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Disclaimer The information contained in the nine (9) PowerPoint presentations is intended for general use to assist qualified Extension Officers to communicate.

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Presentation on theme: "Disclaimer The information contained in the nine (9) PowerPoint presentations is intended for general use to assist qualified Extension Officers to communicate."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Disclaimer The information contained in the nine (9) PowerPoint presentations is intended for general use to assist qualified Extension Officers to communicate the material covered in the Manual “Managing Indigenous Pastoral Lands” to Indigenous pastoralists and their advisors and other stakeholders. It includes general statements based on scientific research. Extension officers are advised to seek training in the delivery of the PowerPoints where necessary. Trainers and audiences are advised, and need to be aware, that this information may be incomplete or unsuitable for use in specific situations. Whilst all care has been taken to ensure that all information is true and correct at the time of publication, McClelland Rural Services Pty Ltd gives no warranty or assurance, and make no representation as to the accuracy of any material or advice contained in these PowerPoints. Before taking any action or decision based on the information in the PowerPoint presentations, readers should seek expert professional, scientific, technical and legal advice. To the extent permitted by law, the McClelland Rural Services Pty Ltd (including its employees and consultants), the authors and its partners do not assume liability of any kind whatsoever resulting from any person’s use or reliance upon the contents of these PowerPoints, or if changes are made to them. WARNING: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander attendees should be aware that the following presentations may contain images or names of people who have since passed away.

3 Grazing Land Management Is about: Managing stock numbers Managing land condition Fire management Weed management Managing feral animals Preventing erosion

4 Carrying Capacity and Stocking Rates

5 Long term carrying capacity Numbers of cattle a paddock can support over the long term (8 to 10 years) Depends on country type, land condition, watering point location, and pasture Get a professional assessment from a qualified extension officer

6 Short term carrying capacity or stocking rates Numbers of cattle a paddock can support over the short term (a season or a few months) Depends on the wet season, how much rain fell and pasture response Stocking rates can be assessed by an experienced station manager

7 Adult Equivalents 1 adult equivalent is a 450kg steer (or a 450kg dry cow)

8 Adult Equivalents If a paddock runs 500 AEs that equals: -500 dry cows or steers weaners -375 pregnant cows with calves -333 bulls Can be used to determine how many cattle a paddock will carry

9 Adult Equivalent (AE) ratings Steer or dry cow 450kg - 1 AE Weaner 200kg - 1/2 AE Bull 650kg - 1 and 1/2 AE Cow and calf - 1 and 1/3 AE Horse - 1 and 1/4 AE

10 Continuous grazing Rotational grazing Wet season spelling Grazing Systems

11 Continuous Grazing Benefits No cost moving cattle Cattle get to know paddock Disadvantages Risk of overgrazing of some country (e.g. sweeter country) If stocking rates not adjusted the whole paddock may get overgrazed some years, undergrazed in other years.

12 Rotational Grazing Benefits Pasture gets spelled for a period of time Prevents some grasses getting grazed out Disadvantages If a paddock is stocked for too long it affects pasture and cattle performance More management, more planning

13 Wet Season Spelling Benefits Pasture gets spelled during growing season Prevents some grasses getting grazed out May be needed to improve land condition Disadvantages Can overstock other paddocks that cattle are moved to More management - need to plan ahead

14 Condition of the land influences how the land responds to rainfall Land Condition Management

15 Land condition has 3 components: -Soil condition -Pasture condition -Woodland condition

16 ABCD Land Condition Allows land owners and managers to classify the land. They can then make good management decisions. A condition – good condition B condition – fair condition C condition – poor condition D condition - degraded

17 Good condition (A), ribbon grass All big healthy plants, and good ground coverage Spacing between plants is even

18 Fair condition (B), ribbon grass More spacing between plants Small plant size, and not as good ground coverage Other species start to dominate

19 Poor condition (C), ribbon grass Bare patches appear Small plant size, and ribbon grass becomes sparse Less desirable species start to appear

20 The Rolling Ball of Land Condition The steeper the incline: -the harder it is to get the ball back up the slope -i.e. more effort required to revert land condition back to its original state

21 Controlling Cattle Distribution to promote evenness of grazing

22 Ways of Controlling Cattle Distribution Placement of waters - to spread the cattle out Fire - attracts cattle onto areas previously not grazed Placement of lick troughs - place away from waters Placement of fences - cattle forced to use new areas

23 Fire management Fire must be used with care, as it potentially can damage pastures and lead to erosion

24 Fire management – grazing benefits Removes old rank grass, the new grass coming through is of a better quality Attracts cattle onto burnt country, away from over grazed areas Reduces “fuel” build up, for fewer wildfires Modifies pasture composition (seek advice) Manages woodland thickening, and allows more grass Controls weeds, those which don’t like fire

25 Plan for a controlled burn rather than a wild fire

26 Weed Management A single weed becomes a patch of weeds If you see a single weed get rid of it now

27 Principles of Weed Management Learn how to identify bad weeds Look out for and map weed infestations Develop a plan for weed control Control weeds every year Control weeds now rather than later (to save $ in the long run) Prevent weeds coming onto your property

28 Erosion control Prevention is best as repair is too expensive

29 Erosion control Maintain enough vegetation cover Reduce stock numbers in dry years Plan roads and fences to reduce erosion Use ‘whoa boys’ on steep roads Put watering points in areas that are less likely to erode Don’t over use fire

30 Feral Animal Control to promote evenness of grazing Seek local expert advice for the most humane and cost effective eradication methods

31 Feral Animal Control Feral animals: Cause soil erosion and land degradation Eat grass that cattle could be eating Destroy native animal habitats Carry disease infecting other animals Spread weeds Wild dogs work in packs to kill calves

32 Responsibilities When Leasing Out Your Land When drawing up a Lease make sure land management responsibilities are listed clearly

33 The Lease Agreement should contain the following: Carrying capacity limits Stocking rates for seasonal conditions Maintenance of waters, fences, roads, yards and buildings Maintenance of land condition Wet season spelling of paddocks Weed control programs Feral animal control

34 Grazing Land Management Summary: Monitor & manage stock numbers Monitor & manage land condition Use fire as a management tool Identify and control weeds Manage feral animals Prevent erosion

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