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Ch 1 and 2 Review Ancient River Valley Civilizations.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 1 and 2 Review Ancient River Valley Civilizations."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ch 1 and 2 Review Ancient River Valley Civilizations

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4 PREHISTORY PERIOD IN WHICH OUR ANCESTORS EXISTED ON EARTH BUT HAD NOT YET INVENTED WRITING OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THEM COMES FROM SCATTERED AND SCARCE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE BECAUSE OF LACK OF WRITTEN EVIDENCE WE CAN ONLY SPECULATE ON WHAT THEY THOUGHT ABOUT, HOW THEY ORGANIZED THEMSELVES, HOW THEY INTER-RELATED WITH EACH OTHER, AND WHY AND HOW THEY BEHAVED THE WAY THEY DID

5 Ancient History As Humans scattered out and populated Earth, they did so as small hunter/gatherer bands. Then, about 10k years ago, that changed. People discovered agriculture— the systematic planting of food crops and domestication of animals.

6 The First Agricultural Revolution Occurred at around the same time in five different locations: Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China and Mesoamerica

7 The Neolithic Revolution What was it? – 8000 – 3500 BCE Why did it happen? Dwindling game? Why was it such a big deal?

8 More Food = More People Agriculture led to permanent settlements (usually along rivers/lakes) and increased population. More people living in smaller spaces means greater opportunity for conflict and growth. Growth= language, religion, society Conflict= crime, disease, disorder Cultural Diffusion

9 Evolution of Civilization Key Traits of a Civilization: A.Growth of cities B.Specialization C.Written Language D.Advanced Technology E.Complex Institutions

10 Growth of Cities (Urbanization) 1)Large urban areas 2)Centers for trade and commerce

11 Specialization (Skilled Labor) 1)Skilled Workers, called artisans 2)Trade amongst artisans for goods

12 Written Language Transitions human history from Prehistory to History

13 Advanced Technology Wheel Plow Sailboat metalworking

14 Complex Institutions 1)Government 2)Organized religion 3)schools

15 Ancient Mesopotamia “Land between the Rivers” I.Sumer—southern Fertile Crescent (4k-2k BC) I.Loess—fertile windblown soil A.Civilization of city-states bound together by a common culture 1) Sumerians believed to have migrated to the region from Persia/central Asia prior to 5000 BC

16 The Ancient Fertile Crescent Area The Middle East: “The Cradle of Civilization”

17 A Hostile Land B. Geography 1) Water—unpredictable flooding/drought (too much or not enough)

18 Hostile Neighbors 2) Defense problems—open, flat land w/no natural barriers for protection

19 Scarcity of Resources 3) Resources—limited natural resources in the region Lack of forests = no wood Few mineral/metal resources Dirt, rock and sand in abundance

20 Perseverance C. Solutions Water---irrigation systems Defense—walled cities and standing armies Resources—broad trading networks with other regions

21 Enter the Supernatural D. Religion polytheism—multiple gods based on nature; classes and rankings of gods (Anu, Enlil and Ea) Human qualities and emotions Interference into human lives— hostile/care Afterlife—”Land of No Return”; no joy or emotion, bleak dismal

22 The Ziggurat

23 Ziggurat at Ur  One of the earliest cities  Temple  “Mountain of the Gods”  One of the earliest cities  Temple  “Mountain of the Gods”

24 Evolution of Religion in Sumer Ruling society of kings and priests a)Earliest society ruled by priests (Theocracy) b)In times of war, priest turned over power to military leader c)As wars became more commonplace, turned to military leadership more often d)Evolved into a king who was military leader/religious leader

25 Sumerian Religion - Polytheistic Enki Innana Anthropomorphic Gods

26 The First Empires After the fall of Sumer, a series of foreign invasions swept the region * empire-- political unit in which a number of peoples are controlled by single ruler

27 The Amorites Another Semitic group from eastern Syria, the Amorites, conquer the region Conquered the Sumerian city-states to the south Established capital at Babylon Greatest expansion and growth under King Hammurabi

28 King and Lawgiver Strong leader who united most of Mesopotamia Growth of trade and agriculture Hammurabi is most famous for his written code of laws-- 282 sections with laws from around the region—created a type of equity of law Specific laws with harsh punishments kept harmony

29 Babylonian Society Similar class system to Sumer with laws/punishments differing for each class Borrowed heavily from Sumerian culture and adopted cuneiform to their Semitic language

30 Collapse of Babylon After Hammurabi’s death, empire collapsed Successors unable to keep empire together Hittite invasion destroyed Babylon

31 Mesopotamian Trade (Cultural Diffusion) Mesopotamian Trade (Cultural Diffusion) “The Cuneiform World”

32 Cuneiform Writing

33 Deciphering Cuneiform

34 The Egyptians Kemet (Black Land) of the Nile River Valley 5000 BC, nomads began settling along the Nile Farming villages that grew wheat and barley Series of tribal kingdoms develop

35 The Two Kingdoms Early Egypt divided into north and south Lower Egypt in the north where Nile empties into Mediterranean Upper Egypt in the south bordering Ethiopia Narmer (Menes), king of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt around 3000 BC w/capital at Memphis

36 Ahmose was the first ruler of the New Kingdom, first to use the title pharaoh (great house of the king) Ahmose rebuilt Egypt to even greater glory

37 The Woman Pharaoh Around 1480 BC, Hatshepsut came to power when her husband Thutmose II (her half brother) died. Her stepson (born to Thutmose II and a harem girl) was too young to rule She became Regent of Egypt

38 Hatshepsut About 7 years into her regency, she proclaimed herself pharaoh and wore men’s clothing and the false beard Why? Now believe there were several coup attempts against her and her stepson Had to take on the persona of a male pharaoh to gain legitimacy and acceptance

39 Egyptian Culture and Society Similar to Sumer: a)Upper class—nobility and priests b)Middle class—artisans, merchants, scribes c)Lower class—farmers and laborers d)slaves

40 Religion Polytheistic Greater focus on afterlife Idea of god/king Religion evolved over time to include afterlife for all people Originally only royalty and nobility had an afterlife, but by the New Kingdom the concept was universal

41 Hieroglyphics Writing with pictures Also hieratic for day-to-day transactions (simplified version) Scribes Papyrus paper

42 Ancient Civilizations: China and India

43 The Indus River Valley/ Harappa Located in ancient India Located in ancient India People were the Harappans People were the Harappans At their height around 2500BC At their height around 2500BC Not much is known about them; by 2000BC they were in decline Not much is known about them; by 2000BC they were in decline We cannot decipher the writing they left behind We cannot decipher the writing they left behind

44 Mohenjo Daro and Harappa Built great cities Built great cities – highly organized plan – laid out in a grid system Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were the major cities; each had pop. of about 40,000. Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were the major cities; each had pop. of about 40,000. – Advanced technology & engineering – Indoor plumbing, bathrooms, underground sewage Aryans Aryans – From north – move into the area their religious beliefs blend with the Indus cities to form the basis for the Hindu religion – Brought Vedas and Sanskrit language

45 The Huang He /China Civilizations developed along 3 rivers in China Civilizations developed along 3 rivers in China By about 2205BC, The Huang He civilization dominated By about 2205BC, The Huang He civilization dominated Huang He; “Yellow River” Huang He; “Yellow River” – gets its name from the yellow soil of the region: loess – Yearly flooding can be very destructive; “China’s sorrow” – Most of China’s pop. is in this area The Huang He was the most isolated of the early civilizations The Huang He was the most isolated of the early civilizations China has the longest continuous civilization in the world China has the longest continuous civilization in the world

46 Huang He Civilization Most isolated of the river valleys Xia (shah) Dynasty – first, legendary dynasty Shang Dynasty (1766-1122 BCE) – First to unify China – first to leave written records – bronze metallurgy – Central rule to oversee irrigation and flood control – Walled citied, elaborate palaces and tombs – Writing: Oracle Bones Written on bone and used to foretell future

47 Zhou Dynasty 1028 BCE - 221 BCE – Beat the Shang Dynasty claiming the Zhou had heaven’s approval to rule China; the “Mandate of Heaven” – Nobles owned large pieces of land and peasants worked the land – Relatives of the royal family were appointed governor’s of city- states Each of these lords raised his own army This works at first, but eventually the begin to fight among themselves

48 Chinese Dynasties (ruling families) Shang Dynasty is first to unite China Shang Dynasty is first to unite China Zhou Dynasty Zhou Dynasty – During the Zhou Dynasty- 1027-256 BC war among rivals but also economic growth – traded with silk, jade and porcelain The last 200 years of the Zhou is known as the “Era of Warring States” The last 200 years of the Zhou is known as the “Era of Warring States” Both Confucius and Laozi were alive during the Zhou Dynasty (but their philosophies did not become popular until later) Both Confucius and Laozi were alive during the Zhou Dynasty (but their philosophies did not become popular until later)

49 Qin Dynasty Eventually China is united under the warlike Qin Dynasty 221BC – This empire gives China its name – First Emperor: Qin Shi Huangdi reorganized the government reorganized the government Standardized money, weights & measures Standardized money, weights & measures Burnt books containing different ideas Burnt books containing different ideas Began The Great Wall of China to keep out hostile neighbors to the north (214-208 BC) Began The Great Wall of China to keep out hostile neighbors to the north (214-208 BC) Built extensive roads and canals Built extensive roads and canals Major achievements: Major achievements: – Gunpowder – Moveable type and paper


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