Presentation on theme: "Ceramics/Pottery Lisa Chui. History The history of pottery/ceramics stretches back in history. People across the world have fired or baked moist clay."— Presentation transcript:
History The history of pottery/ceramics stretches back in history. People across the world have fired or baked moist clay to make pots, plates and ceramic decorations since prehistoric times. Ceramic includes both pottery and porcelain. Ceramics are made from a mixture of clay, water and various additives that are shaped and fired. Simply speaking, the difference between porcelain and pottery is that porcelain is translucent, or allows some light to penetrate (ceramic), while pottery does not. Porcelain of a sort was first made in China, sometime during the Han Dynasty (202 BC-220AD). By the Southern and Northern Dynasty (420 AD-589 AD), the process had evolved enough for it to be recognized today as porcelain. The clay used in porcelain is kaolin, which is fired up to 2,600 degrees Fahrenheit. Porcelain is commonly called china today because for centuries only China could make this fine product. Most of the earliest evidence of pottery that has been found was made in the Middle East during the Neolithic Revolution, about 10,000 years ago, when humans started learning to domesticate plants and animals. The pottery wheel, emerged around 3000 B.C. in Mesopotamia. While no one knows who invented the pottery wheel or if it was developed over time, it allowed potters to make perfectly round pottery for the first time. The ancient Greeks made incredible pottery during the 6 th and 5 th centuries B.C. We can enjoy examples of the early black and the later, more realistic red vases decorated with mythological themes in museums today. By the 6 th century B.C., the potters, and sometimes the painters, signed their pieces.
Greek pottery had a disadvantage that could not be overcome at that time. Unless it has been glazed, clay is porous, meaning that liquids will leak. Although glazing had been developed in Mesopotamia during the 9 th century B.C.E, it would not be applied to pottery for 800 years. Glaze and pottery finally met each other in the Middle East in the 1 st century BC. Within a century, both Rome and China were making glazed pots and pottery. In the 7 th to 9 th century A.D., China developed the first of its recognizable styles of pottery during the Tang Dynasty. The pottery that has survived was used in tombs to represent people and animals that would assist the deceased in the afterlife. China also developed porcelain during this period, a secret that they would keep from the rest of the world for centuries. It wasn't until the 1700s that Europeans were able to make porcelain. The development of European porcelain was the direct result of a ruler's quest for gold through alchemistry. In 1700, Johann Friedrich Bottger, a young alchemist, came to the attention of Augustus the Strong of Saxony. Augustus had Bottger arrested and held prisoner to create gold. While Bottger was, not surprisingly, unable to produce gold, he was able to perfect a porcelain formula. The Industrial Revolution had a huge impact on pottery making. Eventually, inexpensive, mass produced pottery took the place of handmade crafts. While some artists still produce handcrafted pottery, the majority of pottery produced today is made at least partially by machine. Pottery pieces have been found that date back to 1400 to 1200 BC, making this craft much older than the craft of making porcelain.
5 Stages of Clay 1.RAW: Unformed 1.LEATHER HARD: Clay piece that is dry enough to hold its form, but moist enough to still work on. Carving and incising are done at this stage. 1.GREENWARE: Bone-dry clay. The piece has no moisture in it and is very fragile. 1.BISQUEWARE: Clay that been fired ONCE. The piece is now permanent. It is now ready to apply glaze. 1.GLAZEWARE: Pieces that have glaze applied and fired a 2 nd time. Pieces are now water and food-proof.
Ceramics Vocabulary Clay: Decomposed rock Slip: Liquid clay Score: To scratch the surface Slake: To saturate with water (slaking barrel) Wedge: To knead the clay and remove air bubbles and make clay a homogenous mass before working.
Porous: Able to absorb fluids through opening in the surface. Burnish: To rub the surface with a smooth object to create a shiny surface. Coil: A rolled out “rope” of clay for hand-building. Slab: A flat, rolled out piece of clay. Throw: To form a piece using the potter’s wheel. Kiln: The OVEN in which clay is fired to make it permanent.
Hand Building Unit Project: *NOTE: You will be required to hand in the following projects. Watch the calendar carefully and manage your time. Work will be critiqued at the end of the unit. Research information on a contemporary potter/ceramist (done in your sketchbook) > Three ceramic/pottery projects
Projects: 1. Before starting, you MUST create at least 1 stamp (used for decorating your pieces) 2. For your unit, you must submit 3 projects in total following these guidelines: Two of your projects must be using the pinching, coiling, or slab technique One of your projects is to combine different techniques to build a “figurative” piece.
Ideas for Pinching, Coiling and Slab Projects: Jar Vase Lidded Box (jewelry, notes, keep-safe) Pendant Teapot Mug Plate Bowl
Figurative Ideas: Creature Animal Person in action > Research and observe images/ideas for your work from different angles before starting. Research works from other artists. Document and sketch all the planning/process in your sketchbook. > Please look at the rubrics and read them carefully before you begin each project so you know what you will be evaluated on.
Research Component Investigate the work of a contemporary ceramic artist and write/type up approximately 200 words. Document and glue anything you can find in your sketchbook. (Due in Feb. 18 th, 2013)! Tips: Look in the Internet/library and choose a ceramic artist whose work you admire and write a research about the artist and the art produced, including pictures of their work. Some of your writing may address topics such as: Date and place of birth. Early influences. Schooling and art training. Artistic influences Development of style. What the artist is best known for. Why you chose the artist If possible, it would be best if you could interview the artist and find out what they think makes them successful in their art.
Work will not be fired if it is: cracked, broken or damaged unauthorized or unassigned bigger than assigned not signed or stamped by the artist wheel thrown and untrimmed wheel thrown and wonky does not meet minimum standard of craftsmanship improperly glazed or waxed
10 Considerations for Form and Function 1. Are the top rims and the edges of the handles sharp to the touch for either lips or fingers? Any parts of the pot that come into contact with parts of the body should be smooth. 2. Is the curvature at the top of a drinking vessel suitable for drinking from? Does it curve in or out, or is it straight up? For optimum function, there should be a slight curve outward so that liquid flows easily from the vessel into the mouth and does not dribble. 3. Is the shape of the object suitable to be held or drunk from? 4. Does the handle have sufficient room for fingers? Handles should have room for average-sized fingers (granted, hands come in all shapes and sizes, but the thickness of the thickest part of the average fore finger is about 1 inch). If handles are too big, it will likely feel awkward and look awkward. 5. Does the handle fit the hand, or do the fingers have to conform to the handle?
6. Is the width of the mouth of a drinking vessel too large or too small? For comfortable drinking, the width of the mouth of a drinking vessel should be no more than the distance from the lips to the bridge of the nose. 7. Does the shape of the pot need handles to fulfill its intended use? 8. Does the sound or texture of the surface aggravate the user? 9. Does the object as designed get too hot to hold? If your piece is designed for hot liquid, you might want to adjust the thickness of the walls, or attach a handle so that hands don't get burnt. 10. Could it work better and be more comfortable to use than it is?
Ceramic/Pottery Evaluation Rubric 1) Construction – there are no cracks in your work. /5 2) Symmetry – Your work is perfectly symmetrical, as if thrown on a wheel. /5 3) Walls – The walls are a consistent thickness throughout. /5 4) Surface – The outer surface is without bumps and burrs (unless it is a part of your design).. /5 5) Base – Your base looks smooth and finished and is signed or stamped. /5 6) Rim – The top rim is even, smooth and strong. /5 Design – Your work has an even design carved into the slip. Your design is creative and interesting, and enhances the design of the piece. The slip covers the rest of the work with a uniform color. /5 Esthetics of Shape – Your work looks balanced and rises gracefully from the base. It is the shape you had originally planned. /5 Total /40