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Ch 1 and 2 Review Ancient River Valley Civilizations

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 1 and 2 Review Ancient River Valley Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 1 and 2 Review Ancient River Valley Civilizations

2 The Ancient Middle East


4 Then, about 10k years ago, that changed.
Ancient History As Humans scattered out and populated Earth, they did so as small hunter/gatherer bands. Then, about 10k years ago, that changed. People discovered agriculture—the systematic planting of food crops and domestication of animals.

5 The First Agricultural Revolution
Occurred at around the same time in five different locations: Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China and Mesoamerica

6 The Neolithic Revolution
What was it? 8000 – 3500 BCE Why did it happen? Dwindling game? Why was it such a big deal? What was the Neolithic Revolution Learn to master domestication of both anomals and food which = food surpulses and population growth Why was it such a big deal It spurred the necessity for invention and caused settlements Growth of these settlements led to improvements in housing

7 More Food = More People Agriculture led to permanent settlements (usually along rivers/lakes) and increased population. More people living in smaller spaces means greater opportunity for conflict and growth. Growth= language, religion, society Conflict= crime, disease, disorder Cultural Diffusion

8 Evolution of Civilization
Key Traits of a Civilization: Growth of cities Specialization Written Language Advanced Technology Complex Institutions

9 Growth of Cities (Urbanization)
Large urban areas Centers for trade and commerce

10 Specialization (Skilled Labor)
Skilled Workers, called artisans Trade amongst artisans for goods

11 Written Language Transitions human history from Prehistory to History

12 Advanced Technology Wheel Plow Sailboat metalworking

13 Complex Institutions Government Organized religion schools

14 Ancient Mesopotamia “Land between the Rivers”
Sumer—southern Fertile Crescent (4k-2k BC) Loess—fertile windblown soil Civilization of city-states bound together by a common culture 1) Sumerians believed to have migrated to the region from Persia/central Asia prior to 5000 BC

15 The Ancient Fertile Crescent Area
The Middle East: “The Cradle of Civilization”

16 A Hostile Land B. Geography
1) Water—unpredictable flooding/drought (too much or not enough)

17 Hostile Neighbors 2) Defense problems—open, flat land w/no natural barriers for protection

18 Scarcity of Resources 3) Resources—limited natural resources in the region Lack of forests = no wood Few mineral/metal resources Dirt, rock and sand in abundance

19 Perseverance C. Solutions Water---irrigation systems
Defense—walled cities and standing armies Resources—broad trading networks with other regions

20 Enter the Supernatural
D. Religion polytheism—multiple gods based on nature; classes and rankings of gods (Anu, Enlil and Ea) Human qualities and emotions Interference into human lives—hostile/care Afterlife—”Land of No Return”; no joy or emotion, bleak dismal

21 The Ziggurat

22 Ziggurat at Ur One of the earliest cities Temple
“Mountain of the Gods”

23 Evolution of Religion in Sumer
Ruling society of kings and priests Earliest society ruled by priests (Theocracy) In times of war, priest turned over power to military leader As wars became more commonplace, turned to military leadership more often Evolved into a king who was military leader/religious leader

24 Sumerian Religion - Polytheistic
Enki Innana Anthropomorphic Gods

25 The First Empires After the fall of Sumer, a series of foreign invasions swept the region * empire--political unit in which a number of peoples are controlled by single ruler

26 The Amorites Another Semitic group from eastern Syria, the Amorites, conquer the region Conquered the Sumerian city-states to the south Established capital at Babylon Greatest expansion and growth under King Hammurabi

27 King and Lawgiver Strong leader who united most of Mesopotamia
Growth of trade and agriculture Hammurabi is most famous for his written code of laws sections with laws from around the region—created a type of equity of law Specific laws with harsh punishments kept harmony

28 Babylonian Society Similar class system to Sumer with laws/punishments differing for each class Borrowed heavily from Sumerian culture and adopted cuneiform to their Semitic language

29 Collapse of Babylon After Hammurabi’s death, empire collapsed
Successors unable to keep empire together Hittite invasion destroyed Babylon

30 Mesopotamian Trade (Cultural Diffusion) “The Cuneiform World”

31 Cuneiform Writing

32 Deciphering Cuneiform

33 The Egyptians Kemet (Black Land) of the Nile River Valley
5000 BC, nomads began settling along the Nile Farming villages that grew wheat and barley Series of tribal kingdoms develop

34 The Two Kingdoms Early Egypt divided into north and south
Lower Egypt in the north where Nile empties into Mediterranean Upper Egypt in the south bordering Ethiopia Narmer (Menes), king of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt around 3000 BC w/capital at Memphis

35 Ahmose was the first ruler of the New Kingdom, first to use the title pharaoh (great house of the king) Ahmose rebuilt Egypt to even greater glory

36 The Woman Pharaoh Around 1480 BC, Hatshepsut came to power when her husband Thutmose II (her half brother) died. Her stepson (born to Thutmose II and a harem girl) was too young to rule She became Regent of Egypt

37 Hatshepsut About 7 years into her regency, she proclaimed herself pharaoh and wore men’s clothing and the false beard Why? Now believe there were several coup attempts against her and her stepson Had to take on the persona of a male pharaoh to gain legitimacy and acceptance

38 Egyptian Culture and Society
Similar to Sumer: Upper class—nobility and priests Middle class—artisans, merchants, scribes Lower class—farmers and laborers slaves

39 Religion Polytheistic Greater focus on afterlife Idea of god/king
Religion evolved over time to include afterlife for all people Originally only royalty and nobility had an afterlife, but by the New Kingdom the concept was universal

40 Hieroglyphics Writing with pictures
Also hieratic for day-to-day transactions (simplified version) Scribes Papyrus paper

41 Ancient Civilizations:
China and India

42 The Indus River Valley/ Harappa
Located in ancient India People were the Harappans At their height around 2500BC Not much is known about them; by 2000BC they were in decline We cannot decipher the writing they left behind

43 Mohenjo Daro and Harappa
Built great cities highly organized plan laid out in a grid system Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were the major cities; each had pop. of about 40,000. Advanced technology & engineering Indoor plumbing, bathrooms, underground sewage Aryans From north move into the area their religious beliefs blend with the Indus cities to form the basis for the Hindu religion Brought Vedas and Sanskrit language

44 The Huang He /China Civilizations developed along 3 rivers in China
By about 2205BC, The Huang He civilization dominated Huang He; “Yellow River” gets its name from the yellow soil of the region: loess Yearly flooding can be very destructive; “China’s sorrow” Most of China’s pop. is in this area The Huang He was the most isolated of the early civilizations China has the longest continuous civilization in the world

45 Huang He Civilization Most isolated of the river valleys
Xia (shah) Dynasty first, legendary dynasty Shang Dynasty ( BCE) First to unify China first to leave written records bronze metallurgy Central rule to oversee irrigation and flood control Walled citied, elaborate palaces and tombs Writing: Oracle Bones Written on bone and used to foretell future

46 Zhou Dynasty 1028 BCE BCE Beat the Shang Dynasty claiming the Zhou had heaven’s approval to rule China; the “Mandate of Heaven” Nobles owned large pieces of land and peasants worked the land Relatives of the royal family were appointed governor’s of city-states Each of these lords raised his own army This works at first, but eventually the begin to fight among themselves

47 Chinese Dynasties (ruling families)
Shang Dynasty is first to unite China Zhou Dynasty During the Zhou Dynasty BC war among rivals but also economic growth traded with silk, jade and porcelain The last 200 years of the Zhou is known as the “Era of Warring States” Both Confucius and Laozi were alive during the Zhou Dynasty (but their philosophies did not become popular until later)

48 Qin Dynasty Eventually China is united under the warlike Qin Dynasty 221BC This empire gives China its name First Emperor: Qin Shi Huangdi reorganized the government Standardized money, weights & measures Burnt books containing different ideas Began The Great Wall of China to keep out hostile neighbors to the north ( BC) Built extensive roads and canals Major achievements: Gunpowder Moveable type and paper

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