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Issues Apologetics Unity Apostolic Succession Eucharist Baptism Heretics and schisms Lapsi (Lapsed ones) Petrine primacy Epicopate in general.

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Presentation on theme: "Issues Apologetics Unity Apostolic Succession Eucharist Baptism Heretics and schisms Lapsi (Lapsed ones) Petrine primacy Epicopate in general."— Presentation transcript:


2 Issues Apologetics Unity Apostolic Succession Eucharist Baptism Heretics and schisms Lapsi (Lapsed ones) Petrine primacy Epicopate in general

3 Sources of Information Didache Church Fathers

4 Clement of Rome (? – 101) Ignatius of Antioch (50-107) Irenaeus (130-200) Tertullian (160-225) Origen (184-253)

5 Didache 110 CE Instructions for baptism, Eucharist, and Ordination Need appointed Episkopas (supervisors or overseers) Charismatic apostles and prophets are lessening

6 St. Clement of Rome Letter to Corinth 96 CE Schism developed Elders are direct successors of apostles Validates their authority

7 Ignatius of Antioch Martyrdom Denounced schisms and heresies Advocated for Church’s Episcopacy Incarnation, Passion, Death, Resurrection Coined the term “Roman Catholic”

8 Tertullian Apologetic Christianity enhanced Roman Empire

9 Nature of Jesus Human? God? Demi-God? God = Unlimited being in every sense (Omnipotence, Omniscience, Omnipresences, Omnibenevolent) Modalism Docetism Tertullian Rejects both

10 Origen How do we comprehend Jesus? Joining of two separate entities Divine Word and Human Flesh Infusion Similar problem to Tertullian’s theory


12 How and Why the Church Spread Supernatural origins Politically, unlikely to succeed Backward part of the world Poor, powerless people

13 Thomas Bokenkotter Three Reasons for success of Christianity Political, social, cultural factors affected Christianity

14 Roman Infrastructure Mediterranean under Roman occupation Roads, mail system, ships, travel routes Hellenistic culture meant Greek common language

15 Pax Romana Peace of Rome Emperor Augustus had established peace Meant safe travels

16 Spiritual Unrest Series of unstable rulers Tainted leadership Amalgamation of too many religions Grim mood + “fake” religion Looking for answers Philosophy worked for some Other Religions also consulted Christianity especially popular

17 Other Versions besides Apostolic Christianity Marcionism Doceticism Gnosticism Manichaeism

18 Justin Martyr 100-165 Created first western “Catholic” Rite Format for saying the mass Four components – Introduction Rite – Liturgy of the Word – Liturgy of the Eucharist – Concluding Rite


20 Persecution Initially, came from local Shift to regional governments Nero Seen as problematic, Christians would not acknowledge the divinity of the Roman Emperor

21 Emperor Nero Reigned from 54-68 Psychologically unsound and paranoid Last emperor from the Augustinian line Murdered his mother and wife Fire of 64 Nero accused Christians Forcing confessions Declared Christianity unlawful

22 Emperor Domitian Ruler in 81 Wanted good relations with military Common focus of stopping spread of Christianity Feared Christianity spreading into Aristocracy Discovered members of his own family practicing

23 Five Good Emperors Herva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius More balanced policy Don’t go seeking Christians Offer a chance to recant Often left it up to provincial governors to arbitrate and deal with justice

24 Local Level Different levels of acceptance existed throughout the Empire Always some suspicion, Seen as “outsiders” More accepted during prosperous times

25 Emperor Decius First Empire-wide persecution of Christians Decius attributed Empire’s misfortunes to Christianity Since Christianity called for ultimate allegiance to Christ, seen as dissident

26 Emperor Diocletian Final and worst wave of persecution In 303, focused Roman military against Christianity Destroyed Churches, burnt scripture, brutally tortured and exterminated followers of Christ

27 Christian Response Most martyrs were everyday people From Greek martyros meaning “witness” Seen as a way to follow Christ further empowered the spread of Christianity Early Martyrs amongst the Saints

28 How Did Rome Affect Christianity Forced members to be series about their faith in the face of persecution Provided infrastructure to spread the faith Provided communication network for Christians

29 What did Christianity do for Rome Shift in cultural views Christians took care of those unable to Laid the foundation for later institutions Changed cultural views


31 End of Diocletian Diocletian dies in 305 Tetrarchy East/West division Two junior co-Emperors Galerius and Constantius Civil war breaks out Diocletian commits suicide

32 Out come of Civil War General Constantine Victor of the civil war Assisted by Christ Tolerates Christianity Edict in 313 Pivotal turning point

33 Edict of Milan Officially recognizes Christianity Includes in the list of accepted Religions Was this a good thing?

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