Presentation on theme: "Land Governance in Post-Conflict Hiroshima Mari Katayanagi, PhD Hiroshima University."— Presentation transcript:
Land Governance in Post-Conflict Hiroshima Mari Katayanagi, PhD Hiroshima University
Land, property and armed conflicts Land and property as causes and consequences of armed conflicts Forced displacement Massive restitution cases upon cessation of armed conflicts Different solutions in post-conflict period Restitution (e.g. Bosnia and Herzegovina) Land-sharing (e.g. Rwanda, Burundi) Land redistribution
Research on Hiroshima Conflict-affected countries struggle with land and property problems. If Hiroshima managed the land issue in post-WWII period, how was the governance which enabled it? Obvious differences: International armed conflict No identity divisions Existing public administration
Hiroshima after WWII Consequences of a nuclear attack - Area affected: 12,000 hectares 1-2 km: ordinary buildings were completely destroyed of burnt down 2-3 km: buildings were half- destroyed or burnt down Damaged
Reconstructing Hiroshima Peace Memorial City – Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Law (1949) A shared vision Enabling special treatment of Hiroshima (transfer of state land to the local government) -Memorial premises -100-meter wide roads (disaster prevention)
Reconstruction plan of Hiroshima Residence area Commercial area Industrial area
Land readjustment The owner is willing to sell → Purchase by the local government → Sale to occupants of public land The owner/occupant is not willing to relocate → Relocation order (3-month notice) Subsidies for relocation
Land readjustment Transfer private land into public land in the central part of the city Public Private Appropriation Compensation for a half of the land Alternative land Land exchange & compensation
Securing transparent and fair procedures Evaluation of land Committee consisting of 6 to 8 members Public inspection of documents Relocation plans including location, size, and amount of settlement were disclosed for two weeks.
Housing needs and illegal construction Pre-war building relocation and destruction of housing units during the war Inflow of population to the city area Insufficient number of reconstructed housing units Self-help → illegal construction of houses (“atomic bomb slum”) Construction of multi-storied apartments Use of public land planned for a park
Conflict resolution Administrative procedure Complaints against land readjustment East sector: local committees discussed the complaints and visited the site in question if necessary. (Admission rate: 12%) West sector: All the complainants were interviewed before the discussion. (Admission rate: 13%) Administrative review → administrative lawsuits Judgment: minor illegality of an administrative decision could not be the reason to cancel it.
Factors of relative success A clear vision over the development of the city, supported by the public as well as the central government. Transparent and fair procedures (information disclosure, complaint mechanism, etc.) Flexibility to support citizens’ interests Participatory approach Balance between different demands and views A set of basic good governance rules