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➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Acid rain Rain that is acidic, as a result of either naturally.

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Presentation on theme: "➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Acid rain Rain that is acidic, as a result of either naturally."— Presentation transcript:

1 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Acid rain Rain that is acidic, as a result of either naturally occurring or human-made chemicals that have dissolved in rain water.

2 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Biofuel A fuel that has been made from a crop grown for that purpose. Most diesel is separated from crude oil, but biodiesel can be made from oils derived from crops such as oil seed rape. Bioethanol can be made from crops such as sugar cane. This is very useful in countries such as Brazil, where the climate is perfect for growing sugar cane but they have very little crude oil.

3 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Biomass A source of renewable energy. Biomass is usually wood that has been grown for the purpose of burning it to release energy. This is a renewable way to harness energy from the Sun, because this energy is transformed through photosynthesis into chemical stored energy. Aside from the energy used to harvest and process the crops, this should be a carbon neutral way of providing energy for homes and businesses.

4 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Carbon neutral A process that overall does not cause the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which would contribute to global warming. Many processes are carbon neutral in theory, but not in practice. For example, growing oil seed rape to turn into biodiesel should absorb carbon dioxide as the plants grow and release it again when the biodiesel is burnt. However, if energy obtained from fossil fuels is used in the planting and harvesting of the crop, the processing of the crop to make oils and the chemical treatment of the oils to make biodiesel, then the fuel is not strictly speaking carbon neutral.

5 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Chemical store Energy that is stored within chemicals and can be released during an exothermic chemical reaction. For example, petrol has a large chemical store of energy because it is able to release a lot of energy when it is burnt.

6 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Climate change Long-term patterns in very large-scale weather systems. The weather may change from day to day, and from place to place in a country or continent. Climate is more concerned with global average temperatures and weather systems that affect huge areas of the Earth. Global warming is an example of climate change.

7 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Coal A solid black substance that is found buried in the Earth’s crust and consists mainly of carbon with some impurities. Coal is a fossil fuel, made from ancient trees that were buried in swamps and could not rot away normally. Extremely high pressures and the absence of oxygen over millions of years turned the wood into coal.

8 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Combined cycle power station A modern design of power station that burns gas to generate electricity. The hot gases produced from burning the gas (carbon dioxide and water) are used to drive a turbine. The hot gases are then cooled using water, which turns into steam and can be used to drive another turbine.

9 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Crude oil A thick black liquid that can be found buried under layers of rock in the Earth’s crust. It was formed from the remains of very small sea creatures that sank to the ocean floor and were covered with layers of sediment, millions of years ago. High pressure and the absence of oxygen turned this into oil. Crude oil is extracted from the crust by drilling and then it is separated into useful substances by fractional distillation. We obtain camping gas, petrol, diesel and tar for the roads from crude oil. Crude oil products are also processed to produce plastics, medicines and cosmetics.

10 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Electromagnetic radiation Waves of varying wavelengths that can transfer energy through a vacuum. These waves require no particles to travel through because they move as a result of vibrations in the electromagnetic field. They are transverse waves. Examples include the longest wavelength radio waves (used for communication and broadcasting), to the shortest wavelength gamma rays (used for sterilising medical equipment).

11 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Energy resource A substance or process that can be harnessed to provide useful energy for human populations. This usually involves transforming the energy into electricity. Examples of energy resources include solar, nuclear, fossil fuels, geothermal, hydroelectric and wind.

12 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Erosion When rocks wear away by the action of the wind, rain, ice and rivers and the particles are transported away to another place.

13 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Fossil fuels Fuels that have been formed in the Earth’s crust over millions of years due to the action of pressure on the remains of living things that have been buried under sediments without enough oxygen for them to fully decompose to carbon dioxide. Examples of fossil fuels include coal, oil and natural gas (methane).

14 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Fuel Any substance that can be burnt to release chemical energy as heat. Fuels react with oxygen in combustion reactions. Examples of fuels include natural gas, wood, coal, ethanol, petrol and diesel.

15 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Generator A device that converts kinetic energy into electrical energy. In a power station, the generator is connected to the spinning turbine, and it consists of a magnet and a coil of wire spinning relative to each other. In many modern generators, the magnet is actually an electromagnet powered by direct current, spinning inside a larger coil. The induced current is generated in the larger coil.

16 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Geothermal power Using thermal energy from the Earth’s crust to produce electricity or to provide heating for homes and businesses. Geothermal power is only possible in places with volcanic activity, such as Iceland, which produces 30% of its electricity from geothermal energy.

17 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Global warming The warming of the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans as a result of increasing the greenhouse effect. This has occurred due to the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane as a result of human activity.

18 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Hydroelectric power (HEP) Using running water to generate electricity. This is usually achieved by building a dam across a river high up in the mountains and then allowing this water to travel down a pipe, converting energy from its gravitational potential store to its kinetic store. It can then be used to spin a turbine connected to a generator. Hydroelectric power stations are often found in mountainous areas of the UK such as the Scottish Highlands and North Wales.

19 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Infrared radiation A method of heat transfer that, unlike conduction and convection, does not require particles. Infrared radiation is a type of electromagnetic wave that has a wavelength slightly longer than that of visible red light (and thus a lower frequency). Infrared can be felt on your face and bare hands when you stand close to a bonfire, for example: moving behind someone else instantly feels colder because less infrared radiation falls on your face and hands.

20 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Light Electromagnetic radiation that the human eye can detect. This ranges in colour from red (long wavelength, low frequency) to violet (shorter wavelength, higher frequency).

21 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 National Grid The network of pylons and wires that carries electricity around the UK, from power stations to consumers.

22 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Natural gas A fossil fuel that consists mainly of methane. This is the gas that is piped to the majority of homes in the UK to provide energy for heating and hot water. Because methane has no odour (smell) a small amount of thiol is added so that customers can detect a gas leak at home and avoid explosions.

23 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Non-renewable energy resource An energy resource that will eventually run out if we continue to use it. It can also be described as being ‘finite’ (the opposite of infinite). Examples of non-renewable energy resources include coal, oil and gas.

24 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Nuclear fuel An element used in nuclear power stations to generate electricity. Radioactive decay of these elements is used to heat water. The steam produced is then used to drive a turbine connected to a generator. Examples of nuclear fuels are uranium and plutonium.

25 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Payback time The length of time (usually measured in years) before an investment in a money-saving home improvement is repaid by the savings you make from it on a yearly basis. For example, if it costs £10 000 to have double glazing installed, and this saves you £1000 every year, the payback time is 10 years. But if it costs £100 to have a draught excluder fitter to your front and back door and this saves you £50 every year, the payback time is 2 years.

26 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Power station Where energy resources are utilised and electricity is generated. The majority of power stations in the UK burn fossil fuels to generate electricity, but some are nuclear, others are hydroelectric and some are wind farms.

27 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Pumped storage Using excess electricity to pump water up to a high reservoir. When more electricity is needed, this water can be released through turbines to generate electricity again. An example of the use of pumped storage is Dinorwig power station in Llanberis, North Wales.

28 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Radioactive Describes substances whose nuclei give off ionising radiation. Many substances all around us are radioactive and our bodies can tolerate a certain amount of this background radiation. However, increases to the amount of radiation by touching or working near to radioactive substances can be very dangerous. An example of a naturally occurring radioactive substance is radon gas.

29 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Radioactive waste The radioactive products from a nuclear power station or nuclear research facility that continue to give off radiation for many years. Radioactive waste can be low level (including paper and clothing) or high level (such as the leftover fuel) and must be stored safely for many years so that it cannot harm living organisms, including humans.

30 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Renewable energy resource An energy resource that will never run out (within the lifetime of humans). Examples of renewable energy resources include solar, wind, hydroelectric and geothermal.

31 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Sluice gates The panels that open or close to control the flow of water through the turbines in a hydroelectric power station.

32 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Solar energy Using light from the Sun to generate electricity in photovoltaic cells, or heating water in solar panels by using the Sun’s rays.

33 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Solar panels Roof panels that absorb energy from the Sun to heat water, rather than generating electricity.

34 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells Roof panels that generate electricity directly from sunlight, rather than heating water. They are also just called solar cells, or PV cells.

35 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Tidal barrage A dam built across a river mouth that traps the tide and then releases the water through turbines to generate electricity. Across the world, very few tidal barrages exist, although many have been proposed. There are significant environmental concerns because of the effect of flooding the estuary habitat.

36 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Turbine A large machine that resembles a jet engine. When steam from a power station’s boiler passes through it the turbine spins, and this spins a generator to make electricity.

37 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Ultraviolet radiation Electromagnetic radiation that has a frequency slightly higher than that of visible light. It is often abbreviated to UV. Ultraviolet radiation causes suntan and sunburn and can cause skin cancer. It is not visible to humans but it is visible to some insects and birds.

38 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Wind energy Taking energy from the kinetic store of moving air and using it to turn turbines, to generate electricity.

39 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Wind farm A collection of wind turbines in one place, generating electricity, usually for the National Grid.

40 ➜ EXTENDED GLOSSARY Physics Topic 4 Energy resources Science Progress © Hodder & Stoughton 2014 Wind turbine A device for using the wind’s kinetic store of energy to generate electricity.


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