY. (6) Tapah loka radius is 4 times bigger in unit 500 times bigger than that of mahar-loka. Radius is 14.7 crore LY, i.e Mpc which is distance of local super-clusture. (7) Satya-loka is 12 crore yojanas in still 500 times bigger unit. I.e. its radius =98 billion LY. Visible world (called Bhūmi) is of 1/10 size of Puruşa, as per in Puruşa-sūkta, 1 Visible world = 9.8 billion LY. Modern estimates range from 8 to 18 billion LY.

18 Reverse tree of World Maņɖala Figure God Element Symbol Chakra in spinal cord Svāyambhuva Maņɖala Universe galaxies Parameşţhī Maņɖala Galaxy, Ākāśa-gangā Brahmāņɖa, stars Solar system Saura-Maņɖala Chāndra-Maņɖala Sphere of moon orbit Bhū-Maņɖala Earth Brahmā =Biggest Vişņu= enclosing Indra = radiation Soma =Cool, rare Agni =Dense Sky Teja Air Earth Water Space Human body A अ h ह Ļ ऌ l ल Ŗ ऋ r र U उ v व I इ y य Viśuddhi Mūlādhāra Maņipūra Svādhişţhāna Anāhata Here order of Svādhişţhāna and Maņipūra is reversed in order of creation, called sŗşţi-krama. That is in order of Māheśvara-sūtras-अइउण् । ऋऌक् ।….हयवरट् । लण् । It is in Saundarya-laharī-9. महीं मूलाधारे कमपि मणिपूरे हुतवहं, स्थितं स्वाधिष्ठाने हृदि मरुतमाकाशमुपरि । मनोऽपि भ्रूमध्ये सकलमपि भित्त्वा कुलपथं, सहस्रारे पद्मे रहसि सह पत्या विहरसि ॥९॥

19 Lokas and Viśva Higher Lokas Bhū Bhuvar Svar Mahar Janah Tapah Satya (Earth) (Varāha) ( Solar system ) sphere of spiral (Galaxy) Visible Infinite arm width Universe Universe Parama Dhāma Trilokī (Dhāma) Rodasī (Avama) Krandasī (Madhyama) Sanyatī (Uttama) ( of Rudra=weeping, lower ) (Vişņu, tears, middle) (Static, higher) Ocean Sāvitrī Sarasvatī Niyatī Water Mara Ambha Ap=Rasa Higher spheres are 4, successively bigger than man by Chāndra-maņɖala is affecting us, so that too is a world. Thus higher world are 5, given in World-tree- 1. Svāyambhuva-maņɖala (universe), 2. Parameşţhī-maņɖala (galaxy), 3. Saura-maņɖala, (Solar system), 4. Chāndra-maņɖala (sphere of moon orbit), 5. Bhū-maņɖala (Earth) Man is world no. 6-Average of length-width-height=1.28 Meters= 10 7 parts of earth diameter. Lower Worlds are 7, successively smaller than man by Kalila Jīva Kuņɖalinī Jagat Deva-dānava Pitara Ŗşi (Cell) (Atom) (Nucleus) ( Moving particles ) (Quarks ?) (Proto-type) (Strings) Size Meter Meter Meter Meter Meter Meter Meter Total worlds are 13, so Viśva means 13. Viśva is any system which is closed, complete and independent.

20 Lower worlds (१) कलिल-सर्व धातुं कलनीकृतः, अव्यक्त विग्रहः (तस्मात् कलिल) चरक संहिता, शरीरस्थान (४/९) In womb, cell starts collecting all materials, so it is called kalila. वालाग्रमात्रं हृदयस्य मध्ये विश्वं देवं जातरूपं वरेण्यं (अथर्वशिर उपनिषद् ५) अनाद्यनन्तं कलिलस्य मध्ये विश्वस्य स्रष्टारमनेकरूपम् । विश्वस्यैकं परिवेष्टितारं ज्ञात्वा देवं मुच्यते सर्व पाशैः ॥ (श्वेताश्वतर उपनिषद्, ५/१३) A cell also is a Viśva, which is enclosed (pariveşţita). (२) वालाग्र शत साहस्रं तस्य भागस्य भागिनः ।तस्य भागस्य भागार्धं तत्क्षये तु निरञ्जनम् ॥ (ध्यानविन्दु उपनिषद्, ४) Starting from man, hair-end is first smaller Viśva 100 thousand times smaller. There are 6 more levels smaller by same ratio. Smallest is Nirañjana (not perceived by any instrument, or mind) (३) ऋषिभ्यः पितरो जाताः पितॄभ्यो देव दानवाः । देवेभ्यश्च जगत्सर्वं चरं स्थाण्वनुपूर्वशः॥ (मनुस्मृति, ३/२०१) From Ŗşis, pitars were born; then Deva-dānava. All jagat was from Deva only. Devas are 33, Asuras are 99, so created universe is one-fourth only (Puruşa-sūkta 3,4). Jagat= moving particles are of 3 types-Chara=lepton, Sthāņu=Baryon, Anu-pūrva =Mesonic link particles. (४) वालाग्र शत भागस्य शतधा कल्पितस्य च ॥ भागो जीवः स विज्ञेयः स चानन्त्याय कल्पते ॥ (श्वेताश्वतर उपनिषद्, ५/९) Assume 100 parts of 100 th part of hair end (micron size)= Meter. That is Jīva, not destroyed in any chemical change-all Kalpa =or creation is recombination of atoms only. (५) षट्चक्र निरूपण, ७-एतस्या मध्यदेशे विलसति परमाऽपूर्वा निर्वाण शक्तिः कोट्यादित्य प्रकाशां त्रिभुवन-जननी कोटिभागैकरूपा । केशाग्रातिगुह्या निरवधि विलसत.. ।९। अत्रास्ते शिशु-सूर्यकला चन्द्रस्य षोडशी शुद्धा नीरज सूक्ष्म-तन्तु शतधा भागैक रूपा परा ।७। Central nerve is 10 7 parts of hair-end. Kuņɖalinī is still 100 times smaller, equal to nucleus of atom = meters (६) असद्वा ऽइदमग्र ऽआसीत् । तदाहः – किं तदासीदिति । ऋषयो वाव तेऽग्रेऽसदासीत् । तदाहुः-के ते ऋषय इति । ते यत्पुराऽऽस्मात् सर्वस्मादिदमिच्छन्तः श्रमेण तपसारिषन्-तस्मादृषयः (शतपथ ब्राह्मण, ६/१/१/१) In beginning, it was Asat (invisible, beyond perception) only. That was Ŗşi. They pulled with force and energy, so they were called Ŗşi =Rassi in Hindi (String).

21 Higher Worlds रविचन्द्रमसोर्यावन्मयूखैरवभास्यते ।स समुद्र सरिच्छैला पृथिवी तावती स्मृता ।३। यावत्प्रमाणा पृथिवी विस्तार परिमण्डलात् । नभस्तावत्प्रमाणं वै व्यास मण्डलतो द्विज ।४। (विष्णु पुराण, २/७/३,४) (3) The zone lighted by sun and moon is Pŗthivī (earth) and in all the earths-ocean, rivers and mountains are stated as on planet earth. (a) Planet earth-It is lighted by sun and moon both and it has all-ocean, rivers and mountains. (b) Maitreya-maņɖala-It is the zone exclusively lighted by sun. Zones formed by planetary orbits are described as continents and oceans of same name as on earth. (c) Galaxy-This is the last limit up to which sun can be seen as a point- Definition of Brahmāņɖa in Sūrya-siddhānta (12/90). In this earth also, central rotating disc is called a river-Ākāśa-gangā. (4) Whatever is the size of earth by diameter and circumference, the same is diameter and circumference of its sky, starting from earth.. Stated by Maitreya to Parāśara, addressed as Dvija (Brāhmaņa). (a)Planet earth-Its measure should start from human size, which is implied but not stated. Earth is limit (Koţi) of world for man and its size is 10 7 times, so Koţi = For earth also, its Koţi of world is solar system which is its sky and is 10 7 times bigger. (b) For Maitreya-maņɖala, its sky or Koţi is galaxy and is 10 7 times bigger. ( c) For the largest earth galaxy, its sky is universe. This is infinite, but is taken in same ratio of Koţi = Thus the 5 levels of Viśva starting with man are successively 10 7 times bigger = 2 24 and 24 is number of letters in Gāyatrī chhanda, so it is said that is measure of all the Lokas. x 10 7 = 2 24 x 10 7 = 2 24 x 10 7 = 2 24 x 10 7 = 2 24 Man Earth Solar system Galaxy Universe इयमेव (पृथिवी) गायत्री-जैमिनीय उपनिषद् ब्राह्मण, १/५५/३, शतपथ ब्राह्मण, १/४/१/३४, ताण्ड्य महा ब्राह्मण, ७/३/११) गायत्र्या वै देवा इमान् लोकान् व्याप्नुवन् (ताण्ड्य महा ब्राह्मण, १६/१४/४)

22 Concept of Time Time is perception of change of world. Change is of 3 types defining 3 types of time = Kāla. (1)Nitya Kāla (Eternal time)-All physical bodies are always decaying. Changes are irreversible. Whatever has gone can not come back. So, it is also called Death (Mŗtyu). कालोऽस्मि लोकक्षयकृत्प्रवृद्धो (गीता ११/३२) (2) Janya Kāla (Creative time)-This is related to Yajña which is creation of useful things in a cycle. Measure of that cycle is unit of time. There are 9 cycles of creation called 9 sargas. In Bhāgavata Purāņa, 10 sargas are stated including Avyakta (abstract, formless). Time of that is Parātpara. सहयज्ञाः प्रजाः सृष्ट्वा पुरोवाच प्रजापतिः । अनेन प्रसविष्यध्वमेषवोऽस्त्विष्ट कामधुक् ॥१०॥ एवं प्रवर्तितं चक्रं नानुवर्तयतीह यः ….॥१६॥ (गीता, ३) कालः कलयतामहम् ॥(गीता, १०/३०) (3) Akśaya-kāla (conserved time)-This is time of a system which follows 5 types of conservation laws In physics-mass, momentum, energy, angular momentum, and parity or charge. अहमेवाक्षयः कालो (गीता, १०/३३) (4) Parātpara Kāla-This is time of abstract source of Universe, and is beyond any perception. It is described in Bhāgavata Purāņa (3/16). From this abstract 9 levels are created, when forms and changes are perceived. It is called Day of Brahmā. अव्यक्ताद्व्यक्तयः सर्वे प्रभवन्त्यहरागमे । रात्र्यागमे प्रलीयन्ते तत्रैवाव्यक्त संज्ञके ॥ (गीता, ८/१८) Time and Puruşa Puruşa also is of 4 types-(1) All bodies with form (boundary is called Chhanda) are constantly decaying. That is called Kśara. Despite decay, the functions of the body remain the same, called Akśara. It is known by same identity, which is invisible (Kūţastha). As a part of surrounding, it is constant, called Avyaya. At ultimate source, there is no difference-it is Parātpara. Puruşa Time 1. Kśara Nitya 2. Akśara Janya 3. Avyaya Akśaya 4. Parātpara Parātpara

23 Measures of Time-Sūrya-siddhānta (14/1) (1)Brāhma-His day is time period of creation of 9 stages from formless stage. 1 Yuga = 12, 000 Divya-year. In astronomy, Divya year =360 solar year 1 day of Brahmā =1000 yugas =1000 x x 360 = 4,32,00,00,000 years. Same period is night, when all merge in same formless source. In modern terms, 1 day-night of 8.64 billion LY is radius of visible universe and also cycle of creation. (2) Prājāpatya-Prajāpati is Creator. His work started with creation of galaxy. Axial rotation period of galaxy is called Manvantara. Galaxy element is called Manu. It has stars which is equal to number of cells in human brain. So Brain element is called mana (mind). 1 Manvantara = 71 yugas =30.68 crore years (3) Divya-1 Divya year =360 solar years. It can have 3 meanings- (a) Rotation period of imaginary planet at distance of 60 AU(called Nakśatra-kakśā in Sūrya-siddhānta (12/80) (b) In 1 day-night cycle, sun makes a circle at horizon. Similarly cycle of north-south motion is taken as 1 Divya day, and 360 such days make divya-year. ( c) This is cycle of historic changes called Parivarta-yuga in Vāyu-purāņa in list of 28 Vyāsas. It includes current generation with past and next =120 x3 years. (4) Jupiter year-It is period of days taken by jupiter with mean motion in 1 sign. In north India, this is actual time in 1 sign (Sūrya-siddhānta). In south India, solar year is taken as Jupiter year (Pitāmaha-siddhānta) (5) Solar year-1rotation of sun (apparent) is 1 year. 12 part is 1 month. 30 part f month is day. (6) Lunar-Month is synodic rotation of moon in 29.5 days of 2 equal parts-new moon to full is bright half. (7) Pitara-They live on opposite side of moon. So, lunar month is 1 day of Pitaras. 30 days are 1 month and 12 such months are year. (8) Sāvana (Civil)-Sunrise to next sunrise is day. 30 days = 1 month. 12 months = 1 year. (9) Nākśatra (sidereal)-Axial rotation period of about 23 hrs 56 minutes is 1 day. Sunrise to next rise period is bigger by 4 minutes as earth has to move 1 degree more covered by sun in annual motion. 30 days = 1 month. 12 months = 1 year.

24 7 Yugas -Smaller (1) Sanskāra-yugas-This is period taken by a man in completing his education. This is of 5 types- (a) Gopada-yuga-Like 4 feet of a cow, it has 4 years. It starts with Go-dhūli, i.e. sun set when dust Is raised due to cows returning after grazing. Year 1 is Kali (start of count) which will end at midnight after 365 days-hence Kali is called sleeping. Year 2 is Dvāpara (dvā = 2), which will end after 366 Days at sunrise. Thus is called awaken. Year 3 is Tretā (tri =3), which ends after 365 days at noon when people are standing. Cycle is completed in year 4, called Kŗta (=completed) again at sun-set. कलिः शयानो भवति सञ्जिहानस्तु द्वापरः । उत्तिष्ठन् त्रेता भवति कृतं सम्पद्यते चरन् । (ऐतरेय ब्राह्मण, ७/१३) (b) 5 year yuga- Yājuşa- jyotişa gives 5 year yuga. 5 such yugas have 6 omitted years, making a bigger yuga of 19 years. ( c) 12year yuga-It is rotation period of Jupiter and is taken as standard for teaching of Vedas. (d) 19 year yuga-Ŗk-jyotişa gives 19 year yuga with 7 extra lunar months which tallies with solar year within 2 hours (See Vedānga jyotişa by P.V. Holay, Nagpur, 1985) (e) Eclipse yuga- this is by joint motion of sun and Rāhu in 18 years 10.5 days. Its half period of 3339 tithis is also cycle of eclipse indicated in Ŗk (3/9/9, 10/52/6). त्रीणि शतानि त्रीणि सहस्राण्यग्निं त्रिंशच्च देवा नव चा सपर्यन् । (ऋक्, १०/५२/६) (2) Human yuga-(a) Normal working period of life is 60 years. This is cycle of Jupiter years in which Jupiter and Saturn make 5 and 2 revolutions. This is called Angirā period in Vedas. आदित्याश्च ह वा आङ्गिरसश्च स्वर्गे लोके ऽस्पर्धन्त-वयं पूर्वे एष्यामो, वयमिति । ते हाऽऽदित्याः पूर्वे स्वर्ग लोकं जग्मुः, पश्चेवाङ्गिरसः षष्ट्यां वा वर्षेषु (ऐतरेय ब्राह्मण, १८/३/७) आदित्याश्चाङ्गिरसश्च सुवर्गे लोके ऽस्पर्धन्त …त आदित्या एतं पञ्चहोतारमपश्यन् (तैत्तिरीय ब्राह्मण, २/२/३/५) Here, Āditya =12, Pañcha-hotā =5 x 12 =60 years. (b) Century year-It is indicated by Saptarşi, who remain 100 years in one star. The line joining 2 eastern stars joins zodiac in point whose location is star of Saptarşi. It moves star ( ’ ) in 100 years. This is also obtained by combining yugas of Ŗk of 5 x 19 =95 years when moon comes in same nakśatra. Adding 5 year yuga ofYājuşa –moon will be 1 more. Rājatarangiņī has called it Laukika era. (c) 120 years cycle is taken in cycle of periods of planets in astrology. (3) Parivarta Yuga-It is Divya year of 360 years. Vāyu purāņa (23/ ) or Kūrma (chapter 52) has called it parts of Dvāpara or Parivarta. Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/29/19) tells Yuga of 2600 years and at (1/2/9/36,37) Calls the same as manvantara of 71 yugas where 1 yuga = 360 years. षड् विंशति सहस्राणि वर्षाणि मानुषाणि तु । वर्षाणां युगं ज्ञेयं….. (ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण,१/२/२९/१९) तस्यैकसप्तति युगं मन्वन्तरमिहोच्यते (ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण,१/ २/९/३६,३७) 71 x 360 =25,560 or about 26,000 years.

25 Historic yuga (4) Sahasra yuga-(a) Bhāgavata purāņa (1/1/4) tells a session(satra) of 1000 years by Śaunaka. Human life is only of 100 years, but standards of moral remain for thousand years, which is a satra of that period years after that, Vikramāditya re-edited Purāņas which is continuing now for 2000 years. (Bhavişya purāņa, 3/3/1/2-4) (b) Saptarşi-vatsara is of 2700 divya (solar year) or 3030 Mānuşa years (12 revolutions of moon in 327 days) त्रीणि वर्ष सहस्राणि मानुषेण प्रमाणतः । त्रिंशदधिकानि तु मे मतः सप्तर्षि वत्सरः (ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण, १/२/२९/१६, वायुपुराण, ५७/१७) सप्तविंशति पर्यन्ते कृत्स्ने नक्षत्र मण्डले । सप्तर्षयस्तु तिष्ठन्ते पर्यायेण शतं शतम् (वायु पुराण, ९९/४१९) Here, 2700 Divya years= 2700 x 365,25 days, 3030 Mānuşa years =3030 x 327 days. Both are equal. (c) Romaka siddhānta has used a yuga of 2850 years which is 150 times Ŗk yuga of 19 years. (5) Dhruva or Krauñcha yuga-(a)Dhruva samvatsara is of 9090 Mānuşa years or 8100 solar years. (Brahmāņɖa purāņa, 1/2/29/18). Vāyu purāņa, (57/18) has called it Krauñcha-samvatsara. (b) Jupiter Yuga-Jupiter years in north India follow Sūrya-siddhānta, chapter 4, where days is time taken by Jupiter in 1 sign by mean motion. In 85 solar years, there are 1 more i.e. 86 Jupiter years. In south India by Pitāmaha siddhānta, solar year is taken as Jupiter year. 60 years cycles in both systems will join in 60 x 85 =5100 solar years which makes 1 Jupiter Yuga. Rāma was born on BC at LMT. Then it was Prabhava year in both systems (Vişņu-dharmottara purāņa, 82/7,8) years prior to that, Prabhava year was at time of Matsya incarnation in 9533 BC. As per Iliad of Homer last island of Atlantis had submerged in 9564 BC. Persian tales tell it in 9844 BC. Glacial floods lasted about 1000 years. (6) Ayana-yuga-Manvantara of years is the precession cycle of earth’s axis in reverse direction. But historic cycle follows cycle of Glacial floods and ice eras. That is joint effect of rotation of Apogee in 1,00,000 years and precession in reverse direction in years (Milankovich Theory, 1923). When north pole is inclined away from sun, it gets less heat. Heat is further reduced when sun is farthest at apogee (mandoccha). That is period of glacial ice. At perigee, when north pole is towards sun, it gets maximum heat and is Glacial floods. That is cycle of 21,600 years- Middle value of 24,000 years is taken in India with years period of Avasarpiņī in order of Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara, Kali of 4,3,2,1 parts. Second half is Ustasrpiņī in reverse order of yugas. This is cycle of correction Taken from tradition by Brahmagupta (Brhma-sphuţa-siddhānta, Madhyamādhikāra, 60-61) and Bhāskara-2 (Siddhānta-śiromaņi, Bhū-paridhi, 7-8) (7) Astronomical era is of Divya years each equal to 360 solar years, i.e. of 43,20,000 years. It has 3 meanings-(d) Combined cycle of planets within wheel of solar Ratha, up to Saturn (b) Cycle of change in eccentricity of earth orbit, (c) Cycle of magnetic pole reversal. These depend on (a).

26 Yuga Cycle Cycle Order BC years of start Yuga Glacial cycle (modern value) 61,902 Satya Glacial ice 69,200 (Tretā of previous cycle) Avasarpiņī 57,102 Tretā Glacial flood 58,100-Maņijā era, some sūktas in (descending) 53,502 Dvāpara that period-Veda-kāla-nirņaya-Dinanath Chulet, Dark era (first) 51,102 Kali 49,902 Kali Utsarpiņī 48,702 Dvāpara (ascending) 46,302 Tretā Glacial ice 45,500 42,702 Satya 37,902 Satya Avasarpiņī 33,102 Tretā Glacial floods 31,200 29,502 Dvāpara Ādya Tretā-Brahmā-Varāha Kalpa Ādya-yuga 27,102 Kali 29,102 (Svāyambhuva) 25,102 Kali 27,376-Dhruva-0 (Brahma-dina 2) 24,702 Dvāpara 43 x 360 = 16,000 Utsarpiņī 22,302 Tretā Glacial Ice-20,000 19,276-Dhruva-1 18,702 Satya 13,902 Satya 13,102-Vaivasvata Manu Avasarpiņī 9,102 Tretā Glacial floods 9,200 11,176-Dhruva-2 5,502 Dvāpara 28 x 360 = 10,000 8,476-Ikśvāku-1 Vaivasvata 3,102 Kali 3,102-Kali 5,776-Saptarşi-2 (Current,day-3) 1,902 Kali Mahāvīra birth 1905, Buddha ( ) 3076-Laukika Dvāpara 756-Śūdraka, Śākambharī śaka -612, Śrī-Harşa-456 Utsarpiņī 1,699 AD Tretā 1700AD-Industrial revolution 5,299 AD Satya 2000 AD-End of Tretā-sandhyā-Information era.

27 Parts of Yuga Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/6/6-8) tells that the current kalpa or day of Brahmā is called Varāha-kalpa. Parts of yuga are counted only for this kalpa. In list of 28 Vyāsas, each part of a yuga has been called parivarta. 1 parivarta = 360 years (Paridhi = circumference divided into 360 0, parivartana = change). 1 Tretā = 3600 years = 10 Parivarta Yuga. Start of Tretā was in 22,302 and in 9,102 BC. These had = 20 parivarta or parts. Even after second Tretā ended in 5,502 BC, this counting continued till age of Rāma (birth on BC as per horoscope in Vālmīki Rāmāyaņa) as era of advancement continued. Vāyu purāņa, chapters (70, 86, 98) mentions these parts- Asura king Bali-3rd Tretā –This count should start from 22,302 BC, but this yuga-system itself started after Vaivasvata Manu, hence it should more properly be counted 3600 years before 13,902 BC, i.e. from 17,502 BC. Second Tretā will be completed in 16,802 BC and the third will continue till 16,442 BC. In this period of Bali, Vāmana had achieved supremacy of 3 lokas for Indra. But Asuras thought that they could have defeated Devas in war and continued attacks. Finally Kārttikeya defeated them convincingly. In his period, pole star had shifted from Abhijit to Dhanişţhā and in consultation with Brahmā, he started year with entry of sun in Dhanişţhā (Mahābhārata udyoga parva, 230/8-10). That should be in 16,000 BC. Bali period is 1 saptarşi = 2700 years after completion of Dhruva cycle in 19,276 BC, i.e. after 16,576 BC when Asura empire based in Krauñcha Dvīpa (north America) was most powerful.. Year started with south ward motion of sun, or varşā (rains), so year itself was called varşa. Dattātreya -10thTretā,-It appears to be in 9102 BC when second Tretā started after end of glacial floods. Māndhātā - 15th Tretā-started in x 360 =7,662 BC and continued till 7,302 BC. 18 generation after him was Bāhu, who had been defeated by Yavanas with help of Haihaya, Tālajangha, Śaka, Pārada, Kāmboja, and Pahlavas (Brahmāņɖa purāņa, 2/3/63/ ). Megasthenes, Arian, Solin and other Greek authors have given the date of this first Yavana attack by Dionysus (Bacchus) as 6451 years 3 months before Alexander, i.e. in 6,777 BC. Paraśurāma-19th Tretā - It started in x 360 = 7222 BC. After his death, Kalamba (Kollam) samvat started in 6,177 BC which still continues in Kerala. As incarnation of Vişņu, he has been called Hercules (as sun or Vişņu, he holds the earth). He was 15 generations after Dionysus as per Greek writers. He destroyed kings (kingdoms) 21 times, which has been called republic era for 120 years by the Greeks. This should start 120 years before the death of Paraśurāma in 6297 BC, when he must have been about years. Thus, he lived up to at least 155 years of age, so he is famous as long lived. Rāma-24th Tretā- This actually started 3 parivartas after end of Tretā, i.e x 360 = 4422 BC, i.e. when he was 11 years of age. Thus his life was mostly in 24th Tretā.

28 Saptarşi era-As per, Rājatarangiņī,1/50-52), Laukikābda started with death of Yudhişţhira in kali year 25, i.e. in 3076 BC when Saptarşis left Maghā after 100 years stay in that star. 3 Saptarşi cycles i.e years are cycle of Dhruva starting after death of King Dhruva, grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu as per Bhāgavata purāņa. It was called Krauñcha year, when Asura kings up to Bali were supreme in that continent. Brahmā-There were 7 human Brahmā as per Mahābhārata, śānti parva (chapters 348, 349)- 1. Mukhya –From mukha (mouth) of Nārāyaņa) or main Brahmā-He taught Vaikhānasa. 2. From eyes-He was taught by Soma and himself taught Bālakhilyas. 3. From Vāņī – He has been called Apantaratamā, son of Vāņī in Mahābhārata, śānti parva (349/39). He taught Trisuparņa Ŗşi. As per purāņas, he lived on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī). The suparņa, is stated to have entered sea-tending coastal land has been called Reļhi (Ŗgveda 10/114/4), so farmers in Andhra are still called Reddi. Brāhmī script of 64 letters still continues as Telugu and Kannada having vowels of 1, 2, 3 meters. 4. In ādi kŗta yuga ( BC)- Brahmā was from ears. He taught Vedas with Āraņyaka, Rahasya, and Sangraha to Svārochişa Manu, Śankhapada, dikpāla Suvarņābha. 5. In ādi kŗta yuga -From nose of Nārāyaņa-He taught Vīraņa, Raibhya Muni, and Kukśi (Dik-pāla = Ruler of a region). 6. Aņɖaja Brahmā-taught Barhişad Muni, Jyeşţha Sāmavratī, king Avikampana. 7. Padmanābha Brahmā taught Dakśa, Vivasvāna, Ikśvāu-This could not have been a single man from Vivasvān in BC to Ikśvāku in 8576 BC. This appears to be institution of Brahmā who was first consulted by Kārttikeya for new calendar. His tradition appears to have continued till 9,500 BC at time of Ŗşabhdevajī after glacial floods. He might have been in east Himalayas. Catchment of Brahmaputra river is called Brahma- viţapa in Trivişţapa (Tibet), or at Manipura which means navel (of Nārāyaņa) giving birth to Brahmā, adjacent country. Saptarşi era and 7 Brahmās

29 In astronomy, 7th Manu period is running and 7 more are yet to come. These are periods of geological changes which has been also described in purāņas and Vedas. But in historic era, all 14 Manus have passed. There were 7 main Manus and their 7 cousins, called Sāvarņi in same periods- Sl. No. Main Manu Sāvarņi Manu 1. Svāyambhuva Meru Sāvarņi 2. Svārochişa Dakśa Sāvarņi 3. Uttama Brahma Sāvarņi (Kaśyapa) 4. Tāmasa Dharma Sāvarņi 5. Raivata Rudra Sāvarņi 6. Chākśuşa Rauchya 7. Vaivasvata Bhautya Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/36/65) tells that 4 Manus- Svārochişa, Uttama, Tāmas, Raivata were descendants of Priyavrata, elder son of Svāyambhuva Manu. Mother of Svārochişa was Ākūti who was daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu and was married to Ruchi Prajāpati, father of Rauchya Manu. The other 3 were sons of Priyavrata. Brahmāņɖa purāņa (3/4/1/23-24) tells that the other 5 Sāvarņi Manus were sons of Priyā (Kriyā), daughter of Dakśa Prajāpati. Harivamśa purāņa (2/15) tells that Chākśuşa Manu was son of Ripu, grandson of King Dhruva. Almost same exists in Vāyu purāņa (4/100, 58/30). Prior to Vaivasvata Manu, list of kings is scanty. That gives 52 kings from Svāyambhuva to Chākśuşa and then 12 kings up to Vaivasvata Manu. Kaśyapa influence is for 5 generations from Chākśuşa Manu to Pŗthu, between them came Vŗ, Anga, Vena. Svāyambhuva…………………………….. Chākśuşa……………………………. Vaivasvata 40 generations 12 generations 52 generations (incomplete list) = 15,120 years. 1 generation = 15, = 290 years. Period of Kaśyapa and Chākśuşa = 29102(Svāyambhuva) - 40 x 290 = 17,500 BC. Pŗthu period = 17,500 – 5 x 290 = 16,050 BC. Thus, Kaśyapa period is from 17,500 to 16,050 BC. It may be noted that Institute of Brahmā from Svāyambhuva Manu continued till glacial ice period in 20,000 BC. Then, it was revived by Kaśyapa. After that, period of each Vyāsa till Ŗşabhadeva can be taken as 2 parivarta = 720 years. Period of 6thVaivasvata-Yama is taken as 4 parivarta = 1440 years as there was deluge in his period. After Ŗşabhadeva, period of all Vyāsa is taken as 1 parivarta = 360 years. Kaśyapa, and Manus

30 Jain scriptures are unanimous that Mahāvīra was at the end of avasarpiņī, thus he has to be before 1902 BC. The horoscope given in astrology book tallies with the date BC which was Chaitra śukla 13th. Date of Siddhārtha Buddha is known more accurately-Birth BC, Vaiśākha śukla 15th, i.e. pūrņimā till 5-24 ghaţī. Departure for Kapilavastu BC, Sunday, āşāɖha śukla 15. Achieving Buddha stage BC, Vaiśākha pūrņimā till 11 ghaţī before sunrise. Death of his fatherŚuddhodana , śrāvaņa pūrņimā, Saturday. Nirvāņa (death) of Buddha , Tuesday, Vaiśākha pūrņimā, slightly before sunrise. Rāma birth at Ayodhyā at ’ east, ’ north, on BC at local time h/m/s. lagna ’1”, sun-9 0 0’0’’, moon ’1”, mars ’0”, mercury ’0”, Jupiter ’1”, venus ’0”, Saturn ’0”, Rāhu ’26”, balance in period of Jupiter-4 years. Kŗşņa birth at Mathurā ’ north, ’ east, on BC at midnight. Sun ’, moon ’, mars ’, mercury ’, Jupiter ’, venus ’, Saturn ’, rāhu ’, lagna Śankarāchārya at Kālaţī ’ north, 76 0 east, on BC, Tuesday, 2252 hrs LMT, vaiśākha śukla 5 till 1132 hrs, punarvasu star from BC hrs till , 0406 hrs. Lagna ’, sun ’, moon ’, mars ’, mercury ’, Jupiter ’, venus ’, Saturn ’, rāhu ’. Mahāvīra, Buddha etc

31 Śūdraka was born as Indrāņīgupta in Brāhmaņa family and was king of Mālavā (Ujjain). He united 4 main royal families in a yajña at Abu (Arbuda parvata) performed by Vişņu incarnation Buddha born as son of Ajina in Kīkaţa (Magadha). Śūdraka-śaka was started in 756 BC on that occasion indicated in Jyotişa-darpaņa of Yallaya. For uniting 4 kings, he was called Śūdraka as honour and his era was called Kŗta (satya) yuga. These 4 families-Pratihāra, Paramāra (Pramara), Chālukya, Chāhamāna (Chauhāna)-took lead in protecting the country against attack by Asuras (Assyria),so they were called of Agni-kula. Agni normally means fire, but Śatapatha Brāhmaņa (2/2/4/2) defines it as agni (agrī) =agraņī =leader. Pratihāra, and Paramāra stopped Asuras and Chālukya continued to block, but decisive victory was by king Chāhamāna who completely routed Asura capital Nineve in 612 BC. This has been indicated in Bible as final destruction of Asura empire by king of Medes east of Indus river (= Madhya-deśa between Gangā and Himālaya). Chāhamāna were devotees of Śākambharī whose blessing for destroying Asuras in Kali era is indicated in Durgā-saptaśatī (11/49). Era was started on that occasion has been indicated by Varāhamihira in Bŗhat-samhitā (13/3). After Chāhamāna, there was temporary incursion by Śakas of central Asia who were trounced by Śrī-Harşa of Mālavā, in 456 BC and set up a pillar (Vişņu-dhvaja = Kutub-minar), called pillar of Hercules by Megasthenes. It has also been indicated by Ibn-Batuta, traveler from Morocco in 13th century. This samvat has been mentioned by Al-Biruni and Abul-Fazal. The 300 year period of Mālava-gaņa has been stated by Greek writers like Megasthenes as 300 years of democracy. Mālava-gaņa BC

32 28 Buddhas are listed in Bauddha text-Stūpa (Thūpa) vamśa. Vişņu incarnation Buddha was born as son of Ajina in Kīkaţa (Magadha) slightly before Śūdrala-śaka i.e. in about 800 BC. He was not among 28 Buddhas. Mañjuśrī Buddha was born in China-he might be among 7 Brahmā, and was called Fan. Kaśyapa Buddha was in 17,500 BC. Pūraņa Kaśyapa was in Kasap (Rohtas district in west Bihar) in time of Siddhārtha Buddha. Amitābha Buddha was in China at time of Rāma whose teaching to Rāvaņa is called Lankāvatāra sūtra. In Yoga-Vāsişţha, Nirvāņa khaņɖa, chapters 14-17, he has been called Kākabhuśuņɖi, who was north east from Meru, i.e. in China. Vasişţha had gone to him for learning. His views have been criticised in Vālmīki Rāmāyaņa, Ayodhyā kāņɖa, chapters In verse (109/34) he has been called Budha, Buddha, Tathāgata, Śakyatama (Śākya). Sumedhā Buddha taught Paraśurāma after Dhanuşa yajña at Mithilā when Rāma was married. He lived at Mahendragiri where a place named Baudha still exists which is a district. His teaching to Paraśurām is called Tripurā-Rahasya. He is the same ŗşi who taught Durgā Māhātmya to king Suratha. His explanation of śakti as 10 Mahāvidyā is called 10 Prajñā-pāramitā in Baddha texts. Śākya sinmha Buddha had gone to Nepal just before Mahābhārata in time of king Jitedasti. Fahien has described times and places of 3 Buddhas just before Siddhārtha Budda. Krakucchanda, Kanakamuni and Kaśyapa. Stūpa of Kanakamuni had been doubled by king Ashok in14th year of his rule. After Siddhārtha, there were 3 Lokadhātu Buddhas, out of which 2 were in Kashmir-at time of Ashoka, 48 th king of Gonanda vamśa (1400 BC), and in time of 53 rd king Kanişka (1505 BC). Maitreya Buddha was in Dhānya-Kataka which is Cuttack in Orissa, a region of dhānya (paddy) with places as Chauliaganja, Dhānamandal, Salepur, etc. As per Fahien, he was about 300 years after death of Siddhārtha Budda (1807 BC) i.e in1500 BC. Dīpankara Buddha was after Sumedhā. Orissa king Indrabhūti was his disciple. His son Padmasambhava started Lama tradition in Tibet. Siddhārtha has named 3 more Buddhas whose teachings did not survive in absence of written text- Vipaśyī, Śikhi, Viśvabhū. 28 Buddhas

33 Sri Kunvar Lal Jain “Vyāsa-śişya” books (Purāņon men Vamśānukramika Kāla-krama, and Purāņon men Aitihāsika Parivarta Yuga-Itihas Vidya Prakashan, Delhi, 1990) has indicated period of 28 Vyāsas given in many purāņas (Vāyu, Brahmāņɖa, Kūrma etc). This is quoted by 18 Vol. Indian History by Sripad Kulkarni from BHISHMA, Thane, Mumbai-in vol. 4). 1. Svāyambhuva Manu (Brahmā)-(29,102-17,500 BC)-Svārochişa, Tāmasa, Raivata also were in this period. 2. Kaśyapa (Brahma-Sāvarņi Manu)-(17,500-16,050 BC)-Chākśuşa, and other Sāvarņi Manus. Pŗthu (17,050 BC) was most important king who did extensive mining all over the world-so earth was called Pŗthvī. Deva and Asuras joined for samudra-manthana which was world-wide joint exploration of minerals. Vena was father of Pŗthu and possibly a jaina Tīrthankara as he has been blamed as Jaina in many Purāņas. 3 Ūśanā Kāvya or Śukrāchārya (16,050-15,330 BC)-Son of Bhŗgu. Atharva-veda was by Bhŗgu-Angirā. Guru (Preceptor) of Asura, Daitya, Dānava. Treatises on Rājanīti (politics+economics), Dhanurveda, Āyurveda, Purāņas were written. Kārttikeya starts new calendar in 15,800 BC with year from entry of sun in Dhanişţhā star. 4. Bŗhaspati -(15,330-14,610 BC)-Complete form of Vedas. He explained grammar for each word separately is still used in China- where there is separate sign for each word. 5. Vivasvāna (Savitā)- (14,610-13,900 BC)-New calendar and yuga-system as per Sūrya-siddhānta. Year started from Āśvina month with entry of sun in meşa sign and crossing of equator in north motion of sun. Avasarpiņī yuga started with Satya yuga. Then Tretā, Dvāpara came and ended after ( years) in 3102 BC. 6. Vaivasvata-Yama (13,900-12,460 BC)-He was Ahur-Mazda (Asura-Mahādeva) of Zend-Avesta. Deluge in his period. He had explained the secrets of death to Nachiketā (Kaţhopanişad), so he is called Śrāddha-Deva also. He is called younger brother of Vaivasvata-Manu, but in action only.. His place was called Yama-loka, place of dead with capital at Sanyamanī Purī. These are now called Yaman, Amman, Sana, Dead sea etc. 7. Indra-Śatakratu (12,460-11,740 BC)-Śata =100, Kratu = yajña = science of producing desired objects in cycles. There were many Indras in 3600 years supremacy of Devas, but 14 among them were important who ruled for 100 years each-and were called Śatakratu. Most of the sūktas of Vedas were written at time of 7th Indra- Vaikunţha. Indra was Lokapāla (ruler) of east direction (from center of India). With assistance of Marut (Lokapāla of north-west) who was expert in science of sound-he made Deva-nāgarī script with 49 letters for 49Maruts-still used in north India from east (Indra) to West (Marut). 8.Vasişţha (11,740-11,020 BC)-He was son of Mitra (Sun-Iran)) and Varuņa (Ahur-Mazda in Arab) both-may be link between two regions. 8th maņɖala of Ŗk-veda is by him. 9.Apāntaratamā or Sārasvata (11,020-10,300 BC)-Son of Sarasvatī-Alambuşā in gotra (family) of Dadhyaņ- Atharvańa. He lived on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī) where Brāhmī script is still current as Telugu and Kannaɖa. 10.Tridhāmā or Mārkaņɖeya (10,300-9,580 BC)-Dattātreya taught Yoga-tantra and Mārkaņɖeya taught purāņa. 28 Vyāsa

34 Vyāsa after Floods 11. Ŗşabha-deva ji (9,580-8,860 BC)-After deluge he brought back supremacy of Bhārata as its Chakravartī. Incarnation of of Vişņu). He was the first jaina-Tīrthankara of the current avasarpiņī. In name of his son Bharata, was called Bhārata. Earlier, it was named Ajanābha-varşa. In his period, Maya-Asura of Mexico revised Sūrya-siddhānta of Vivasvān which developed errors due to slowing down of axial rotation of earth in deluge. The international conference was at Romaka- pattana,90 0 west of Ujjain (Rabat in Morocco). Ŗşabha-deva ji restored the civilization started by Svāyambhuva Manu, so he is called his descendant. As teacher (Ŗşabha =source of knowledge), he was 9th Śiva (Kūrma-purāņa). 12. Atri (8,860-8,500 BC)-Bhauma-Atri (of India, Bhūmi or Bhūloka among 3 lokas of Indra) was āchārya (propounder) of āyurveda. He also made shorter method of solar eclipse. Sānkhya-Atri went to north-west direction where his Roman script has 25 (or 26 with extra-x) letters is still used, for 25 elements of Sānkhya. 13.Dharma or Nara-Nārāyaņa (8,500-8,140 BC) - He taught Vedas in Badarikāśrama. Guru tradition of Śankarāchārya starts with this Nārāyaņa. This is period of Kāņva-Medhātithi ŗşi and king Duşyanta and his son Bharata. 14. Suchkśaņa or Suchkśu (8,140-7,780 BC)-Period of Marutta, Avikśita, Karandhama and ŗşis Gautama, Vāmadeva. 15. Tryāruņa (7,780-7,420 BC)-Period of king Māndhātā in line of Ikśvāku, and king Angāra of Gāndhāra. 16.Dhanañjaya (7,420-7,060 BC) Ŗşi Bharadvāja was contemporary-Dāśa-rāja war in about 7,200 BC. Attack by 17.Kŗtañjaya (7,060-6,700 BC) Gayāsura or Asita-Dhanvā on India in 6,777 BC- Dionysus, or Bacchus) as per 18.Ŗtañjaya (6,700-6,340 BC) Megasthenes. 19. Bharadvāja (6,340-5,980 BC)-Purohita (advisor) of emperor Chāyamāna (of Persia) and Divodāsa (of Kāśī)-both. 20.Gautama (5,980-5,620 BC)-He resided on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī)-wrote sūtras of Nyāya-darśana. Period of Jamadagni, Hariśchandra. Paraśurāma, Kārttavīrya Arjuna. 21. Vāchaspati or Niryantara (5,620-5,260 BC)-Yavanas were expelled by king Sagara, supremacy on oceans. His grandson Bhagīratha brought down Gangā (some glaciers of Himālaya merged with it. 22. Sukalyāņa or Somaśuşņa (5,260-4,900 BC)-Ŗşis Pulastya and Viśravā. Institute of Paraśurāma ends with tretā. 23. Tŗņavindu (4,900-4,540 BC)-He was emperor. His daughter married to Pulastya, father of Rāvaņa, Kubera. 24.Vālmīki (4,540-4,180 BC)-Period of Rāma, son of Daśaratha ( BC). Also of Rāvaņa, Hanumān. 25. Śakti-Vāsişţha (4,180-3,820 BC)-Method of Veda-pāţha (recitation). 26. Jātūkarņya (3,820-3,460 BC)-Student of Parāśara, but period is before him. Kaņāda wrote Vaiśeşika-sūtras. 27. Parāśara (3,460-3,100 BC)-Teacher of Vişņu-purāņa. Divided Purāņa-samhitā in 100 crore verses into 18 purāņas of 4 lakh verses. 2 streams of astronomy-of Āryabhaţa (Svāyambhuva or Pitāmaha) and Parāśara (Sūrya-siddhānta or Maitreya mentioned in Vişņu-purāņa). 28. Veda-Vyāsa (from 3,100 BC till today)-Son of Satyavatī (later on married to king Śantanu) and Parāśara- Kŗşņa-Dvaipāyana. Wrote Bhāgavata purāņa, Brahma-sūtra, commentary on Yoga-sūtra of Patañjali. Divided Vedas into many branches to preserve the knowledge. There was no further Vyāsa, so it is still called 28th kali.

35 Sūrya-vanśa started with rule of Ikśvāku on BC. He has been called son of Vaivasvata Manu (13902 BC) but could have been descendant, or he re-established his system of calendar and polity. In Kish-chronicle of Iraq, his son or descendant Vikukśi has been called Ukusi in 8,320 BC. (1)Vaivasvata Manu (13902 BC), (2) Ikśvāku ( BC), (3) Vikukśi (Ukusi in 8320 BC), (4)Purañjaya or Kakutstha also called Āɖībaka =hump of bull)-He defeated Sujambha, second son of Prahlāda in sixth Deva-asura war. (5) Anenā, (6) Pŗthu-not the earlier king of Kaśyapa period, (7) Viśvagaśva, (8) Ārdra, (9) Yuvanāśva-1, (10) Śrāvasta (set up Śrāvastī town), (11) Bŗhadaśva, attacked by Dhundu Asura. (12) Kuvalayāśva did the job, so he was called Dhundhumāra. Firdausi (Persian poet) has called him Keraspa in his Shāhanāmā. (13) Dŗɖhāśva, (14) Pramoda, (15) Haryaśva-1, (16) Nikumbha, (17) Samhatāśva, (18) Kŗśāśva, (19) Prasenajita, (20) Yuvanāśva-2, (21) Māndhātā-About his kingdom saying was famous that sun always sets and rises in his kingdom (Vāyu purāņa 88/68, Vişņu purāņa 4/2/65, Mahābhārata, Droņa parva 62/11). Subordinate kings were-Angāra (Gāndhāra), Marutta, Asita (Asita-Dhanvā in Śatapatha brāhmaņa 13/4/3/12 was an Asura king-not Dionysus but his predecessor), Gaya, Anga-Bŗhadratha, Janamejaya, Sudhanvā, Nŗga. His 3 sons ruled different states, and main line continued at Ayodhyā. (22) Purukutsa (23) Trasadasyu (24) Sambhūta (25) Anaraņya (26) Trasadaśva, (27) Haryaśva-2, (28) Vasumāna, (29) Tridhanvā, (30) Tryāruņa, (31) Satyavrata or Triśanku-He was being set by yajña of Viśvāmitra to Svarga, but was stopped midway by Indra. (32) Hariśchandra-He donated entire kingdom to Viśvāmitra and worked as chāņɖāla at Kāśī. (33) Rohitāśva, (34) Harita, (35) Chañchu, (36) Vijaya, (37) Ruruka, (38) Vŗka, (39) Bāhu-He was defeated and killed in combined attack of Yavana, Kāmboja, etc in 6,777 BC. (40) Sagara-He took back the whole empire and spread influence over seas due to which they were called sāgara. He punished Persians by making their beard goat-shaped and expelled Yavanas from Arab when the settled in Greece which was called Ionia (Herodotus). His 60,000 sons were burnt by sage Kapila, who might have been author of Sānkhya-sūtras. In Gītā, he has been named as foremost Siddha and Sūrya-siddhānta, chapter 12 tells Siddhapura at east of Ujjain, so many persons take his place at California (assumed to be Kapilāraņya). (41) Asamañjasa was expelled. (42) Anśumāna-grandson of Sagara became king. (43) Dilīpa, (44) Bhagīratha succeeded in bringing Gangā from Himālaya which was called Bhāgīrathī. (45) Śruta, (46) Nābhāga-was a relation, not son. (47) Ambarīşa-2, (48) Sindhu, (49) Ayutāyu, (50) Ŗtuparņa, (51) Sarvakāma, (52) Sudāsa, (53) Kalmāşa- pāda (His feet became black due to curse of Śakti, son of Vasişţha), (54) Aśmaka, (55) Urukāma, (56) Mūlaka-He was at time of Paraśurāma and was hidden among women for saving him, so he was named Nārī-kavacha. (57) Śataratha, (58) Iɖaviɖa, (59) Kŗśakarma, (60) Sarvakāma, (61) Anarāya (or Anaraņya), (62) Nighna, (63) Anamitra or Raghu-1, (64) Dulīɖuha, (65) Viśvamahat, (66) Dilīpa. (67) Raghu-2-He is the hero of Raghuvamśa, epic of Kālidāsa. On his name, the clan was called Raghuvamśa. Whole of ancient India was under him. (68) Aja, (69) Daśaratha, (70) Rāma was his most famous son ( BC) who killed Rāvaņa and set up world empire. His rule is still considered standard for propriety. Sūrya-vanśa

36 (71) Kuśa, (72) Atithi, (73) Nişadha, (74) Nala (different from famous Nala of Nişadha), (75) Nabha, (76) Puņɖarīka, (77) Kśemadhanvā, (78) Devānīka, (79) Ahinagu, (80) Ruru, (81) Pariyātra, (82) Śala, (83) Dala, (84) Bala, (85) Uktha, (86) Sahasrāśva, (87) Chandrāvaloka, (88) Tārāpīɖa, (89) Chandragiri, (90) Bhānuchandra, or, Bhānumitra, (91) Śrutāyu, (92) Ulūka, (93) Unnābha, (94) Vajranābha, (95) Śankhana, (96) Vyuşitāśva, (98) Hiraņya-nābha-He learnt yoga from Yājñavalkya and spread it. (99) Kauśalya, (100) Brahmişţha, (101) Putra, (102) Puņya, (103) Arthasiddhi, (104) Sudarśana, (105) Agnivarņa, (106) Śīghraga, (107) Maru, (108) Prasuśruta, (109) Sandhi, (110) Pramarşaņa, (111) Mahasvān, (112) Sahasvān, (113) Viśvabhava, (114) Viśvasva, (115) Prasenajita, (116) Takśaka, (117) Bŗhadbala-He was killed in Mahābhārata war (3139 BC) by Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna. After Mahābhārata-(1) Bŗhatkśaņa, (2) Uruyakśa, (3) Vatsavyūha, (4) Prativyoma, (5) Divākara, (6) Sahadeva, (7) Bŗhadśva, (8) Bhānuratha, (9) Pratitasva, (10) Supratīka, (11) Marudeva, (12) Sunakśatra, (13) Kinnara, (14) Antarikśa, (15) Suparņa, (16) Amitrajita, (17) Bŗhadbhāja, (18) Dharmī, (19) Kŗtañjaya, (20) Raņañjaya, (21) Sañjaya, (22) Śākya, (23) Śuddhodana, (24) Siddhārtha -Gautama Buddha ( BC), (25) Rāhula, (26) Prasenajita, (27) Kśudraka, (28) Kundaka, (29) Suratha, (30) Sumitra-ended in 1634 BC. Sūrya-Vamśa after Rāma

37 (1)Soma (=Chandra) was son of Atri, (2) Budha was son of Soma, (Tāņɖya-mahā-brāhmaņa 24/18/6, Mahābhārata, (2)udyoga parva 147/3). (2) Budha was married to Iļā, daughter of Vaivasvata-Manu. Son of Iļā was (3) Aila Pururavā, first emperor in this line. His basic name was Puru. As son of Iļā, he was Aila. He started institution of yajña (3 agnis for that). He was like vŗşabha (bull) of yajña and was making rava (vibration). So, he was called ravā. This means that he was capable of production, hence ravā is still used as word for respect around Kashi. 4. Āyu 5. Nahuşa had held the post of Indra also for some period when Indra had to leave after Brahma-hatyā by killing of Vŗtra. Later on, had to become serpent (a tribe of men where he ruled) by curse of a ŗşi. First son of Nahuşa was Yati who became sanyāsī (renunciate), so second son Yayāti became the king. 6. Yayāti -His first wife Devayānī was daughter of Śukrāchārya (Kāvya in Kaaba, Arab) who had 2 sons- Yadu, Turvasu. Second wife Śarmişţhā was daughter of Asura (Dānava) king Vŗşa-parvā (vŗşa= Taurus, parvata = mountain-in Turkey). She had 3 sons-Druhyu, Anu, Puru. Due to fraudulent second marriage, Śukrāchārya cursed Yayāti to become old. Then the youngest son Puru only agreed to take his old state, so he was given main kingdom, and in his name the clan was called Puru-vamśa. Yadu got north east part-in that line Kŗşņa ( BC) was born. Druhyu got west part, Anu north (Ānava = yavana) and Turvasu in south -east. One branch of Yadu clan is stated to have gone under Ezypt rule where they were called Yid=Yahud (Jew)- escaped to Israel. (7) Puru, (8) Janamejaya-he did 3 Aśvamedha-yajña. (9) Prāchīnavān or Aviddha, (10) Pravīra, (11) Manasyu or Namasyu-He rules from Sindhu river to east ocean and Vindhya mountain to Himālaya. (12) Abhayada or Subhrū, (13) Subvanta or Dhundhu, (14) Yavuyāna or Bahugva, (15) Samyāti, (16) Ahamyati, (17) Raudrāśva, (18) Rucheyu-One of his 10 sisters was married to Atri whose son was Svasti. He had 3 sons- Soma (different from the first of Chandra line), Datta (Dattātreya), and Durvāsā. His daughter Apālā also was seer of mantra of Ŗgveda. (19) Matināra, in time of Māndhātā in about 7,300 BC (20) Apratīrtha-His son ŗşi Kāņva Medhātithi was seer of many mantras. Her sister Gaurī’s son was Māndhātā-famous world emperor of Sūrya-vamśa. (21) Tamsu or Sumati, (22) Īlina, or Sudyumna, (23) Duşyanta-from his wife Śakuntalā was born famous emperor (24) Bharata- hero of Abhijñāna-śākuntalam-famous play of Kālidāsa. Ŗşis of his time were-Ŗchīka, Jamadagni, Viśvāmitra, and Bharadvāja. Bharata was married to Sunandā, daughter of Sarvasena, king of Kāśī. From her, a son (25)Bhūmanyu was born by niyoga (artificial birth) by Bharadvāja. (26) Bŗhatkśtra (27) Suhotra (28) Hasti made a town in his name- Hastināpura, As this became capital of kings of India, Chinese called this country as elephant (hasti) kingdom. East and south parts of India adjacent to China are in shape of elephant head, whose trunk (śuņɖa) has gone to the end of Indonesia after which there is strait of śuņɖā.. After Hasti, his son (29) Vikuņţhana became king. All his 3 sons- Ajamīɖha, Purumīɖha, Dvimīɖha-were brāhmaņas, but on order of sage Bharadvāja, eldest son (30) Ajamīɖha became king. He was contemporary to Sūrya-vamśa king Tridhanvā. After that, the list is in-complete. Chandra-Vamśa

38 Chandra-vamśa after Samvaraņa List after Ajamīɖha is incomplete and different names are found in Purāņas. This line regained power with Samvaraņa –wife Tapatī ( BC). Their son was Kuru-wife Śubhāngī ( BC). His descendants were in two lines- (1)Hastināpura line- Abhisvān-9 kings as per Bhāgavata purāņa- Parīkśita-Janamejaya-Bhīmasena-Their periods are not known. Pratīpa ( BC) was the first important king. His second son Śāntanu ( BC) became king. Eldest son Devāpi went to Himalaya for Tapa and will re-start civilization after destuction by Kalki. Bāhlīka became king of west part-Balkha of Iran. Śāntanu had 2 wives-From first wife was Devavrata, who took terrible oath of remaining unmarried and was given long life as per wish, so he was called Bhīşma ( BC). Second wife Satyavatī had a son before marriage with sage Parāśara, called Kŗşņa-Dvaipāyana Vyāsa. After marriage Chitrāngada (3248 BC) and Vichitravīrya (up to 3238 BC) were born. His elder son was blind, so second son Pāņɖu ( BC) ruled. After his death, again blind son Dhŗtarāşţra ( BC) ruled and made his son Duryodhana ( BC) a king. After Mahāhbhārata war, Dharmarāja Yudhişţhira ( BC), son of Pāņɖu became king. Kings after Dharmarāja Yudhişţhira in kali- All sons of Pāņɖavas were killed in Mahāhbhārata war. His younger brother Arjuna had a son from wife Subhadrā, sister of Kŗşņa Abhmanyu. Abhmanyu also was killed, but his son in womb of Uttarā was miraculously made alive by Kŗşņa after he was killed by brahmāstra used by Aśvatthāmā after war. He became first king after Kŗşņa left the world at start of kali. (1) Parīkśita ( BC)-he was son of Abhimanyu, He was killed by Takśaka, Nāga king, probably from Takśkaśilā. (2)Janamejaya retaliated against Nāgas, called (nāga-yajña) and their region turned into mass-graveyard, now called Moin-jo-daro (place of dead) and Harappā (place of bones). (3) Śatānīka, and his son (4) Aśvamedhadatta arranged revision of purāņas at institute (mahāśālā) of Śaunaka at Naimişāaraņya. (5) Adhisīmakŗşņa, (6) Nichakśu-In his period there was a great natural upheaval which submerged Hastināpura in Gangā due to which capital had to be shifted to Kauśāmbī. Probably this was at same time as drying up the great river Sarasvatī in west India. The kingdom remained for name sake only and King of Kāśī had to take charge of managing the country. Probably, he was also named Yudhişţhira, but after 5 years of rule, he took sanyāsa as Pārśvanātha (23rd Jaina Tīrthankara) in 2634 BC, when Jainas take start of Yudhişţhira śaka. (7) Ūşņa (Bhūri), (8) Chitraratha, (9) Śuchidratha, (10) Vŗşņimāna, (11) Suśeņa, (12) Sunītha, (13) Nichakśu-2, (14) Rucha, (15) Sukhabala, (16) Pariplava,(17) Sunaya, (18) Medhāvī, (19) Nŗpa (Ripu-) ñjaya, (20) Durva, (21) Tigmātmā, (22) Bŗhadratha, (23) Vasudāna, (24) Śatānīka, (25) Udayana (Hero of plays by Bhāsa, in time of Pradyoota, mentioned in epic Meghadūta of Kālidāsa), (26) Vaśīnara, (27) Daņɖapāņi, (28) Niramitra,(29) Kśemaka -ended in 1634 BC by Magadha king Mahāpadmananda. (2) Magadha line- Sudhanvā ( BC) Suhotra ( BC) Chyavana ( BC) Kŗmi or Kŗti ( BC) Uparichara Vasu ( BC) (Pratīpa or Chaidya) Bŗhadratha ( BC)-capital at Girivraja (Rājagŗha=Rajgir now)Kuśāgra ( BC) Ŗşabha ( BC) Satyahita ( BC) Puņya or Puşpavanta ( BC) Satyadhŗti ( BC) Sudhanvā ( BC) Sarva ( BC) Jarāsandha ( BC) Sahadeva ( BC).

39 1.Bārhadratha vamśa-Started with Somāpi, son of Sahadeva killed in Mahābhārata war. (1)Somāpi (Mārjāri)-( BC), (2) Śrutaśravā ( BC), (3) Apratīpa ( BC), (4) Niramitra ( BC), (5) Sukŗta ( BC), (6) Bŗhatkarman ( BC), (7) Senajita ( BC), (8) Śrutañjaya ( BC), (9) Mahābala ( BC), (10) Śuchi ( BC), (11) Kśema ( BC), (12) Aņuvrata ( BC), (13), Dharmanetra ( BC), (14) Nirvŗtti ( BC), (15) Suvrata ( BC), (16) Dŗɖhasena ( BC), (17) Sumati ( BC), (18) Suchala ( BC), (19) Sunetra ( BC), (20) Satyajita ( BC), (21) Vīrajita ( BC), (22) Ripuñjaya ( BC) Total-22 kings for 1006 years (Brahmāņɖa purāņa 2/3/74/121, Vişņu purāņa 4/23/12 etc) 2. Pradyota vamśa-Last Bārhadratha king was Ripuñjaya killed by his minister Śunaka (or Pulaka) and made his son-in-law Pradyota, as king (Brahmāņɖa purāņa 2/3/74/122, Skanda purāņa 12/2 etc). (1)Pradyota ( BC), (2) Pālaka ( BC), (3) Viśākhayūpa ( BC), (4) Janaka ( BC), (5) Nandivardhana ( BC)-Total 5 kings for 138 years. 3. Śiśunāga vamśa- (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta 2/2, Bhāgavata purāņa 12/2/8 etc.)-(1)Śiśunāga ( BC), (2)Kākavarņa or Śakavarņa ( BC), (3) Kśemadhanvā ( BC), (4) Kśatrauja ( BC), (5) Vidhisāra (Bimbisāra) or Śreņika ( BC), (6) Ajātaśatru ( BC), (7) Darśaka ( BC), (8) Udāyi ( BC), (9) Nandivardhana ( BC), (10) Mahānandi ( BC). In this period Siddhārtha, son of Śuddhodana became Buddha, who was incarnation of māyā and moha, not of Vişņu (Vişņu purāņa 4/23 etc). He was 5 years younger to Bimbisāra and died in 8th year of Ajātaśatru’s rule in 1806 BC. Udāyi in 4 year of his rule established Pāţaliputra on confluence of Son and Gangā (Vāyu purāņa 119/318). Ten kings of this dynasty ruled for 360 years. 4. Nanda vamśa- Mahā-Padma-Nanda was the son of last Śiśunāga king Mahānandi by his śūdrā wife. After death of his father he became king 1500 years (more accurately 1534 years after birth of Parīkśita in 3138 BC) stated in all purāņas as a landmark of history. He won most of India by exterminating all kśatriya kings like second Paraśurāma. (Vişņu purāņa 4/24/104, Bhāgavata purāņa 12/1/10). He ruled for 88 years followed by 8 sons for 12 years (Matsya purāņa 270/20, 273/23)-a total of 100 years from 1634 to 1534 BC. Magadha kings in Kali

40 Maurya vamśa-Kauţilya Chāņakya destyoed and made Chandragupta as king. His family belonged to Murā town (in Sambalpur of Orissa, now submerged in Hirakud reservoir) which was center of iron ore called mura (murrum). So the family was called Maurya. 12 Maurya kings ruled for a total of 316 years (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta 3/2, Matsya purāņa 270/32, Vāyu purāņa etc.)- (1) Chandragupta ( BC), (2) Bindusāra ( BC), (3) Aśoka ( BC), (4) Supārśva (Suyaśa, or Kuņāla)- ( BC), (5) Daśaratha (Bandhupālita) -( BC), (6) Indrapālita ( BC), (7) Harşavardhana ( BC), (8) Sangata ( BC), (9) Śāliśūka ( BC), (10) Soma (Deva-) śarmā ( BC), (11) Śatadhanvā ( ), (12) Bŗhadratha (Bŗhadaśva)-( BC). There was another Aśoka in Gonanda-vamśa (43rd king) in ( BC) who had become Bauddha due to which Bauddhas from central Asia destroyed the kingdom. Many of the inscriptions in name of Aśoka are by him (Rājatarangiņī, 1/ ). No inscriptionincluding one at Hathi-gumpha mentions that had become Buddhist. Only mention is in Bauddha text Divyāvadāna (chapter Aśokāvadāna) that Aśoka was a good Bauddha because he had killed 12,000 Jaina monks on victory over Kalinga. This is too high a figure for a normal war. There is no basis of figure of 1,50,000 killed, 350,000 injured and 550, 000 arrested. This exceeds the population of the then Kalinga and more than current strength of Indian army. Alexander Army was only 120,000 with 20,000 horses, which was afraid of Magadha army of 600,000. Only possibility maybe that Jainas might be powerful in Kalinga administration which was lost after war. Another fallacy is spread that Magadha empire was destroyed due to adoption of non-violence by Aśoka. Actually, non-violence is feature of Yoga-sūtra and more stressed in Jainism. Rather, Bauddha themselves including Siddhārtha Buddha himself were strongly opposed to vegetarian food even for Bhikśus. It is surprising as to how Buddha was moved by sacrifice of animals in yajña, which is for food, not for God. Maurya kings were never against Brāhmaņs, minister of Last king Puśyamitra was himself a Brāhmaņa who killed king and became king himself. Śunga-Vamśa-10 Śunga kings ruled for 300 years (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta, Matsya, Vāyu purāņa). (1)Puśyamitra ( BC), (2) Agnimitra ( BC), (3) Vasumitra ( BC), (4) Sujyeşţha (2)( BC), (5) Bhadraka ( BC), (6) Pulindaka ( BC), (7) Ghoşavasu ( BC), (3)(8) Vajramitra ( BC), (9) Bhāgavata ( BC), (10) Devabhūti ( BC). Maurya and Śunga vamśa

41 Kaņva-Vamśa-4 Kaņva kings ruled for 85 years ((Vişņu purāņa 4/24/39-42 etc). (1) Vāsudeva ( BC), (2) Bhūmimitra ( BC), (3) Nārāyaņa ( BC), (4) Suśarmā ( BC). Āndhra-Vamśa-33 Āndhra kings ruled for 506 years. During that rule, saptarşi-cycle of 2700 years started in time of kingYudhişţhira (saptarşi in Maghā from 3176 BC)-(Matsya purāņa chapter 270 etc.). Detailed list is in Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta, list in other purāņas miss some names. (1)Śimukha (Sindhuka or Sumukha)-( BC), (2) Śrīkŗşņa Śātakarņī ( BC), (3) Śrīmalla Śātakarņī ( BC), (4) Pūrņotsanga ( BC)-In his time Kalinga king Khārāvela became independent from Magadha which was suffering under attack from west Asia. He repaired Prāchī canal in 5th year of his rule (Prāchī inscription) which was 803 (Tri-vasu-śata ) years after coronation of Nanda (1634 BC), thus his rule started in 1634-(803-4) = 835 BC. (5) Śrī Śātakarņī ( BC), (6) Skandha-stambin (Śrīvasvanī)-( BC), (7) Lambodara ( BC), (8) Āpilaka ( BC), (9) Megha-Svāti ( BC), (10) Śāta-Svāti ( BC), (11) Skanda-Svāti ( BC), (12) Mŗgendra-Svāti-Karņa ( BC), (13) Kuntala ( BC), (14) Saumya ( BC), (15) Śata-Svāti-Karņa ( BC), (16) Pulomāvi-1 ( BC), (17) Megha ( BC), (18) Arişţa ( BC), (19) Hāla ( BC)-author of Gāthā-sapta-śatī, contemporary of Śankarāchārya. (20) Maņɖalaka ( BC), (21) Purandara-Sena ( BC)- saptarşi- cycle completed in 476 BC in his period. (22) Sundara- Śātakarņī ( BC), (23) Chakra-Vāsişţhī-Putra and Mahendra ( BC), (24) Śiva-1 ( BC),(25) Gautamī-Putra-Śātakarņī ( BC), (26) Pulomāvi-2 ( BC), (27) Śiva-2 ( BC), (28) Śivakoņɖā ( BC), (29) Yajñaśrī ( BC), (30) Vijayaśrī ( BC), (31) Chandraśrī ( BC), (32) Pulomāvi-3 ( BC)-He was a child son of Chandraśrī whose queen had links with commander Chandragupta who killed the king and kept his infant son as namesake king. His father Ghaţotkacha-Gupta was commander to 2 kings-(30) Vijayaśrī and (31) Chandraśrī. Finally, Chandragupta killed the son also and became the king himself. Kaņva and Āndhra Vamśa

42 Gupta-Vamśa-They have been called Āndhra-bhŗtya also, as they were serving as commander under them (Matsya purāņa 273/17). Their place is called Śrī-Parvata which should be Śrī-śailam of Andhra Pradesh as the kings were from that area, not of Nepal as surmised. At start of this rule, Alexander attacked India in 326 BC. His historians have mentioned last kings of Āndhra and first 2 kings of Gupta clan as well as strength of army of Āndhra kings. Names as mentioned by Megasthenes are- Ghaţotkacha (Ghaţa = head, Utkacha = remover of hairs) - barber, Chandraśrī. (Chandra-Bīja)—Agrammas (Xandrammas)-31st. Āndhra king Chandragupta-1-Sandrocottus, Samudragupta-Sandrocryptus, Chandragupta-2 was famous as conqueror or Amitrocchedas (=wiping out enemies)-Amitrochades. This was known to R.C Mazumdar, who quoted Megasthenes in –”Ancient India”-page 135 to give strength of army of Āndhra kings. But, he had to retract it in his later book in collaboration with K.K. Dutta and H.C. Raychaudhary. For obedience to British fraud, he was made General editor of 12 Vol. Indian History by Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan. Usmania university also keeps both contradictions-For culture of Andhra Pradesh, Megasthenese had come in Gupta period. For history purpose, he was in Maurya period. Gupta kings adopted titles of earlier great kings of Maurya period- Chandragupta-1-Vijayāditya. Samudragupta-Aśokāditya, Chandragupta-2-Vikramāditya. This was only a title. Famous Paramāra king of Ujjain of this name was later on. Śrīgupta-Ghaţotkacha-Chandragupta-1 ( BC)-Founder Kacha (320 BC) Samudragupta (Aśokāditya ( BC) Rāmagupta Chandragupta-2 (Vikramāditya) ( BC) Kumāragupta-1 ( BC) Skandagupta ( BC-Issueless) Puragupta (guardian of Budhagupta) Vainyagupta ( BC) Kumāragupta-2 ( BC) Budhagupta ( BC) Narasimhagupta (Bālāditya-1)- ( BC) Kumāragupta-3 ( BC) Vişņugupta (85-82 BC) Gupta Kings

43 Mālvā Kings After Mahābhārata war, Paīkśita was killed by Nāga Takśaka of Takśaśilā in 3042 BC. His Son, king Janamejaya retaliated against Nāgas in 3089 BC in his Nāga-yajña. Many persons were killed, giving names of Moin-jo-daro (=place of dead) and Harappa (heap of bones). India became safe for 2200 years from invasion. But in 833 BC, Mauryan empire broke after fall of Śunga and Kaņva eras and attacks started from tyrants of Assyria, called Asura In India. Khārāvel of Orissa (835 BC as per his inscription) checked their incursion up to Patna. But that was in-sufficient and Vişņu-incarnation Buddha, son of Brāhmaņa Ajina of Magadha united 4 leading (Agri=Agni) kings of India-Paramāra, Pratihāra, Chāhamāna, Chālukya under Mālvā king Śūdraka at mount Abu in756 BC (Śūdraka -śaka). For uniting 4 clans, he was called śudra as honour. Paramāra, and Pratihāra checked Asuras for a while, but they were routed by Chāhamāna of Delhi. Bible has stated that king of Medes of east of Indus wiped out Nineve, capital of Assyria in 612 BC (Era as per Bŗhat-samhitā 13/3 of Varāhamihira). His goddess Śākambharī is Indicated in Durgā-saptaśatī (11/58). King Sudhanvā was 6 th from him who setup 4 Pīţhas of Śankarāchārya in 483 BC. Last descendant was Prithviraj Chauhan, defeated in 1192 AD by Mohammad Ghori. Gardabhilla king Darpaņa of Ujjain had kidnapped Sarasvatī, sister of Jain muni Kālakāchārya ( BC), who went for help to 96 chiefs of Hinduga (Hindukush). Those chiefs had to save themselves from Darius of Persia (550 BC) and with help of Balamitra, king of Saurāşţra, captured Ujjain. Śaka king Nahpāna or Nahasena was made ruler of Ujjain. The Śaka kings and descendants were wiped out by Śrī-harşa in 456 BC (Harşa-śaka). After that Paramāra king captured Ujain. As per Bhavişya purāņa, pratisarga (4/1 ), they were- (1)Pramara ( BC), (2) Mahāmara ( BC), (3) Devāpi ( BC), (4) Devadūta ( BC), (5) Gandharvasena ( BC), (6) Śankha ( BC), (7) Gandharvasena ( BC)-after sudden death of his son Śankha. (8) Vikramāditya (82 BC-19 AD)-He started Vikrama samvat in 57 BC at Paśupatinātha in Nepal from Chaitra and at Somanātha from Kārttika month. He ruled up to Arab in west and his astrologers certified Jesus as a great man.. He revised Pu āņas and had 9 Jewels of men in his court. His son (9) Devabhakta (19-29 AD ) could not control the empire and it was divided into 18 parts. It was attacked from all directions by Tatars, Shakas, Hunas, Chinese etc who looted, raped and kidnapped in mass scale. Finally, grand son(10) Śālivāhana (29-89 AD) chased them west of Sindhu river. Jesus Christ took shelter after resurrection in his kingdom at Shrinagar in Kashmir. His 2 disciples also took shelter in south India. Then 10 kings ruled for 50 years each (11) Śālihotra (80-139), (12) Śālivardhana (13) Śakahantā ( ), (14) Suhotra ( ), (15) Havihotra ( ), (16) Indrapāla (Indrāvatī) ( ), (17) Mālyavān (Mālyavatī) ( ), (18) Śambhudatta ( ), (19) Bhaumarāja ( ), (20) Vatsarāja ( ), (21) Bhojarāja ( )-He had gone to Balkha with his army, and was contacted by Mohammad, who sought his help in establishing Islam. This is indicated in Islamic history also. Kālidāsa-3 was with him. 10 generations after him was the famous king Bhoja ( AD)-Author of Samarāngaņa-sūtradhāra etc.

44 This is given in Rājatarangiņī. Taranga (chapter)-1, describes Gonanda-vamśa from 3450 BC. Names of first 5 kings are not known. 6 Gonanda-1 ( BC), (7) Dāmodara-1 ( BC)-He was killed just before Mahābhārata war, then his queen Yaśomatī ruled. (8) Gonanda-2 ( BC)-He was killed by Pāņɖava king Parīkśita 20 Pāņɖava kings-( 9) Parīkśita who became 9th king and ruled from ( BC), (10) Harnadeva was second son of Parīkśita, (11) Rāmadeva, (12) Vyāsadeva, (13) Droņadeva, (14) Simhadeva, (15) Gopāladeva, (16) Vijayānanda, (17) Sukhadeva, (18) Ramaņadeva, (19) Sindhimāna, (20) Mahānadeva, (21) Kamāandeva, (22) Chandradeva, (23) Ānandadeva, (24) Drupadadeva, (25) Haranāmadeva,(26) Sulakhānadeva, (27) Senāditya, (28) Mangalāditya. Another Kashmir dynasty-(29) Kśemendra, (30) Bhīmasena, (31) Indrasena, (32) Sundarasena, (33) Galagendra, (34) Baladeva, (35) Nalasena, (36) Gokarņa, (37) Prahlāda, (38) Bambru, (39) Pratāpaśīla, (40) Sangrāmachandra, (41) Lorikachandra, (42) Bīramachandra,(43) Babighena, (44) Bhagavantī-with these 16 kings-a total of 36 Pāņɖava kings ruled for 1331 years ( BC) Gonanda-vamśa again-(45) Lava ( BC), (46) Kuśa or Kuśeśaya, (47) Khagendra, (48) Surendra (Issueless). One relation (44th in Gonanda line) became king named (44) Godhara in 1596 BC. (45) Suvarņa, (46) Janaka, (47) Śachīnāra died issueless in 1448 BC. (48) Aśoka was grandson of Janaka’s brother. He became king in1448 BC. Under influence of Lokadhātu Buddha, he became Bauddha and was named Dharmāśoka. He made many vihāras and stūpas, many of which are thought to be by Maurya Aśoka. Bauddhas of central Asia captured his kingdom. By grace of a śaiva saint, he got back his kingdom and got a son named Jālauka. He ruled up to 1400 BC and established Śrīnagara town. (49) Jālauka ( BC), (50) Dāmodara-2 ( BC), Again, Bauddhas of central Asia ruled the state for 60 years,3 kings- Huşka, Juşk,a Kanişka ( BC). Gonanda-vamśa (52) Abhimanyu ( BC), -52 Gonanda kings for 2268 years ( years. (53) Gonanda-3, (54) Vibhīşaņa, (55) Indrajita, (56) Rāvaņa, (57) Vibhīşaņa-2, (58) Kinnara, or Nara, (59) Siddha, (60) Utpalākśa, (61) Hiraņyakula, (62) Vasukula, (63) Mihirakula ( BC)-These 3 were kashmiri śaivas, not foreigners. (64) Baka, (65) Kśitinandana, (66) Vasunandana, (67) Nara, (68) Akśa, (69) Gopāditya ( BC)-He built Śankarāchārya temple in 367 BC which is now called Takhta-e-Suleman. (70) Gokarņa, (71) Kinakhila, (72) Narendrāditya, (73) Andha-Yudhişţhira-he was short-eyed not blind,-73+5=78 kings ( BC) Kings of Kashmir-Taranga-1

45 Kings of Kashmir-Taranga-2 Relations of Harşa-Vikramāditya-(1) Pratāpāditya, (2) Jalaukasa, (3) Tuşājina, (4) Vijaya, (5) Jayendra, (6) Sandhimati-( BC) Gonanda-vamśa-Descendent of Andha-Yudhişţhira (80) Meghavāhana (80-46 BC), (81) Pravarasena, Śreşţhasena or Tuñjina (46-16 BC), (82) Hiraņya-(His younger brother Toramāņa made coins in his own name-died in jail)-He died issueless-(16 BC-14 AD), 83-Mātŗgupta (Sent by king Vikramāditya of Ujjain)-(14-19 AD), (84) Pravarasena-2-Son of Toramāņa (19-79 AD),(85) Yudhişţhira -2 ( AD)-contemporary of king Śālivāhana, grandson of Vikramāditya of Ujjain, (86) Lakśmaņa (Narendrāditya) ( ), (87) Tuñjina or Rāņāditya, poet ( ), (88) Vikramāditya ( ), (89) Bālāditya ( ) - end of Gonanda-vamśa. Karkoţaka-vamśa-(1) Durlabhavardhana (son-in-law of Bālāditya the last king of Gonanda- vamśa)-( ), (2) Durlabhaka or Pratāpāditya ( ), (5) Lalitāditya or poet Muktāpīɖa ( ), (6) Kuvalayāditya ( ), (7) Vajrāditya, Vāpyāyika or Lalitāpīɖa ( ), (8) Pŗthivyāpīɖa ( ), (9) Sangrāmapīɖa (7 days), (10) Jayāpīɖa, scholar and poet ( ), (11) Lalitāpīɖa ( )-Chinese traveler Huensang had come in this period, (12) Sangrāmapīɖa -2 ( ), (13) Chipyata,or Jayāpīɖa ( ), (14) Ajitāpīɖa ( ), (15) Anangpīɖa ( ) (16) Utpalāpīɖa ( ), (17) Sukhavarmā ( ) Utpala-vamśa-Avantivarman (town Avantipura in his name) and his son ruled in ( ). Poets Ānandavardhana, and Ratnākara in that period. Grand-daughter of Bhīma-śāhī was Diddā who ruled in name of her son Abhimanyu Gupta for ( ) and countered attack of Mahmud of Gajani. Then Eka and tyrant Harşa ruled in ( ). Shahmir ruled in name of Shamsuddin in His family ruled till 1561 when Moghul king Akbar captured Kashmir.

46 This is given because Nepal was always independent and its king list is not distorted. This has important links with other kings of India. Gopāla-vamśa-(1) Bhuktamānāgata Gupta ( BC), (2) Jayagupta ( BC), (3) Paramagupta ( BC), (4) Harşagupta ( BC), (5) Bhīşmagupta ( ), (6) Maņigupta ( BC), (7) Vişņugupta ( BC), (8) Yakśagupta ( BC). He died issueless. Ahīra-vamśa-Three kings of India ruled for 200 years-(9) Varasimha, (10) Jayamatasimha, (11) Bhuvanasimha. Kirāta-vamśa-(12) Yalambarā, (13) Pavi, (14) Skandarā, (15) Valamba, (16) Hŗti, (17) Humati- he had accompanied Pāņɖavas in forest. (18) Jitedāstī-He died in Mahābhārata war on Pāņɖava side. This is also described in Kirāta-parva under Vana-parva of Mahābhārata and famous epic Kirātārjunīyam of Daņɖī. 7 kings ruled for 300 years ( BC), (19) Gali ( BC). Then 22 kings ruled for 782 years till 2319 BC. (20) Pushka, (21) Suyarma, (22) Parbha, (23) Svānanda, (24), (25) Stuvanka, (26) Giighri, (27) Nane, (28) Lāka, (29) Thora (30) Thoko, (31) Varmā, (32) Guja, (33) Puşkara, (34) Keśu. (35) Sunsa, (36) Sammu, (37) Guņana, (38) Kimbu, (39) Paţuka, (40) Gasti. Soma-vamśa-(41) Nimişa, (42) Mānākśa, (43) Kākavarman, (44-48)-Unknown, (49) Paśuprekśa Deva-In his period many persons came from India in 1867 BC (period of Buddha and Mahāvīra in Bihar). These 9 kings ruled for 464 years ( BC). (50-51)-Unknown, (52) Bhāskaravarman-He conquered India (some adjacent parts) and without any son. He adopted Aramāna of Sūrya vamśa who became king in 1712 BC in name of Bhūmivarman. Nepal Kings-1

47 Sūrya vamśa-(53) Bhūmivarman ( BC), (54) Chandravarman ( BC), (55) Jayavarman ( BC), (56) Vŗşavarman ( BC), (57) Sarvavarman ( BC), (58) Pŗthvīvarman ( BC), (59) Jyeşţhavarman ( BC), (60) Harivarman ( BC), (61) Kuberavarman ( BC), (62) Siddhivarman ( BC), (63) Haridattavarman ( BC), (64) Vasudattavarman ( BC), (65) Pativarman ( BC), (66) Śivavŗddhivarman ( BC), (67) Vasantavarman ( BC), (68) Śivavarman ( BC), (69 Rudravarman ( BC), (70) Vŗşadevavarman ( BC)-In his period Śankarāchārya had come in 486 BC for debate with 12 Bodhisattvas. Due to his blessing the king got a son who was named after the saint. (71) Śankaradeva ( BC), (72) Dharmadeva ( BC), (73) Mānadeva ( BC), (74) Mahideva ( BC), (75) Vasantadeva ( BC), (76) Udayadevavarman ( BC),(77) Mānadevavarman ( BC), (78) Guņakāmadevavarman ( BC), (79) Śivadevavarman ( BC), (80) Narendradevavarman ( BC), (81) Bhīmadevavarman ( BC), (82) Vişņudevavarman ( BC), (83) Viśvadevavarman ( BC). After him his son-in-law became king. Ţhākurī-vamśa-(84) Amśuvarman ( BC)-Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain came in 57 BC and started his Vikrama-samvat at Paśupatinātha from Chaitra śukla 1st. (85) Kŗtavarman (33 BC-54 AD), (86) Bhīmārjuna ( AD), (87) Nandadeva ( AD), (88-89)-Unknown ( ), (90) Vīradeva ( ),(91) Chandraketudeva ( ), (92) Narendradeva ( ), (93) Varadeva ( )- Avalokiteşvara and one Śankarāchārya (of a Pīţha) came in 522 AD. (94) Naramudi ( ), (95) Śankaradeva ( ), (96) Vardhamānadeva ( ), (97) Balideva ( ), (98) Jayadeva ( ), (99) Balārjunadeva ( ), (100) Vikramadeva ( ), (101) Guņkāmadeva ( ), (102) Bhojadeva ( ), (103) Lakśmīkāmadeva ( ), (104) Jayakāmadeva ( ). Nepal Kings-2

48 Śaka and Samvatsara These are two complementary systems of calendar- (1)Śaka is mathematical calendar where calculation is done by calculating number of days from a particular point. (2) Samvatsara is followed by people for daily use, festivals as per lunar tithis and is matched with season cycles. Meaning of śaka -This is derived from 2 root verbs- (a) śakļ śaktau =to be able (Pāņini dhātu-pāţha 5/16), (b) şacha or sacha sechane, sevane cha (1/97). It is powerful form of Kuśa (reed) which is derived from 2 verbs-(a) Kŗśa tanūkaraņe (41/117)=to become thin or fine, (b) Kŗşa vilekhane (1/716, 6/6)=to plough or to draw a line. Thus, Kuśa is a thin rod and sign of number 1 in all languages (I). This becomes Śaka (powerful) in 2 ways- (a)By being big in size-In north India sal tree is Śaka (Sakhua). Siddhārtha Buddha was born in region of sal tree, so he was called Śākya-muni. In south India, Teak tree is Śaka, so it is called Sāgvān (Śaka-vana). Australia abounds in pillar shaped Eucalyptus trees, so it was called Śaka-dvīpa-stated south east of Jambū-dvīpa (Asia)- Mahābhārata (12/14/21-5) and (6/11/4) Rāmāyaņa (4/10/19-54) and (4/43/12) etc. (b) By joining many thin kuśas-In central Asia including south Europe, many wandering small tribes joined in a Federation, so they were called Śaka. In mathematics (statistics) also, each item is counted by a sign of kuśa (I). After, they become 4, they are bound by the fifth- IIII, IIII, IIII, II ….In any mathematical calculation in astronomy, we count the number of days from a particular reference, called Ahargaņa (day-count). So, the calendar used for purpose of calculation is called Śaka. Meaning of Samvatsara- (1) This is the exclusive zone of sun where light of sun reaches in 1 year= sphere of 1 Light year radius. Like 6 seasons in 1 year, there are 6 zones (Vaşaţkāra) in solar system(Śatapatha Brāhmaņa (1/7/2/11,21) (2) This is the curved orbit of earth around sun (Tsara Chhadma gatau=to move in curve-1/373), time in orbit (1 year). (3) One of 5 type of lunar years in Vedānga jyotişa which matches most closely with solar year. They are Samparidānvita- i.e. pre-fixes sam, pari, idā. Anu, it added to Vatsara. Vatsara is derived from Ut (out, up) + şū (to give birth). Thus, vatsa = son, vatsara means son and year born from sun-its zone or period of rotation. (4) System of lunar year which is equalized with solar year by adding extra months after intervals. (5) The year which is followed by people. Sam+ vat+ sarati = moves accordingly. Thus, Jaina tradition calls anniversary as Samavasaraņa. All major social activities and festivals follow samvatsara-financial year, Educational session, agriculture cycle and all festivals. (6) Time measures of equal measure-Guru, Saptarşi, Dhruva or Krauñcha-samvatsaras. Thus, all texts of astronomy use Śālvāhana Śaka for calculation purpose, but all festivals are fixed as per Vikrama samvatsara.

49 Calendar of Brahmā It started in time of Svāyambhuva Manu (29102 BC) after Glacial floods of 31,200 BC. There are 2 references in Vedas-(1) Taittirīya Brāhmaņa (3/1/1/11,12) and Devī-bhāgavata puāņa (9/12/47, 9/1/46-48). The Rāsa in space is due to precession of earth axis in years. That period is called a manvantara in Brahmāņɖa purāņa (2/29/19). It starts from Kŗttikā (scissors) and ends with Viśākhā (2 branches). These stars are 2 points of intersection of equator and ecliptic-at first point they start like 2 branches of scissors and at opposite end 2 branches rejoin. In time of Svāyambhuva and years later at start of Kali-spring equinox (Vişuva sankrānti occurred in Kŗttikā star. However, in all periods, calculation of spherical triangle has to be done from first point of intersection. So, Taittirīya samhitā (4/4/10) tells-Kŗttikātah gaņanā, here gaņanā does not mean counting as assumed by S.B. Dixit, it means calculation. (2) Madhusudan Ojha in Chhandah-samīkśā has explained motion of sun from 24 degree north to south By chhandas. The same has been stated in Āvaraņa-vāda quoting Ŗgveda 1/164/1-3,12,13, 1/115/3, 7/63/2 Explained in verses Diagram at end is as per Atharva veda (8/5/19-20) Ŗgveda (10/130/4), Vāyu (Chap 2), Brahāņɖa (part 1, chap. 22) Vişņu (2/8-10) Karka rekhā Makara rekhā 24 0 N Jagatī 20 0 N Tri şţup 12 0 N Pankti 12 0 S Anu şţup 20 0 S U şņik 24 0 S G āyatrī 0 0 N B ŗhatī These are the lanes in which sun remains for 1 month each. The same calendar is described in Book of Enoch, chapter 4 in Ethipoean version of Old Testament. The lanes are further divided into 3 each, called Vīthi and nāɖī used for Melāpaka in astrology. This is followed in Vedānga jyotişa, also, where longest day length is double of night as letters in jagatī are double of gāyatrī. This was the original system of Brahmā in Taittirīya samhitā. Vivasvān revived Vedas which was called Āditya sampradāya, followed by Yājñavalkya later on. Earlier form was called Brahma- sampradāya. That was followed by Guru Nanak continued by his second son-Śrīchanda ji (Udāsīna- sampradāya. Brahmā is called Vahe-guru. Brahmā=Vah=Big. No. of letters in chhanda- G āyatrī 6x4, U şņik 7x4, Anu şţup 8x4, B ŗhatī 9x4, Pankti 10x4, Tri şţup 11x4 Jagatī 12x4

50 Kārttikeya Calendar Mahābhārata Udyoga parva, chapter 230, Verses 8-10 state that Abhijit Nakśatra had fallen (from pole position) and a new calendar was started by Kārttikeya in consultation with Brahmā as advised by Indra. In this system, year started with entry of sun in Dhanişţhā in stead of Abhijit. Earlier (in BC) at time of Kaśyapa Brahmā, Abhijit was the pole star, i.e. highest point from equator. Similarly, in diurnal motion, when sun is highest point from local horizon, it is called Abhijit muhūrtta. In Abhijit period (of Pole star) Brahmā was supreme, so lord of this star is Brahmā. From this period, rise of Devas started. 2 brother Asura kings Hiraŋya-kaśipu and Hiraŋyākśa were killed by Varāha and Nŗsimha incarnations of Vişŋu. 2 generations later, Vāmana took kingdom of 3 lokas (Russia, China and India) from Bali for Indra. Many Asuras were dissatisfied with deal by Bali and continued war. Compromised was by Kūrma who suggested co-operation for producing mineral wealth-which resulted in Samudra-manthana. Again war erupted over sharing and finally, Kārttikeya defeated Asuras convincingly by destroying Krauñcha mount (north America) by missile. Language of his navy (Mayūra =peacock) occupying pacific is still spread over all islands spread in largest region. After 17,500 BC entry of sun in Dhanişţhā star will be near summer solstice-to be exact in 15,800 BC. Then year started with month of Māgha which was start of south motion of sun (Dakśiŋāyana). That was continuation of system in Asura supremacy, merely starting point had been shifted. So, South motion of Sun is called Asura day in Sūrya-siddhānta. Since year started with Varşā (rains), it was called Varşa. After victory over Asuras, erected pillar in sea at Koŋārka and started Ratha-yātrā on Māgha-saptamī-that might be exact day of sun entry in Dhanişţhā star. Later on, in new calendar, when year started with entry of sun in Aśvinī star (Chaitra month),the ratha-yātrā shifted to start of rains in Āşāɖha śukla 2, which is first day of seeing moon in rains (Āşāɖhasya prathama divase meghamāślişţa sānuh-Meghadūta, 2). That was in time of Vikramāditya (82BC-19 AD) when Kālidāsa wrote his epics. System of Kaśyapa Brahmā and Kārttikeya continued in Vedānga jyotişa-where year is assumed to start from north motion of sun in 2983 BC. The Brahmā who was consulted by Kārttikeya was Apāntaratamā. He lived on banks of Godāvarī and had gone to Hariŋa-dvīpa (Magadaskar) for Tapa. His Brāhmī script of letters still continues with Kannada and Telugu in his region. Tamil by Kārttikeya is in Tamilnadu.

51 Vivasvān calendar Vivasvān means sun-He was one of the sons of Aditi-12 Ādityas are widespread in time. His son Vaivasvata was the last historic Manu. He started the calendar with month of Chaitra at time of spring equinox. Yuga system of years with ascending and descending periods was started by him, not by Brahmā, so time of Brahmā falls in initial Tretā and not Satya yuga. After Vaivasvata Manu- Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara - of ( =10800) years ended at start of Kali on B. Thus, his period was BC. Vivasvān himself may be in about BC. Solar dynasties are all over world-In Maya and Inca (Inah=sun), Japan, Ethiopea, Ezypt etc. Places of sun are points of start of time zones in ancient world-at interval of 1 Daŋɖa =24 minutes, compared to modern system of 30 minute intervals. Reference was from longitude of Lankā, at equator, whose time was called Ku-bera =earth time, as the time of current reference Greenwich is called. The same longitude passed through Ujjain at tropic of cancer then. 4 cardinal points at 90 0 intervals were marked by major structures-Pillar of Hercules at 90 0 west, Pyramid of Mexico west (or end of east as called in Vālmīki Rāmāyaŋa, Kişkindhā kāŋɖa, 40/54,64) called Siddhapura in Sūrya siddhānta, and under- Sea pyramid at Yama-koţi-pattana at 90 0 east. That is south west tip of New zealand, it is pair of islands, so called Yama-dvīpa, at same south latitude as Yama star. Koţi is end of land mass, pattana = port. Other places of sun are Stone-henge in UK (78 0 west), Hellespont 42 0 west, Lourdes (Rudreśa-east border of France)) 72 0 west, Kyoto (old capital of Japan) 60 0 east, Inca capital in Peru west. In India itself, Kālahastī (AP) and Lolārka (Varanasi) are 6 0 east, Puŋyārka (Punarakh) near Patna 9 0 east, Koŋārka (Orissa) at 12 0 east, Kālapriya and Mūlasthāna at 0 0 and 6 0 west, Puşkara (Bukhara in Uzbekistan) at 12 0 west (Vişŋu purāŋa 2/8/26). Astronomical yugas also are of Divya years (of 360 years), Divya year in history is solar year. Next Vyāsa after Vaivasvata Manu was Vaivasvata Yama (Jamshed of Zend-Avesta) in whose period glacial floods occurred for about 2000 years. They followed same system and are brothers in that sense. Political and social systems were destroyed. In addition, day length increased due to extra load of water at equator, which increases angular momentum. Due to that, calendar of Vaivasvata Manu developed errors. It was corrected in international conference at Romaka-pattana, 90 0 west, place of sun called Rabat (Morocco) or Konakry (New Guinee). It was presided by an astronomer of Maya (Mexico) called Maya-Asura. That was held when Alpa (131 years were left in Satya yuga, ending 4800 years after Vaivasvata Manu, i.e. in 9233 BC. That was after revival in Matsya incarnation (9533 BC) when Prabhava Guru year started in both systems-Pitāmaha, Sūrya (Vişŋu dharmottara purāŋa, chapter 68). After that eleventh Vyāsa Ŗşabhadeva had established new world order. Vaivasvata manu was years or 43 yugas after Svāyambhuva Manu and after 28 yuga=10600 years after him was system of Parāśara (Matsya purāŋa, chapter 173).

52 Mahābhārata calendar Āryabhaţa-2 in his Mahā-siddhānta (2/1-2) has stated that 2 systems were current at Mahābhārata time-Ārya mata and Parāśara mata. View of Parāśara was more popular. These were slightly after start of kali-yuga- तत्रादौ पराशरमतकथने कारणमाह-कलिसंज्ञे युगपादे पाराशर्य मतं प्रशस्तमतः । वक्ष्ये तदहं तन्मम मततुल्ये मध्यमानत्र ॥१॥ इदानीं सिद्धान्तद्वयस्य समयमाह-एतत्सिद्धान्तद्वयमीषद्याते कलौ युगे जातम् । स्वस्थाने दृक् तुल्या अनेन खेटाः स्फुटाः कार्याः ॥२॥. Āryabhaţa-1 himself tells in Āryabhaţīya, that he was 23 years of age when 6 cycles of 60 years passed in kali yuga- षष्ट्यब्दानां षड्भिर्यदा व्यीतास्त्रयश्चयुगपादाः। त्र्यधिका विंशतिरब्दास्तदेह मम जन्मनोऽतीताः॥३/१०॥ Thus was 23 years in kali 360 = 2742 BC, i.e. born in 327 Kali =2765 BC. This was in all old manuscripts, but such antiquity was not acceptable to British who forged it to 60 cycles of 60 years. Original verse was changed to षष्ट्यब्दानां षष्टिर्यदा व्यीतास्त्रयश्चयुगपादाः। He has not mentioned start of Kali itself, as it was near to is time and no other calendar had started. He has mentioned ‘prior to Bhārata’ interpreted as prior to leaving kingship by Yudhişţhira of Bharata family, at start of Kali. काहो मनवो ढ, मनुयुगाः श्ख, गतास्ते च, छ्ना च । कल्पादेर्युगपादा ग च, गुरुदिवसाच्च, भारतात्पूर्वम् ॥१/५॥ Period of Āryabhaţa in Kali is proved by the following- (1)Pāţaliputra was not existing, only the school called Kusumapura (like kindergarten=garden of flowers) existed. Place of observatory was Khagola, which is still a town near Patna. आर्यभटस्त्विह निगदति कुसुमपुरेऽभ्यर्चितं ज्ञानम् ॥२/१॥ (2) He has not referred to any other śaka except Kali, as none had started between kali and him. (3) He has been quoted by Varāhamihira in Pañcha-siddhāntikā twice who was born on BC (Yudhişţhira śaka 3042 Chaitra śukla 8). He is ancient source followed by Lāţa etc. (4) Āryabhaţa was follower of Pitāmaha-siddhānta (opening and last 2 verses) which was the oldest. (5) Number system of Āryabhaţa is not followed by any of text which were written much later. His 18 digit number system is also used in Mayan astronomy. Difference of is not axial rotation of earth. Earth is taken as fixed merely for calculation and all observations. Real difference is equal division of Kalpa in 14 Manvantaras and equal 4 parts of yugas also. Mahābhārata, śānti parva (301/46) mentions about lost (kśaya) years also which is not found in any of calendar systems now. That occurs only in Yājuşa jyotişa (Vedānga jyotişa by P.V. Holay, Nagpur, 1985) Parāśara mata was dominant because it was followed by Kuru kings. It is given in Vişŋu purāŋa (2/7-8) as teaching of Maitreya (follower of Vivasvāna) that system has been followed by Brahmagupta as claimed by him. That is essentially Sūrya-siddhānta method. Magadha was strong opponent and become dominant after Kali which appears to follow Ārya-mata, which was honored there as written by Āryabhaţa.

53 Main calenders 1.Svāyambhuva Manu BC- (26000 years or 71 yugas before kali-Brahmāŋɖa purāŋa-1/2/9/ yugas of 360 years each before Vaivasvata Manu, 71 yugas before Kali-Matsya purāŋa 273/76,77) 2. Dhruva death- 27,376 BC-Dhruva samvatsara starts with him as per Bhāgavata purāŋa. 3 Dhruva samvatsara of 8100 years each passed till tart of Laukika era in 3076 BC. 3. Kaśyapa BC approx., King Pŗthu BC-Approx. 4 Kārttikeya-15,800 BC-Approx. 5. Vaivasvata Manu -13,902 BC. 6. Maya Calender-9,233 BC at Romaka Pattana-90 deg. West of Ujjain. 7. Ikśvāku BC –Tamil tradition-Makara sankrānti day. 8. Paraśurāma-Kalamba samvat (Kadamba is north pole of ecliptic, kalamba is down point and means anchor of ship or port (e.g. Colombo). Kollam samvat is current in Kerala only and started with 824 AD Vişuva smkrānti by omitting years in 1000’s. Thus Kalamba started after death of Paraśurāma in 6177 BC-(1) He was in 19th Tretā, (2) He was at least 9 generations before Rāma in time of king Mūlaka. (3) He had set up 21 republics-Megasthens gives its period as 120 years. Birth of may be years before that in 6332 BC. 9. Rāma was born on BC as per planet position in Vālmīki Rāmāyaŋa, Bāla kāŋɖa. But no era in his name. 10. Yudhişţhira period may be using Kalamba era as Paraśurāma is frequently mentioned. 4 eras started in his time- (a) Yudhişţhira-śaka-starts with his coronation on BC-5 days after Bhīşma expired on 22 December on start on north motion of sun. (b) Kali era started 36 years after that on 17/ BC Ujjain midnight when ŚrīKŗşŋa expired h/m/s after that Chaitra śukla 1 started. (c) 6 months 11 days (188 days) after that on BC, Jaya samvatsara started when Yudhişţhira left for Abhyudaya, so it is called Jayābhyudaya-śaka used by Janamejaya in 2 land grants of Kedaranath and Muni- Brindaraka on Tungabhadra bank in 89 year on Dipavali day. (d) Yudhişţhira expired in kali year 25 when Laukika era started in Kashmir in 3076 C on Meşa-samkrānti. 11. Bhaţābda of Āryabhaţa is used by some in Kerala (birth in 327 Kali, or death ?). Buddha nirvāŋa on BC. Kuazad era in Tamil started just before him-may be from his birth. Mahāvīra was born on BC, but Vīra samvat starts in 527 BC on death of Kālakāchārya of Ujjain, guru of Kumārila Bhaţţa. 12. Śūdraka or Mālava-gaŋa samvat in 756 BC. Śākambharī śaka in 612 BC (Bŗhat samhitā 13/3), Śrī-Harşa śaka in 456 BC (Albiruni). This has been called 300 years of democracy by Megasthenes. 13. Vikrama-samvat-By Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain (82 BC-19 AD) on Chatra śukla 1, at Paśupatinātha, and on Kārttika śukla 1, at Somanātha. Month started with dark half. 14. Śālivāhana śaka in 78 AD from meşa-samkrānti. He was grand son of Vikramāditya.

54 Foreign calendars 1.Enoch-Book of Enoch-Ethipoean version of Old testament of Bible, Book 3:Astronomy, chapters Chap.72-motion in 6 portals-changes of day length in each portal-these are 3 lanes on each side of equator. Chap 74-4 quarters of 91 days each-1 year of 364 days. Last day appears to be year end leave, making 365 days in 1 year. Genesis 5/21-Enoch lived for 365 years. 2.Egypt-It had 12 months of 30 days each and 5 days added at end. Year started in month of Thoth, with Heliacal rising of star Sirius (called Thoth). In cycle of 1460 years, 1 year was excess. 3. Sumerian-Luni solar calendar with year of 354, 355, 383, 384 days. Extra months were added I two ways- Octateris-8 tropical year= days, 99 lunar months= days From 383 BC-19 solar years = days, 235 lunar months= days. 4. Jewish era-from 7/ BC (midnight between Sunday-Monday) at 11hr11 1/3 mts. In AD 71, Jew State was destroyed in Anno Mundi Iranian-(a) Darius (520 BC)-12 solar months of 365 days. Month of 30 days added after 120 years. (b) Tarikh-i-Jelali by Seljuq Sultan Jelal Uddin Melik in extra days in 33 years of 365 days. (c) Pahlavi-by Riza Shah Pahlavi in 1920-Solar calendar with old Persian names. 6. Nabu Nazir era of Babylon (Assyria) in 747 BC-Its rise was countered by Śūdraka in 756 BC. 7. Seleucideanin 312 BC-Luni solar by Greek copying of Sumerians. 8.Julian-calender of norh Europe was of 10 months of 304 days, as 2 months were frozen periods. Numa Pompius added 2 months in 673 BC-making year of 355 days. January began the year-janus was double faced like Punarvasu, ruled by Aditi-Aditirjātam Aditirjanitvam (śānti-pāţha). 13th month Mercedonius of 22 or 23 days was between february-march after 2 or 3 years. After contact with Ezypt, Julius Caesar introduced calendar in 46 BC. He directed new year to start with north motion of sun, but people started it after 7 days on BC when Pauşa mnth of Vikrama samvat 11 started. That is only calendar in which month starts with dark half. Planned start of year fell on 25 December called Christmas (kŗşŋa-māsa-longest nights). 9. Islamic-It was originally a luni-solar calendar started on AD with start of Vikrama samvat and intercalary months were added at end by astronomer family called Qalamma when needed to make it equal to solar year. Accordingly, Hajj was decided. Till death of Prophet Mohammad in 632 AD, 3 extra months were added. Thereafter, the system stopped as there was nobody to enforce it. Month names are in 6 pairs like 6 Vedic seasons of 2 months each. Now it is assumed that Hezira was started on AD by forgetting 3 extra months in beginning. 10. Gregorian- In 1752, Julian calendar was revised in Britain with 1 leap year in 4 years as before but not in Century years unless divisible by days were omitted by making 3rd September as 14th.

55 Other Calendars 1.Anka system-This is used to count years from rule of kings, now used only in Orissa. Years are not counted from coronation but from Vāmana dwādaśī, when Indra became king of 3 lokas. There are 2 systems-in one system, all years are counted. In other system, year numbers ending with 6 and 0 are omitted. That might have been followed in purāŋas, causing different figures of rule by same king. Another reason is that rule of many thousand years has 2 meanings-(a) day is called year, (2) sahasra means 1000 or approximate. 2. Vīra-nirvāŋa-It is actually date of death of Kālakāchārya in 527 BC and starts with Kārttika Ś Kalachuri or Chedi-Āśvina Śukla 1 in 248 AD. 4. Valabhi bhanga-318 AD Kārttika Ś. 1, when later Guptas in Valabhi were routed. 5. Bengali San-April 14, 1361 AD. 6. Vilayati San -From AD. 7. Amali san-From AD 8. Newar-in Nepal, from 879 AD, Kārttika Ś Lakśmaŋa Sena 1104-im Mithilā from Kārttika Ś Simha-by Siddharāja Jaisimha in Gujrat in 1113 AD from Āśāɖa Ś Tārikh Ilāhi in 1555 AD by Akbar from vernal equinox. 12. Rāja Śaka -by Śivājī in 1673 from Jyeşţha Śukla 13-Amānta months. 13. Kapilendra Śaka in Orissa starting with rule of Kapilendra Deva in 1426 AD starting with vernal equinox. To explain the rules, Kapilendra Bhāsvatī was written on pattern of original (Pañcha-siddhāntika) Bhāsvatī of Śatānanda (1099 AD). Actually, Kapilendra deva had ruled from 1435 AD, but his Ankas are counted from 1426 AD

56 Modern Cosmology 1. PCP-Perfect Cosmological Principle-It is basic assumption of all theories that the Universe as a whole is homogeneous, isotropic and steady-i.e. same in all places, all directions and all times. The feature with these 3 “Satyas” is called “Satya Loka”. Tri-satya has other meanings also-(a) Nāma, rūpa, guŋa=name, form, actions. (b) 3 modes of truth in verbal logic-yes, no, may be. By combination of these 3, there are 7 fold truths. (c) Similarly, combination of Bhū, Bhuvar, Svah-gives 7 lokas. This is first sentence of Veda (Atharva) ये त्रिषप्ताः परियन्ति विश्वाः । It is also in Puruşa-sūkta- सप्तास्यासन्परिधयः त्रिसप्त समिधः कृताः । Accordingly, Kŗşņa himself has been prayed as 3-satyas and 7 more satyas- सत्यव्रतं सत्यपरं त्रिसत्यं, सत्यस्य योनिं निहितं च सत्ये। सत्यस्य सत्यं ऋत-सत्य नेत्रं, सत्यात्मकं त्वां शरणं प्रपद्ये ॥ (भागवत पुराण,१०/२/२६) 2. Universe is not seen uniform, but James Jeans explained in “Mysterious Universe”-1931 that at level of 1000 galaxies, it is uniform. However, recent researches indicate that it is not uniform even at largest scales. Ultimate source of Universe might have been uniform, but it is nowhere seen in created Universe. Thus, no theory based on these assumptions can explain real universe. 3. There is no experimental verification of any theory in astronomy. All mathematical equations and models are conjectures only. 4.In 1931, it was proved by Godel that no mathematical theory can be complete and consistent both. It was expanded by Cohen in But, All scientists starting with Einstein had craze of Unified Field Theory. Mahesh Yogi also came up with his Unified theory on Vedic concepts. That has resulted in proliferation of theories. Vedas are blamed that their meaning is uncertain. But all human languages are based on physical observations. Similar meaning is assigned to words for cosmic and internal systems. If we analyze text as per cosmic, physical and internal meanings-there is no ambiguity. Currently, there are more than 22 Cosmological theories-none of them explains real universe. 5. We are uncertain about number of dimensions of world. Laplace in his nebular hypothesis assumed 3 dimensional space. Einstein added time to form 4-dimensional space-time-continuum. Before him, Mach made many models of Universe and its observed aspect. There were Thermo-dynamic models by Maxwell and Willard Gibbs. General theory of Relativity (GTR) by Einstein resulted in unstable expanding Universe. To counter that, he inserted an arbitrary constant. But real Universe was explained by 3 models Omitting that constant. Theories of 5, 6, 9, dimensions were also developed. 6. Nature of dimensions is not clear. 2 of 10 dimensions are called-Time-like. Some are local and some infinite. 7. Salam, Weinburg etc. developed theories of splitting of 4 fundamental forces from single one, parity aspect and creation of varieties of atomic particles. 8. Ultimate source was assumed primordial strings of meter, but next levels are missing and nature of quarks is not clear. 5 types of 10 dimensional string theories were modified by M-string theory-all are guess.

57 Vedic Cosmology Now we can realize solution of these problems by Vedic model. God as ultimate source of matter, energy or consciousness is one, but it is beyond description. Visible created Universe has variety and can be describe, but description can not be single. No object has any geometrical shape. All stars and planets are assumes spherical, but that is approximate only. Orbits are elliptical with several corrections. Finally all are discrete objects, but mathematical equations are continuous. Vedas do not indicate any Unified theory as assumed by Mahesh Yogi- (1)There are opposite pairs of matters and processes-(a) Agni-soma, (b) Puruşa-Prakŗti, (c) Rasa-Bala, (d) Sañchara –Pratisañchara, (e)Jīva-Māyā (f) Śiva-Śakti etc. (2) World is created by action of 3 Guņas. Their combination is of 8 types called 8 Prakŗtis -so there are 8 alternative theories of Vedānta though it was for unification of diverse sūktas by different Ŗşis in different periods-(a) Śankara, (b) Nimbārka, (c) Rāmānuja, (d) Madhva, (e) Vallabha, (f) Abhinava- Gupta, (g) Chaitanya, (h)Tantrāgama (3) There are 6 darśanas to explain Vedic theories. (4)Veda itself has many types of texts-(a) samhitā-collection of mantras, (b) Brāhmaņa, (c) Purāņa, (d) Āgama, etc. (5) Four types of samhitā-Ŗk, Yajur, Sāma, Atharva. (6) 4 types of Puruşa-Kśara Akśara, Avyaya, Parātpara. The last is beyond description. (7) Nāsadīya-sūkta describes 10 alternate theories and still tells that ultimate source is uncertain. Definitely, no single theory can explain Vedas or the world. There has to be a combination of theories. How many are needed. At least 2 are needed- (1)Puruşa theory explains sequence of puras (structures) at micro and mega levels. (2) Śrī theory explains field theory about continuous description of space. That is 10 dimensional, but lesser dimensions are sufficient for many purposes. (3) There is a Yajña theory of transformation called creation. It also explains nature of various times. It is doubtful whether this is independent or it can be derived from the earlier 2 theories.

58 Puruşa Theory Pura is a structure within boundary called Chhanda. The whole world is collection of structures and is a Puruşa. Man itself is a Puruşa being image of world in sense that human brain has the same number of cells as number of stars in our galaxy. Those structures are called Viśva which are complete, closed, and independent. Higher Viśvas (world levels) are successively 10 7 times bigger- Man-earth-solar system-galaxy-Universe=5 levels Lower worlds are successively 10 5 times smaller- (1)Cell- (2) atom- (3) nucleus- (4) particles-(5) Deva-dānava, (6) Pitara (7) Ŗşi Thus, there is a cross symmetry-when levels are 5, internal ratio is 7, when levels are 7, ratio is 5- Levels Inner Ratio 5 Gross 7 (power of 10) 7 Micro 5 (power of 10) Since it is with base 10, Universe should be of 10 dimensions. In no theory of modern cosmology, there is relation between any gross or micro structure. They explain only the average features. Similarly, size of micro-levels up to nucleus only are defined-levels below that are smaller than the measuring rod which is wavelength of light. Levels below atomic particles are not known. There are more than 100 types of atomic particles in 3 groups-Lepton (light), baryon (heavy) and Meson (link). These have been called –Chara, sthāņu, and Anupūrva. Level below particle (jagat) is Deva-dānava. Devas are 33 and Dānavas are 99. Creation is from Devas only, so created world is only one-fourth (Puruşa-sūkta, 3,4). Pitar is smaller level and may be prototype for creating higher levels. Smallest level is Ŗşi whose length of meters is called smallest length in modern Quantum Mechanics, called Planck’s Length. Strings (Ŗşi =rassi in hindi) of that length are taken as ultimate source in all String Theories. In higher levels, sphere of Moon orbit also is a world level as it is cause of life forms on earth. Including that, there are 5 bigger worlds, 6 is man and 7 smaller worlds-a total of 13, So the number 13 itself is indicated by ‘Viśva’ in astronomy. Viśva is a complete visible structure, Jagat is the invisible action and life in that. Jagat is of 14 levels called 14 Bhūta-sargas. These are 8 higher, called Sattva. These are average Prāņa levels of each loka and one is common for all, called Brahma. Man is intermediate. Tamo-viśāla are 5-3 types of animals of earth, water, air. Plants are semi-conscious, soil is hidden conscious.

59 Śrī Theory It was evident from Puruşa theory itself that Universe should be of 10 dimensions. That is indicated By 10 Mahāvidyā, 10 Gurus (Sikh religion), 10 commandments (Bible) and same words for number 10, State and directions-Daśa, Daśā, Diśā. Śānti-pāţha also is 10 fold- द्यौः शान्तिरन्तरिक्षं शान्तिः पृथिवी शान्तिरापः शान्तिरोषधयः शान्तिः । वनस्पतयः शान्तिर्विश्वेदेवाः शान्तिर्ब्रह्म शान्तिः सर्वं शान्तिः शान्तिरेव शान्तिः सामा शान्तिरेधि ॥ (वा.यजुर्वेद ३६/१७) 10 dimensions are in many ways-(a) Combination of 3 Guŋas, say-a,b,c, in 10 ways-a,b,c,ab,ac,bc,abc. (b) 5 tanmātrās (mātrā =measures) of Prakŗti in distinct (countable= Gaŋeśa) and 5 in indistinct ways (abstract, non-countable=Sarasvatī). (c) 3 Steps of Vişŋu in 3 ways-(i) Linear measure (pada) of space, (ii) Boundary of space, (iii) Field of Influence (Vikrama), and (iv) Undisturbed original-Rasa. Nature and names of dimensions are- (1) 0 dimension is point space called Chit. In every such space, something can be felt which is sat, and universal ānanda. This is same as dimension 10 called Rasa or Ānanda. (2) Dimension 1 is line-pada, rekhā, measured in yojana, ahargaŋa. (3) 2-Surface-Pŗşţha, (4) 3-Volume-Stoma, āyatana, āyu. (5) 4-Matter-Anna, Brahmā, measured in Aśīti chhandas. (6) 5-Kāla-Perception of change is Śiva. It is 3 types-Nitya-steady decay, janya-cyclic change, Akśaya- conserved. (7) 6- Chayana-ordering in space-Vişŋu, (8) 7-Ŗşi-it is link between any 2 objects by 4 basic forces, (9) 8-Nāga-It is limiting an object in curved surface. (10) 9-Randhra-Deficit of any matter or energy at a place is cause of change. For different purposes, 5 to 10 dimensions are sufficient, so there are 6 Darśana (Philosophy) and 6 Darśa-Vāk (scripts). Mechanical world described by Physics is 5 dimensional in the sense that 5 basic units are needed for measurement (5 Mā chhandas). Next are 6 levels of consciousness. It is called Chetanā as it does Chayana=ordering. Ordering in space is dimension 6, Link among them is 7, curved boundary is 8, and difference of density is 9. Finally, unique original source is dimension scripts are-(1) 5x5-elements of Sānkhya-Roman script, Avakahaɖā chakra, (2) 6x6 elements of Śaiva- Latin, Arabic, Russian, Gurumukhi. (3) 7x7 Maruts-Devanāgarī, (4) 8x8-Kalā-Brāhmī, (5) (8+9) 2 letters in Vijñāna-vāk of Vedas-36x3 vowels, 36x5 consonants and one unclassified ॐ. (6) 10 3 to 10 4 letters in Chinese beyond Vyoma =Tibet. These divisions of Vāk are indicated in Ŗgveda (1/164/25)- गौरीर्मिमाय सलिलानि तक्षत्येकपदी सा द्विपदी चतुष्पदी अष्टापदी नवपदी सा बुभूवुषी सहस्राक्षरा परमे व्योमन् ॥

60 Yajña Theory Yajña in space is creation of 5 levels of world-(1) Svāyambhuva (=Self created, Universe), (2) Parameşţhī (=Largest brick, Galaxy), (3) Saura (Solar system), (4) Chāndra (Sphere containing moon orbit), (5) Pŗthivī (Earth planet). This chain of creation is reverse tree (Gītā 15/1). This chain remains constant called Avyaya Aśvattha or Avyaya Puruşa. Individual structures are enclosed in a boundary and are always decaying. They are Kśara Puruşa. Despite decay they have same hidden identity (Kūţastha) and function till they remain-it is Akśara Puruşa. Formless homogeneous source is Parātpara. As there are 5 levels of creation in space, there are 5 daily rituals and active Brahma (Ka) has 5 forms symbolized by 5 Kakāras in Sikhism. Rudra-yāmala gives 5 daily rituals, same as 5 daily namāja in Islam. There are 5 mahā-yajña (Manusmŗti 3/70) in daily routine-1.Brahma-yajña = study, 2. Pitŗ-yajña =paying back source (predecessors, society, surroundings), 3. Diava-yajña=Strengthening external and internal Prāŋas whose energy is used by us, 4. Bhūta-yajña = Feeding animals and others helping us, 5. Nŗ-yajña = Serving guests etc. Taittirīya upanişad (1/7/1) tells that yajña is 5x5. Brahma-sūtra calls it Pañchī-karaŋa. These 5x5 are- 1.Pŗthivī, antarikśa, dyau, diśā, avāntara-diśā, 2. Agni, vāyu, āditya, chandramā, nakśatra. 3. Āp, Oşadhi, vanaspati, ākāśa, ātmā, -These 3 are Adhibhūta group. 3 Adhyātma groups are-4. Prāŋa, vyāna, apāna, udāna, samāna, 5. Chakśu, śrotra, mana, vāk, tvak, 6. Charma, mānsa, snāva, asthi, majjā. From first 3x5, second 3x5 are fulfilled. Aitareya Brāhmaŋa (1/5) indicates 5x5 classification of yajña- 1. Anna-pankti-1. Pāka- yajña (guhya=hidden), 2. Işţi, 3. Paśu, 4. Soma (2-4 are Vitāna=spread, sutyā), 5. Agni-Chayana- yajña or Chityā. 2. Haviş-pankti-1. Dhāna, 2. Karambha, 3. Parivāpa, 4. Puroɖāśa, 5. Payasya. 3. Akśara-pankti-1. Su=ānanda, 2. Mat=mana, 3. Pat = Vijñāna, 4. Vak =Vāk, 5. De = Prāŋa. 4. Narāśansa-pankti-(use of residue product)-1. Prātah-savana-2 narāśansa, 2. Mādhyandina savana- 2 N, 3. Sāyam-savana-2N=total 5 Narāśansa. 5. Savana pankti-1. Upavasatha Paśu (Agni-somīya paśu), 2. Prātah-savana, 3. Mādhyandina savana, 4. Sāyam-savana, 5. Anubndhyā Paśu (controlled by Maitrā-Varuŋa) These classifications are as per-1. Available materials, 2. Process of consumption, 3. Completion of desires, 4. Consumption of products, 5. Times of using men and materials.


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