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UNIT 3. 1700-1200 B.C. – Hittite Empire 934-609 B.C. – Neo-Assyrian Empire 625-539 B.C. – Neo-Babylonian Empire 560-330 B.C. – Persian Empire.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 3. 1700-1200 B.C. – Hittite Empire 934-609 B.C. – Neo-Assyrian Empire 625-539 B.C. – Neo-Babylonian Empire 560-330 B.C. – Persian Empire."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 3

2 1700-1200 B.C. – Hittite Empire 934-609 B.C. – Neo-Assyrian Empire 625-539 B.C. – Neo-Babylonian Empire 560-330 B.C. – Persian Empire

3 From the Levant As early as 3000 B.C. First to develop the alphabet The alphabet was ground-breaking in that each script represented a single sound, not a syllable or a whole word Referred to as Phoenicians by the Greeks The interactions and trade between the Phoenicians and the Greeks is critically important to Greek literature, education and philosophy Sidon and Tyre Great sailors and traders, eventually founded Carthage Located in modern-day Tunisia


5 Wasn’t discovered until 1905 1700 B.C. – 1200 B.C. (approx.) Hattusha was it’s capital, located in Northern Anatolia HATTUSHA PHOTOS Hittite was their language The Hittites were an Indo-European people of mixed race

6 Major Empires - approx. 1400 BC.

7 Renowned for chariot warfare circa 1600 B.C. Pitched battles in the spring and summer They often besieged cities too, but we know little about their tactics Invaded Mesopotamia and sacked Babylon around 1600 B.C. Battle of Qadesh (Kadesh) in 1280 B.C. They also had diplomatic relationships with Egypt and Assyria

8 934-609 B.C. Benefited the most from the fall of Egypt and the Hittites Masters of siege warfare Ruthless warriors, eventually expanded to the Mediterranean “I felled 3,000 of their fighting men with the sword. I carried off prisoners, possessions, oxen and cattle from them. I burnt many captives from them. I captured many troops alive, I cut off some of their hands and arms; I cut off of others their noses, ears and extremities. I gouged out the eyes of many troops. I made one pile of the living and one of the heads. I hung their heads on trees around the city. I burnt their adolescent boys and girls. I razed, destroyed, burnt and consumed the city” – Neo-Assyrian warrior; Quoted in J. Oates, Babylon

9 Lines of deportees, returning favor of the gods Reasons empire was successful: 1. plunder 2. locating deportees 3. first professional army 4. King had strict rule 5. Belief in superiority 6. Adept at agriculture They were ordered by the gods to “depopulate and repopulate”

10 Highest point – 625-539 B.C. Babylon became the most important city in the world Math, astronomy, and science excelled Eventually ended with the invasion of the Persians

11 AKA: Achaemenid Empire 560-330 B.C. Founded by Cyrus II or Cyrus the Great Extended as far west as the Mediterranean and as far east as present-day Afghanistan

12 The empire was 2500 miles E-W and 1000 miles N-S!! Conquered lands were afforded a lot of freedom Religion, rituals, arts, customs Darius I took over and expanded the empire further Taxed little, consolidated power and ruled effectively Eventually the empire was overthrown by Alexander the Great

13 UNIT 3


15 Island of Crete 2500 B.C. Named after Minotaur Labyrinth – human sacrifice Arthur Evans, 1900-1905, named them “minoans”

16 -Over 1200 rooms -5 stories high -- Frescoes of Bull- jumpers


18 Matriarchal religion What does this mean? Human sacrifice Economically stable, contact with mainland Linear A

19 Small island North of Crete Most likely destroyed much of Minoan success

20 No one knows where it is located Mentioned by Plato Never been found, not sure if it existed or not Believed to have been sunk in the Santorini Volcano tidal waves

21 - No skeletons!.....why is this an important

22 1600-1100 B.C. The Iliad Trojan War Paris of Troy take Helen, Achilles wants revenge Greeks (Mycenaeans) win, Trojan Horse

23 Heinrich Schliemann OBSESSED with Greek literature Wasn’t sure of location Found in 1868 “The Treasure of Priam”

24 More militaristic than Minoans Linear B We can read this! Strong fortresses, passageways, walls as thick as 26 feet! Walls are called Cyclopean Walls

25 Unit 3

26 Did not build cities or rule over large territories Well-known for the Hebrew Bible Details their relationship with their god. Yahweh Yahweh made a bargain with Abraham, the oldest of Israelites

27 Difficult to distinguish myth from history There is no simple solution because all history is subjective to a certain extent Both should be read as reflections of society that produced them Myth – sometimes written, other times oral Usually much more fluid, can change quickly History – written text; fixed version and doesn’t change much over time

28 First history of the western world Torah – first five books of the Bible These are attributed to Moses Sometime between 1200-400 B.C. Comprised by a whole culture, has some repetitions and inconsistencies

29 Adam and Eve, Great Flood (Noah’s Ark) Abraham, born in Ur Jacob, Abraham’s grandson Jacob had 12 children, 12 tribes of Israel During a famine, they fled to Egypt – Moses led them back to the “Holy Land” This led to the Ten Commandments No one is sure if the exile happened or not, no historical proof of it

30 Early kings – Samuel, David, Solomon Late 1000s – early 900s Empire expanded to the Euphrates in the East, Red Sea in the South Jerusalem was the capital city 925 B.C. - Northern population split, formed kingdom of Israel, kingdom of Judah remained

31 Intermittent fighting 722 B.C. – destroyed by the Assyrians 597 B.C. – conquered by Babylon; exiled to Mesopotamia 538 B.C. – Cyrus allowed them back – “Babylonian Exile” This information is constantly debated by historians

32 More rural than Mesopotamia and Egypt Focused primarily on agriculture; even in the household Two story homes – floor level stores produce and livestock; second floor hold the family Slavery was common, most families lived in a patriarchal home What does this mean?

33 Men paid bride-prices, polygamy was common Women married young, had a primary role within the home Inheritance went to the oldest son Slaves were both Hebrew and foreign, Hebrew slaves released after 7 years

34 Covenant with Abraham is based on monotheism Hebrews would sometimes worship God in addition to local deities Law is very important in Jewish society, need to stay away from “unclean” fluids, meat and people Most legal text probably came from the 6 th -5 th centuries

35 Yahweh and the temple were very sacred Prophets – personally called by Yahweh to remedy the evils of their day Usually looked out for the poor and downtrodden Believed that Yahweh punishes them for past mistakes This helped create a sense of cohesion amongst the people Israelites had a sense of identity because of the Bible Even though they had many different cultures and ethnicities…


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