Civil Rights Movement When did it really begin? The Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 began a long journey for the African- American population and the United States. De jure segregation – imposed by law De facto segregation – unwritten custom or tradition
Major Events of the Civil Rights Movement Emancipation Proclamation – 1863 13 th, 14 th & 15 th Amendments Plessy v. Ferguson – 1896 Brown v. Board of Education – 1954 Jim Crow Laws Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus in Mont., AL – 1955 Executive Order #10730 – Little Rock, Arkansas – 1957 Freedom Rides - 1961 March on Washington – 1963 Mississippi Burning – 1964 Civil Rights Act – 1964 Voting Rights Act - 1965
SSUSH22a -Explain the importance of President Truman's order to integrate the U.S. military & the federal government. President Truman Executive Order – 1948 Ordered the desegregation of the military. US Armed Forces will be come one of the most integrated institutions in the USA.
Strom Thurmond ran for President in 1948, wanted to continue Jim Crow
SSUSH22b - Identify Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball. 1947 Jackie Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers. 1 st African American to play major league baseball. Faced death threats and bullying.
SSUSH22c - Explain Brown v. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision. Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 NAACP Fought for equality for AA through court system Thurgood Marshall Headed legal team Back ground to case… Challenging “Separate but Equal” doctrine
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 The Supreme Court’s unanimous decision outlawed racial segregation in public schools. Is separate but equal constitutional? NO “Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race…deprive the children of the minority group equal education opportunities? We believe that it does.” Chief Justice Earl Warren Thurgood Marshall will become a Supreme Court Justice in Washington!
Brown reactions…. Hernandez v. Texas Mexican Americans cannot be excluded from trial juries. KKK staged revival Brown II Implement our decision throughout the USA with speed! Little Rock 9– Central High School (p. 921) Eisenhower used national guard (Gov. Faubus refused to uphold Brown ruling – Federalism, hello?!?) to escort them to school as a crowd screamed “lynch her!”
Arkansas Gov. Orval Faubas and Little Rock Nine
SSUSH22d Major Players in the CRM: Martin Luther King, JR. Organized the Montgomery bus boycotts during Rosa Park’s struggle in the 1950s. As a clergyman, he used his vision of nonviolent confrontations (followed Mohandas Gandhi). He started the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, known as the SCLC.
SSUSH22d - Describe the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Letter from a Birmingham Jail & I have a dream speech. Birmingham – most segregated city in the South. Marches & Sit-ins King participated and was arrested, wrote a letter from jail. “For years now I have heard the word, “wait!” It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This “Wait!” has almost always meant “Never”. Pg. 929
SSUSH22d - Describe the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Letter from a Birmingham Jail & I have a dream speech. Aug. 28, 1963, Martin Luther King, JR. delivers his “I Have a Dream Speech” before 250,000 people March on Washington, the largest civil rights demonstration ever! Let’s listen…
1960: MLK, Jr. removing a burnt cross from his front yard
Civil Rights Act 1964 Voting Rights Act 1965 In honor of the late JFK, President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the CRA into law. The act prohibits discrimination in public places, provides for the integration of schools and other public facilities, and makes employment discrimination illegal. This act outlaws the discriminatory voting practices adopted in many Southern states after the Civil War. It made literacy tests illegal as a prerequisite for voting. It also provides for federally supervised elections. SSUSH22e - Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 & the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Met with some resistance…. 1964 Hotel owner pouring acid in the water when black patrons swam in his pool.
SCLC SNCC Southern Christian Leadership Conference MLK, Jr. Mostly AA ministers Sit-ins, marches, non- violence Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee Young people, B & W Freedom Summer Non-violent Will eventually adopt difference methods USH24.a Compare and contrast the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics, including sit-ins, freedom rides, and changing composition.
Other important people, places, & events in the Civil Rights Movement
New Voices, Malcolm X Preached violence as a means of expression, he later (after a haaj) devoted himself to peace. Gave voice to the Black Power Movement, urging blacks to reject white culture in favor of their own heritage. Feb. 21, 1965, black gunmen assassinate former Nation of Islam leader Malcolm X at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem.
Black Panthers Activists staged antiwar protests and stood for the black cause. Founded in ‘66 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. Original purpose: Protect African American neighborhoods from police brutality. Part of the counter-culture. Ideological differences led to decline.
Even at the college level… James Meredith made headlines when he tried to enroll in the all-white University of Mississippi. June 11, 1963 Alabama Gov. George Wallace stands “in the schoolhouse door” at the Univ. of AL. His gesture fulfills a campaign promise to keep black students from enrolling there.
Loss of THE Leader: 24.d King made another speech in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 3, 1968. This is were he said, “We’ve got some difficult days ahead, but it really doesn’t matter to me now, because I’ve been to the mountaintop.” The next evening, on April 4 th, 1968, he was gunned down by James Earl Ray, as he stood on the balcony of his Memphis motel. The country engaged in a week of looting, rioting, and burning as a result of King’s death.
Too many to name them all… SNCC SCLC Montgomery Bus Boycott Sit-ins Freedom Rides Selma 24 th amendment Black Panthers Rosa Parks Medgar Evers Emmett Till President Eisenhower President Kennedy President Johnson