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Presentation on theme: "THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION"— Presentation transcript:


2 ITS DISCOVERY Dayaram Sahni – 1921 – discovered Harappan ruins
Rakhaldas Banerjee – 1922 – 23 – discovered Mohenjodaro Chalcolithic Age No traces of iron 2500 BCE – 1500 BCE – Indus Valley Civilization Mohenjodaro – ‘mound of the dead’ – banks of Indus river in Larkana district of Sind Harappa – banks of the river Ravi in Montgomery district of Western Punjab 2,800 sites – largest civilization of the ancient world Major sites – Lothal (Gujarat), Ropar (Punjab), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh), Surkotada (Gujarat), Banawali (Haryana) Newest sites – Rakhigarhi (Haryana), Dholavira (Gujarat)


4 TOWN PLANNING Well planned towns
Main and smaller streets – cut at right angle Main streets – parallel Straight and wide (about 30 feet) roads Curved corners – easy passage for carts Paved with baked bricks

5 BUILDINGS Skillful builders Dwelling houses – houses along street side
Public buildings – Great Granary, Great Bath, Assembly Hall

6 DWELLING HOUSES large blocks street side double - storeyed flat roofs
different sizes palaces to two room houses very good quality bricks (4,500 bricks) Courtyard surrounded by rooms, a bathroom, a kitchen, a well, narrow staircase = a house

7 PUBLIC BUILDINGS The Great Granary *a large building
*store surplus food grains *2 rows of 6 granaries *close to the river bank – water transportation of grains *circular brick platforms – threshing grain * furnaces – metal workers – produced a variety of objects

8 PUBLIC BUILDINGS The Great Bath * Mohenjodaro * large swimming pool
*six entrances *central bathing pool *galleries *dressing rooms *2 flights of steps to its bottom *burnt bricks *watertight – bitumen lining * well – source of water + drainage *ceremonial bath

9 THE ASSEMBLY HALL Mohenjodaro pillared hall thick walls
20 pillars – burnt/baked bricks for an assembly/prayer or just a palace

10 DRAINAGE SYSTEM Excellent, well planned
Sloping floors for kitchens, bathrooms connected to street drains Drains – street side, covered Manholes – regular intervals – inspection, cleaning Good sanitation facilities Hygienic conditions

11 Characteristics – Indus Valley Civilisation

12 Society Several social groups
Rulers, merchants, traders, artisans, farmers, manual labourers

13 Food wheat – staple food barley, mustard, fruits, vegetables
milk, meat, fish, eggs – daily diet

14 Dress and Ornaments cotton, woollen
two – piece dresses – men and women men – dhoti, women – skirts Upper garment – shawl worn around the shoulder Ornaments – necklaces, amulets, finger rings, headdress, earring, bangles, girdles, bracelets, anklets Gold, silver, ivory ornaments – rich Shell, bone, copper ornaments – poor Men – beards, hair combed backwards; cut short or coiled in a knot on the top of the head Women – tied hair tightly, used hairpins, combs and used cosmetics

15 Recreation and Amusement
Indoor games – preference Dancing, singing, playing board games, dice, chess like game Toys – wheeled carts, dolls, animals with movable heads, sliding monkeys, rattles, whistles Toys made of baked clay or terracotta

16 Occupation AGRICULTURE
Main occupation – farming of wheat, barley, fruits, vegetables First people to cultivate cotton in the world Fertile land – surplus food – exported to towns, cities DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS goats, sheep, buffaloes, elephants, humped bulls dogs, cats – pets ART AND CRAFT Excellent potters, skilled craftspeople Pottery – potter’s wheel – glazed, painted pots terracotta female figures – symbolic of Mother Goddess

17 Occupation ART AND CRAFT knew the art of using metals
goldsmith – gold, silver jewels coppersmith – utensils bronzesmith – tools, weapons, metal sculptures – ‘dancing girl’ brick laying , boat making, stone cutting, masonry, carpentry spinning, weaving – important occupations

18 Trade within and outside India
Mesopotamia (Iraq), Persia (Iran), Afghanistan variety of weights and measures used barter system land and sea trade bullock carts, boats, ships – transport dockyard found in Lothal (ships were used)

19 Seals more than 2,000 seals found small, flat
shape – rectangular, square made of clay, soapstone, copper skilfully carved figures – humans and animals (unicorn, humped bull, goat, tiger, elephant) used by merchants and traders to stamp goods valuable source of information – life and culture (religious beliefs, artistic skills, trade contacts, dress, ornaments) script on seals – puzzle – picture like signs represent words, objects or ideas

20 Religion no temples smoke - stained clay figures of a female deity – the Mother Goddess three faced figure in seated yogic posture surrounded by various animals pipal tree – worshipped amulets – lucky charm – ward off evil spirits life after death – dead with food, utensils, ornaments cremated dead, kept ashes or bones in a urn along with daily use items

21 Indus Script

22 Administration well – planned layout – cities were governed efficiently no evidence of kings or queens committee for looking after each city committee consisted of rich merchants, priests

23 DECLINE / DESTRUCTION came to an abrupt end
Reasons for decline could be : natural calamities – earthquakes, flood, epidemic invasion by foreign tribes – Aryans change of the course of river Indus – land became infertile

24 Click to See Video


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