Presentation on theme: "HOW DID THE AMERICANS ON THE HOMEFRONT SUPPORT OR OPPOSE WWI? WWI: The Home Front."— Presentation transcript:
HOW DID THE AMERICANS ON THE HOMEFRONT SUPPORT OR OPPOSE WWI? WWI: The Home Front
Peace Groups Pacifists- people who oppose all war for political, moral, or religious reasons Women’s Peace party- led by Jane Addams feared that U.S.’s Entry into war would diminish support for their reform Conscientious Objectors- people who opposed war for religious or moral reasons and therefore refused to serve in the armed forces (often risking going to prison)
Government and the War Committee on Public Information (CPI)- George Creel led this government created committee in attempt to sell the war to the public. Films, Books, and Four Minute Men (speakers around the country) Patriotic Fervor Propaganda (information or rumors spread by a group or the government to promote causes or ideas to damage an opposing cause or idea) Parades, flag waving, schools sending war materials, families collecting apricot pits for making gas masks. Sometimes patriotic fervor started anti-German Hysteria
Transforming the Economy for the War Effort Raising money for the war effort came through taxes and liberty bonds Taxes funded ¼ of the cost of war War Revenue Act- increased income taxes during WWI 1916- 437,000 to 1918- 4.4 million Liberty Bonds- certificate issued by the government that promises to pay back the money with interest on a specific date
Industry, Food, and Fuel for War War Industries Board- headed by Bernard Baruch coordinated the work of government agencies, and industry groups to make sure supplies and equipment were produced and delivered to the military National War labor board- government worked to ensure the cooperation of unions Food and Fuel Food Administration- oversaw the production and distribution of food and fuel Meatless Mondays, Wheatless Wednesdays Gasless Sundays, and Heatless Mondays Victory Gardens (one in front of the Whitehouse)
Democracy on the Home front African Americans- most supported the war effort and the NAACP encouraged people to serve in the military WEB Du Bois wrote, “Let us, while this war lasts, forget our special grievances and close our ranks shoulder to shoulder with our own white fellow citizens and the allied nations that are fighting for democracy. GREAT MIGRATION- Mass movement of African Americans to the North. Chicago, Ney York City, Cleveland saw an explosion of black residents Race Riots broke out in 1919 nicknamed “red summer” St.Louis factory owner brought in black workers to break up a strike and a riot broke out causing 30 Africans to die and 9 whites
Immigrants Immigrants faced Americanization Most immigrants supported the war American Protective League-self appointed patriot group that targeted immigrants for being disloyal German Americans were often attacked and targeted
Fear takes over Espionage Act (1917)- “spying”- made it a crime to try and interfere with the military draft and set penalties for spying, sabotage, and “obstruction of the war effort. Sedition Act (1918)- made it a crime to say anything that was disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government
Speaking Out Against the War Wobblies- members of the Industrial Workers of the World spoke out against the war. 165 arrested, 1 hung, viewed as disloyal Schenck v. United States- Espionage Act, Charles Schenck, a socialists, was charged with distributing leaflets to recent draftees, urging them to resist the military draft. Schenck’s lawyer stated he had a right to free speech Unanimous decision- Schenck’s publications created a clear and present danger to a nation engaged in war.
Defining Free Speech All speeches that are protected by our freedoms Pure Speech (spoken word) Speech-plus (speech plus action) Symbolic Speech (Conduct that conveys a message without word) United States v. O’Brien- 1960’s Vietnam anti war activist David Paul O’Brian burnt his draft card and was punished by law Texas v. Johnson- 1984 George Lee Johnson protested the Reagan administration by setting an American Flag on Fire. He was protected by symbolic speech but Congress then passed the Flag Protection Act of 1989 which made it illegal to burn or mutilate an American Flag. The Flag protection Act was declared unconstitutional after supreme court case United States v. Eichman.
SHOULD THE U.S. HAVE RATIFIED OR REJECTED THE TREATY OF VERSIALLES? Treaty of Versailles: To Ratify or Reject
Wilson’s vision for World Peace Fourteen Points- Wilson’s Blueprint for peace End to Secret Alliances Freedom of Seas European reduction of Armaments (weapons) Right to Self Determination Creation of the League of Nations –an international peace keeping organization in which countries would protect territorial integrity
Paris Peace Conference Big Four- Wilson of US, David Loyd George of GB, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy War Guilt Clause- addition to the Treaty of Versailles that held Germany responsible of WWI and required them to pay reparations to the allied nations (33 billion dollars) Wilson did not agree with this Clause… Self-Determination- Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania all gained independence Germany was given to France, Poland, Demark, and Belgium and Italy gained Austrian Territory. Conflict?? The TREATY OF VERSAILLES WAS SIGNED June 18 th, 1919 by the BIG FOUR
Wilson brings the Treaty home to ratify… Wilson needed 2/3 vote to ratify the treaty and Republicans were hesitant Reservationists- Republican senators who agreed to approve the treaty only if changes were made in response to their concerns Irreconcilables-Republican Senators who strongly opposed the Treaty of Versailles (1 of 16) Internationalists- Democratic senators who strongly supported the Treaty of Versailles
A Divided Senate fails the Treaty Partisanship (rivalry)- defeats the treaty Many irreconcilables felt the treaty would drag us into world affairs (the League of Nations) some Democrats turned on Wilson and voted the treaty down. The vote fell to 7 votes short with some democrats siding with the irreconcilables and the Treaty was turned down.
1920 Election Democratic Candidate- James Cox (Ohio) and VP Franklin Delano Roosevelt (later president for 4 terms) Republican Candidate- Warren G. Harding Cox received 9.1 million votes Harding received 16.1 million votes HARDING becomes the President in 1921 By 1921 the League of Nations was running without the United States as a member (whose president had created it) Could WWII have been avoided if the US joined the League of Nations?