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Prominent Political Philosophies/Ideologies The Ideological Scale: Liberal/Conservative (Left/Right) Governmental Economic Intervention HighLow SocialistsConservatives.

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Presentation on theme: "Prominent Political Philosophies/Ideologies The Ideological Scale: Liberal/Conservative (Left/Right) Governmental Economic Intervention HighLow SocialistsConservatives."— Presentation transcript:


2 Prominent Political Philosophies/Ideologies The Ideological Scale: Liberal/Conservative (Left/Right) Governmental Economic Intervention HighLow SocialistsConservatives High Low Government Action on Social/Morality LiberalsLibertarians Return

3 The Declaration of Independence International “Dear John” Letter INTRO: “Dear King George, we should talk…” IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776 The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America “When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.”

4 The Declaration of Independence International “Dear John” Letter “It’s just that we have certain needs…” “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.” You GO, girl!!

5 The Declaration of Independence International “Dear John” Letter “Now, we’ve thought about this for some time…” “Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.” “But we’re just not going to take it anymore…” “But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.”

6 The Declaration of Independence International “Dear John” Letter “Here are ALL the ways you’ve done us wrong…” “The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. --He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. --He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. --He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. --He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. --He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. --He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. --He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.”

7 --“He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. --He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. --He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance. --He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures. --He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power. --He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: --For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: --For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: --For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: --For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: --For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury: --For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences: --For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies --For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: --For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. --He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us. --He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. --He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. --He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. --He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.” RETURN

8 Upper Level Government Lower Level Government Lower Level Government Lower Level Government Lower Level Government Upper Level Government UnitaryConfederal Authority UNITARY VS. CONFEDERAL GOVERNMENT **

9 Annapolis Resolution “In this persuasion, your Commissioners submit an opinion, that the Idea of extending the powers of their Deputies, to other objects, than those of Commerce.. will deserve to be incorporated into that of a future Convention; they are the more naturally led to this conclusion, as in the course of their reflections on the subject, they have been induced to think, that the power of regulating trade is of such comprehensive extent, and will enter so far into the general System of the federal government, that to give it efficacy, and to obviate questions and doubts concerning its precise nature and limits, may require a correspondent adjustment of other parts of the Federal System...” “That there are important defects in the system of the Federal Government is acknowledged by the Acts of all those States... In the choice of the mode, your Commissioners are of opinion, that a Convention of Deputies from the different States, for the special and sole purpose of entering into this investigation, and digesting a plan for supplying such defects as may be discovered to exist...” Return September, 1786

10 Congress Representation in Congress Decision Rule Executive Removal of Executive Courts Ratification State Laws Virginia PlanNew Jersey PlanConstitution Two houses (bicameral) Both houses based on population Simple Majority Single, elected by congress By Congress National Judiciary, elected by Congress By the people Congress can override One house (unicameral) Equal representation for each state Extraordinary majority More than one person By a majority of the states Judiciary appointed by executive By the states “National supremacy” Two houses House/population, Senate/states Concurrent majority Single, elected by electoral college By Congress President nominates Senate confirms By state conventions National supremacy Return

11 Article I. Section 2. Paragraph 3. Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons... and... three fifths of all other Persons. Changed by the 14th Amendment, section 2. 3/5ths Compromise **

12 Congress’ vs. President’s Powers ** Article I. Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Article II. Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. (emphasis added)

13 FEDERALIST 51 Problem: We need government to protect us from a “state of nature”state of nature – The problem IS human nature! Quandary: Government can abuse its subjects, too.Government can abuse its subjects, too. – Need a government that controls the people (SECURITY/ORDER), but also controls itself (LIBERTY) James Madison, Mr. Bargen’s man-crush

14 A (partial) solution How can we control governmental power?control governmental power – “In the compound republic of America, the power surrendered by the people is first divided between two distinct governments, and then the portion allotted to each subdivided among distinct and separate departments. Hence a double security arises to the rights of the people. The different governments will control each other, at the same time that each will be controlled by itself.”

15 Why just separating the powers is not enough... What if the president could persuade Congress not to use its checks against him/her? Why wouldn’t the president try to concentrate his/her power? What would stop him/her?What would stop him/her? The solution IS human nature! Return

16 Human Nature “It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices should be necessary to control the abuses of government. But what is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary.” Return

17 Building a Better Governmental Mousetrap “In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.” Return

18 The Compound Republic GOVERNMENTAL POWER LegislativeExecutiveJudicial Legislative ExecutiveJudicial Checks & Balances Separation of Powers Federalism Return Return2

19 Separation of Powers “In order to lay a due foundation for that separate and distinct exercise of the different powers of government, which to a certain extent is admitted on all hands to be essential to the preservation of liberty, it is evident that each department should have a will of its own; and consequently should be so constituted that the members of each should have as little agency as possible in the appointment of the members of the others.” Return

20 Human frailty is the key to good governance... “But the great security against a gradual concentration of the several powers in the same department, consists in giving to those who administer each department the necessary constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachments of the others.” constitutional means “The provision for defense must in this, as in all other cases, be made commensurate to the danger of attack. Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. The interest of the man must be connected with the constitutional rights of the place.” Return

21 Checks and Balances “In republican government, the legislative authority necessarily predominates.” – “The remedy for this inconveniency is to divide the legislature into different branches; and to render them, by different modes of election and different principles of action, as little connected with each other as the nature of their common functions and their common dependence on the society will admit.” As the weight of the legislative authority requires that it should be thus divided, the weakness of the executive may require, on the other hand, that it should be fortified.” Return

22 Classical Liberalism in the Declaration of Independence “… We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed…” Return Return

23 Pluralism—a product of republicanism Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 6 Group 5 Group 7 Group 8 Group 9 We want help for fisherman! Rhode Island Pennsylvania New York New Jersey Massachusetts Vermont Georgia North Carolina South Carolina We want help for oat growers! We want help for basket-makers! We want help for dairy farmers! We want support for merchants! We want support for cotton! We want support for maple producers! We want support for rice growers! We want support for tobacco! Hey, let’s tax southern agricultural products!! Like cotton, tobacco, and rice. Great idea! Cool! Awesome! This idea rocks! Tax them back to the Stone Age!! Horrible idea! Uhhh, no. This idea stinks! Group 1 who? I don’t really know anybody from Rhode Island... Who? What? Where? Let’s eat some syrup...

24 Pluralism’s positive effects within the republic: Protecting Minorities From Federalist #51: “Whilst all authority in [the government] will be derived from and dependent on the society, the society itself will be broken into so many parts, interests, and classes of citizens, that the rights of individuals, or of the minority, will be in little danger from interested combinations of the majority.” Return

25 INDIRECT ELECTION Return Return * The 17th Amendment (1913) provided for direct election of senators, eliminating the states’ role in electing senators. VOTERSVOTERS STATES ELECTORAL COLLEGE PRESIDENT HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SENATE* SUPREME COURT

26 Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances Return Return Separation of Powers: Establishes each branch of government and defines the powers of each. Checks and Balances: Gives each branch the power to override the actions of the other branches LegislatureExecutiveJudicial The Legislature can make laws The Executive can enforce laws The Judiciary can interpret laws Confirms executive appointments (Senate) Override executive veto Impeach executive and judicial officials Veto legislation Recommend legislation Grant pardons Refuse to enforce laws/judicial rulings Nominates judges Review legislative acts Review executive acts Issue injunctions

27 The Compound Republic GOVERNMENTAL POWER LegislativeExecutiveJudicial Legislative ExecutiveJudicial Checks & Balances Separation of Powers Federalism Return Return2

28 Federal Upper Level Government Lower Level Government Lower Level Government Lower Level Government Lower Level Government Upper Level Government Unitary Confederal Authority UNITARY - CONFEDERAL - FEDERAL FORMS GOVERNMENT ** Upper Level Government Lower Level Government Lower Level Government Authority Citizens Authority ?

29 STATES’ RIGHTS DOCTRINE ** National Government National Government Citizens State Government State Government “Interposition” “Nullification”

30 14th AMENDMENT ** (Ratified in 1868) Section 1. … No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States… (emphasis added)

31 National Government State Government No Interactions Between Layers LAYER CAKE FEDERALISM **

32 National Government State Government Multiple Interactions MARBLE CAKE FEDERALISM **

33 Federal Aid to States and Localities **


35 Civil Liberties Illustrated ** National Government National Government Citizens Civil Liberties Protects Liberties Oppressive Actions

36 Civil Rights Illustrated ** National Government National Government Citizens Protector of Individual Rights Discriminatory Actions

37 Race and the Constitution (paraphrased) ** Article I. Section 2.: Slaves count as 3/5ths a person when determining state populations Article I. Section 9.: Congress cannot prohibit the importation of slaves prior to 1808. Article IV. Section 2.: Slaves who escape to states where slavery is illegal must be returned to their owners.

38 13th AMENDMENT ** (Ratified in 1865) Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

39 Level of Knowledge *

40 *

41 *

42 Sources of Questionnaire Errors **

43 Paradox of Majority Rule ** Federalist No. 51 (excerpt): “In a society under the forms of which the stronger faction can readily unite and oppress the weaker, anarchy may as truly be said to reign, as in a state of nature where the weaker individual is not secured against the violence of the stronger.”

44 * Civil Liberties and Civil Rights in Federalist Papers #51 “In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: You must first enable the government to control the governed {protect civil rights}; and in the next place, oblige it to control itself {protect civil liberties}.

45 Bill of Rights Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. Amendment II A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. Amendment IV The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Amendment V No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury... nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law

46 Bill of Rights Amendment VI In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense Amendment X The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. Return

47 Percent of Governmental Spending by Level of Government 1927-1943 Return Return

48 The “necessary and proper” clause Article I, Section 8: “To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.” Return Return

49 Amendment X “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.” Return Return

50 Logical problem: Implied Powers vs. Reserved Powers All possible Governmental Power, at every level of government Enumerated Powers of the national government Reserved Powers of the States Amendment X Implied powers of the national government, from the “necessary and proper” clause Friction!! Return

51 The Supremacy Clause Article VI, Section 2: "This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding." Return Return

52 McCulloch v. Maryland “Let the end be legitimate, let it be within the scope of the Constitution, and all means which are appropriate, which are plainly adapted to that end, which are not prohibited, but consistent with the letter and spirit of the Constitution, are constitutional.” Return Return

53 The Commerce Clause Article I, Section 8: “The Congress shall have the power to regulate commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes.” Return

54 Growth in Federal Spending—Fiscal Federalism Return Return “New Deal” Spending “Great Society” Spending

55 Growth in Federal Spending 2—Devolution Return Return “New Deal” Spending “Great Society” Spending Period of “Devolution”

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