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World history Chapter 5 Ancient Greece. Section 1 The Early Civilizations of Greece 20 minute video about Greece.

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Presentation on theme: "World history Chapter 5 Ancient Greece. Section 1 The Early Civilizations of Greece 20 minute video about Greece."— Presentation transcript:

1 World history Chapter 5 Ancient Greece

2 Section 1 The Early Civilizations of Greece 20 minute video about Greece

3

4 The Geography of Greece Very mountainous region of southeastern Europe –Isolated the Greek people for each other Numerous islands No great rivers---Little rainfall Dry, rocky soil –Grew- barley, grapes, and olives –raised -pigs, sheep, goats, and chickens -Food was scarce

5 The Sea Most people lived 40 miles of the sea Built great harbors became sailors, fishers, & traders – traded olive oil, wine, wool, and marble for grain and metals Early Greek Communities people were separated by water and mountains & developed different communities

6 The Minoan Civilization the island Crete In the Aegean Sea No written record King-government interested in trade, not war or conquest influenced Greek- speaking Mycenaean's culture mysteriously vanished around 1600 BC –Volcanic eruption ?

7 The Palace of Knossos built of stone around central courtyard; used for royal family, worship, storerooms (for tax payments), workshops, large bathrooms, & plumbing system Art was important in Minoan culture (frescoes) see front of school

8 The Mycenaean's Grow Powerful First Greeks to leave written records Dominated the mainland Ruled by Kings Traded with Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Sicily

9 The Trojan War 1250 BC  Mycenaean & other Greek vs. Troy (on Asia Minor) –Trojan prince Paris kidnapped Helen-sister- in-law of Mycenaean king –Troy was burnt to the ground

10 The Decline of Mycenae and the Age of Homer At Home and Abroad –1100bc Mycenaean disappeared –Many Greeks left for Asia Minor, Sicily, & Southern Italy, spread culture

11 The Iliad and the Odyssey--long, epic, narrative poems by Greek poet Homer lliad Last few days of the Trojan Wars Odyssey The story of the long journey home of Odysseus The Greek hero of the war

12 Greek Religion ----gods had human feelings & form –Built marble temples to honor gods & goddesses –People needed to please the Gods –Zeus – king of the gods; –Athena – goddess of wisdom –Live on Mt Olympus

13 Section 2 Greek City-States Rise to Power

14 City state develop 800B.C. first Greek large political units formed called Polis—city-state Completed against each other for control of land and trade All city-states shared common language & adapted Phoenician alphabet in 750bc; shared common religion & culture; Citizenship only free males Olympics

15 Governments of the City-States most city-states began as monarchies protected by citizen-soldiers ARISTOCRACY: government in which the upper class, or a privileged few, rule OLIGARCHY: government in which only a few powerful people rule, “rule of the few” 800 BC tools became cheaper & more available as they were made of iron; Athens & Sparta gained power

16 Sparta Becomes a Military State a Spartan life = “a life with few luxuries ” A Society of Soldiers- boys sent to train at age 7 until ’s B.C. first Greek constitution governed by 2 military kings, 28-member council of elders (over age 60) (chose issues) lawmaking assembly voted on laws made up of all free adult males over 30 with 5 overseers Conquered people were helots, or slaves, who farmed the land

17 Women of Sparta had more rights than other Greeks women; inherited land girls received physical training & some education Learned to run, wrestle, throw a javelin,

18 Athenians and Their Right to Govern Government Reforms and Limited Democracy 800bc-700bc Athens grew quickly 500 chosen men made up the LEGISLATURE lawmaking body in government DEMOCRACY: government that gives its citizens the ruling power, “power from the people” Slaves & women had no power in government

19 Education in Athens boys learned reading, writing, math, music, athletics, & speaking only wealthy citizens were educated due to cost Athenians generally more educated than other Greeks

20 Greek Unity in the Persian Wars 400’s B.C.- Greeks joined together against Persia 499BC -Greeks in Asia Minor rebelled against Persian rule Athens & Sparta joined to beat Persians & end Persian Wars

21 The End of the Persian Wars alliances were formed Delian League formed 478bc between 140 Greek city-states that had fought in Persian Wars; lead by Athenians Peloponnesian League: formed by Sparta

22 Section 3 The Golden Age of Athens Q-mkVSasZIM

23 The Age of Pericles Athens becomes the richest, most powerful city-state Expanding Democracy TRIBUTE: payment given by one nation to another more powerful nation; may be paid in exchange for protection; Athens demanded tribute from members of the Delian League Classical Age: 480bc-323bc when Athenian art, politics, & literature flourished (refers to order, balance, & harmony) DIRECT DEMOCRACY: government in which citizens take part directly rather than through representatives; belief of Pericles JURY: group of people that considers the evidence in a trial & makes a judgment

24 Culture in the Golden Age Architecture and Art public buildings, like temples were large, homes were small most art was on practical pottery 450bc natural, fluid style of art developed with idealized forms

25 Poetry, Drama, and History Earliest literature: –poetry – poets include Homer, Sappho Greek Drama: –tragedies dealt with suffering & misery Comedies: – poked fun at leaders & their politics Women weren’t allowed to be actors; –female parts played by men

26 Three Great Thinker Philosopher- “lover of wisdom” Socrates, Plato, Aristotle; –asked what it means to lead a good life Socrates – taught by going to the agora & asking questions –Was arrested & sentences in death in 399bc

27 Plato, Socrates’ student, wrote about Socrates’ life, the ideal state, the ideal society, the nature of goodness and friendship, and the idea of truth; founded school The Academy 387bc Aristotle, Plato’s student, went to Macedonia to tutor Alexander the Great, went to Athens & set up school, Lyceum, taught to learn by observation, book Politics he praised the middle class

28 The Peloponnesian War: Plague and Starvation –began in 412B.C. between Greek city- states, Athens & Sparta –404bc Athens was starved & surrendered to Spartan Aftermath –Sparta won Peloponnesian War –Athenian democracy lost energy & corruption grew; unity was lost

29 Section 4 Alexander builds a great empire 0LsrkWDCvxg

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31 The Rise of Macedonia Philip II Gains Control 404BC city-states continued to fight 359BC Philip II became king of Macedonia & looked to Greece Philip defeated Greek city-states of Athens & Thebes his son Alexander defeated the Sacred Band of 300 Theban soldiers

32 Alexander Takes the Throne Philip wanted to unit Macedonia & Greece then defeat Persia ASSASSINATION: murder of a leader for political reason Philip was assassinated & his son Alexander became king at 20

33 Alexander Builds an Empire 334bc Alexander leads army to attack Persia in Asia Minor Alexander is considered one of the greatest military leaders of ancient times They never lost a battle 331BC established Alexandria on northern coast of Egypt Army made it 11,000 miles into India before stopping

34 Death and Division 323bc Alexander died at 33 from an infection or fever Empire was left “to the strongest;” it was divided into 3 kingdoms Richest & most powerful, Egypt, went to A Macedonian General Ptolemy I

35 Hellenistic Civilization The Economy and the Growth of cities blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, Indian and other influences – from 323BC-146BC Use of money increased (including real banks) Alexandra in Egypt became a busy port and center of education with the world’s largest library ended when Greece was conquered by Rome Left an important impact on the world and the future

36 The End


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