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THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION.  Dayaram Sahni – 1921 – discovered Harappan ruins  Rakhaldas Banerjee – 1922 – 23 – discovered Mohenjodaro  Chalcolithic.

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Presentation on theme: "THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION.  Dayaram Sahni – 1921 – discovered Harappan ruins  Rakhaldas Banerjee – 1922 – 23 – discovered Mohenjodaro  Chalcolithic."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION

2  Dayaram Sahni – 1921 – discovered Harappan ruins  Rakhaldas Banerjee – 1922 – 23 – discovered Mohenjodaro  Chalcolithic Age  No traces of iron  2500 BCE – 1500 BCE – Indus Valley Civilization  Mohenjodaro – ‘mound of the dead’ – banks of Indus river in Larkana district of Sind  Harappa – banks of the river Ravi in Montgomery district of Western Punjab  2,800 sites – largest civilization of the ancient world  Major sites – Lothal (Gujarat), Ropar (Punjab), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh), Surkotada (Gujarat), Banawali (Haryana)  Newest sites – Rakhigarhi (Haryana), Dholavira (Gujarat)

3 MAIN FEATURES OF THE CITIES

4  Well planned towns  Main and smaller streets – cut at right angle  Main streets – parallel  Straight and wide (about 30 feet) roads  Curved corners – easy passage for carts  Paved with baked bricks

5  Skillful builders  Dwelling houses – houses along street side  Public buildings – Great Granary, Great Bath, Assembly Hall

6  large blocks  street side  double - storeyed  flat roofs  different sizes  palaces to two room houses  very good quality bricks (4,500 bricks)  Courtyard surrounded by rooms, a bathroom, a kitchen, a well, narrow staircase = a house

7  The Great Granary *a large building *store surplus food grains *2 rows of 6 granaries *close to the river bank – water transportation of grains *circular brick platforms – threshing grain * furnaces – metal workers – produced a variety of objects

8  The Great Bath * Mohenjodaro * large swimming pool *six entrances *central bathing pool *galleries *dressing rooms *2 flights of steps to its bottom *burnt bricks *watertight – bitumen lining * well – source of water + drainage *ceremonial bath

9  Mohenjodaro  pillared hall  thick walls  20 pillars – burnt/baked bricks  for an assembly/prayer or just a palace

10  Excellent, well planned  Sloping floors for kitchens, bathrooms connected to street drains  Drains – street side, covered  Manholes – regular intervals – inspection, cleaning  Good sanitation facilities  Hygienic conditions

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12  Several social groups  Rulers, merchants, traders, artisans, farmers, manual labourers

13  wheat – staple food  barley, mustard, fruits, vegetables  milk, meat, fish, eggs – daily diet

14  cotton, woollen  two – piece dresses – men and women  men – dhoti, women – skirts  Upper garment – shawl worn around the shoulder  Ornaments – necklaces, amulets, finger rings, headdress, earring, bangles, girdles, bracelets, anklets  Gold, silver, ivory ornaments – rich  Shell, bone, copper ornaments – poor  Men – beards, hair combed backwards; cut short or coiled in a knot on the top of the head  Women – tied hair tightly, used hairpins, combs and used cosmetics

15  Indoor games – preference  Dancing, singing, playing board games, dice, chess like game  Toys – wheeled carts, dolls, animals with movable heads, sliding monkeys, rattles, whistles  Toys made of baked clay or terracotta

16  AGRICULTURE  Main occupation – farming of wheat, barley, fruits, vegetables  First people to cultivate cotton in the world  Fertile land – surplus food – exported to towns, cities  DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS  goats, sheep, buffaloes, elephants, humped bulls  dogs, cats – pets  ART AND CRAFT  Excellent potters, skilled craftspeople  Pottery – potter’s wheel – glazed, painted pots  terracotta female figures – symbolic of Mother Goddess

17  ART AND CRAFT  knew the art of using metals  goldsmith – gold, silver jewels  coppersmith – utensils  bronzesmith – tools, weapons, metal sculptures – ‘dancing girl’  brick laying, boat making, stone cutting, masonry, carpentry  spinning, weaving – important occupations

18  within and outside India  Mesopotamia (Iraq), Persia (Iran), Afghanistan  variety of weights and measures used  barter system  land and sea trade  bullock carts, boats, ships – transport  dockyard found in Lothal (ships were used)

19  more than 2,000 seals found  small, flat  shape – rectangular, square  made of clay, soapstone, copper  skilfully carved  figures – humans and animals (unicorn, humped bull, goat, tiger, elephant)  used by merchants and traders to stamp goods  valuable source of information – life and culture (religious beliefs, artistic skills, trade contacts, dress, ornaments)  script on seals – puzzle – picture like signs represent words, objects or ideas

20  no temples  smoke - stained clay figures of a female deity – the Mother Goddess  three faced figure in seated yogic posture surrounded by various animals  pipal tree – worshipped  amulets – lucky charm – ward off evil spirits  life after death – dead with food, utensils, ornaments  cremated dead, kept ashes or bones in a urn along with daily use items

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22  well – planned layout – cities were governed efficiently  no evidence of kings or queens  committee for looking after each city  committee consisted of rich merchants, priests

23  came to an abrupt end  Reasons for decline could be :  natural calamities – earthquakes, flood, epidemic  invasion by foreign tribes – Aryans  change of the course of river Indus – land became infertile

24 Click to See Video


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