Presentation on theme: "A) ransom to be paid. B) which culture was civilizing the other."— Presentation transcript:
1When settlers were taken captive by the Indians, it raised the fundamental issue of A) ransom to be paid.B) which culture was civilizing the other.C) military rescue operations.treaty provisions covering prisoners of war.2. Metacomet (King Philip) leads a war against New England settlers in the 1670s becauseA) trade was declining between the settlers and Indians.B) Puritan missionaries had become too aggressive.C) settlers continued to encroach upon Indian lands.D) he needed to divert attention away from internal problems.
2outright war to kill Indians and seize lands Bacon - leaderlegislation that allowed Indians to be termed:‘enemies if they left their village without permission from the English’
3Governor ordered the end of hostilities Bacon rode into Jamestown.Chased the governor away and burnt the capital buildingoffered freedom to any of Berkeley’s supporters, servants or slaves who joined them.
4Just as Bacon and rebellion at height of its power Bacon died possibly of dysenteryRebellion was over.Berkeley regained controlpunished Bacon’s supporters
5Aftermath English government sent to troops to quell uprising Virginia at peace long before they arrived.Berkeley recalledNew governor implemented some reforms and hit rebels hardExecuted leaders and imprisoned othersSending a message that rebellion was never justified, no matter what the provocation.The long term effect for Indians was that the frontier was again pushed back
6Possible Explanations A) Instability on frontiermixing of freed servants, blacks, Indians; taxes high, discontent over spending priorities, so rebellion a symbol of class conflictB) lower death rates and immigration of royalists meant social mobility fallingEstablishing First Families of Virginia – even Bacon excludedC) Bacon as popular democratic hero struggling vs tyrannyfailure leads to ‘end of American Independence’
7Back to the British colonies Not VirginiaNot New EnglandBut the richest place in the British EmpireBarbados
84 times richer than tobacco planter in Chesapeake BarbadosColonized 1630sAnnual sugar exports,000 pounds1700 – 50 Million1680 planter in Barbados4 times richer than tobacco planter in Chesapeake
9Important for two reasons WealthStructureBoth transferred to mainland
10Virginia and wider Chesapeake region was: Remember this man?Virginia and wider Chesapeake region was:GrowingLosing attractiveness for Indentured servantsBut still neededCheap labor1650s Africans 3% of ChesapeakeMajority population on Barbados
11Obtained charter to create colony south of Chesapeake 1663 John CollertonBarbadian planterObtained charter to create colony south of ChesapeakeCarolina1670 settled in Charles Towne1712 split into two
12Not as good as the old one in my opinion! New EnglandNot as good as the old one in my opinion!
13New England Colonies Separatists Pilgrims founded Plymouth in 1620SeparatistsHolland 1608Initially intended to settle in VirginiaBlown off course and ended up well north of Virginia’s boundaries102 survived crossingArrived late fallMayflower Compact bound settlers to accept will of the majority
14Rescued from disaster by local Wampanoag Indians Samoset, then Squanto Wampanoag provided knowledge and help that enabled them to survive the following winterFirst full year was still difficult and harshOnly seven buildings erected½ colonists diedNew colonists arrivedSickly, and without supplies – strained resources furtherLike James Town without out help from local native population colony would not have survived
15According to Governor William Bradford first winter “was most sad and lamentable” “In two or three months’ time half of [our] company died Being the depth of winter, and wanting houses and other comforts [and] being infected with scurvy and other diseases”
16New England Colonies (cont) Puritans secured charter in 1629Established colony for the Massachusetts Bay CompanySettlers arrived in waves, created numerous townsAbout 13,000 settlers arrived in New England by 1641
17Colony prospered economically, but eroded religiously Anne HutchinsonNon-Separatists
18When settlers were taken captive by the Indians, it raised the fundamental issue of A) ransom to be paid.B) which culture was civilizing the other.C) military rescue operations.treaty provisions covering prisoners of war.2. Metacomet (King Philip) leads a war against New England settlers in the 1670s becauseA) trade was declining between the settlers and Indians.B) Puritan missionaries had become too aggressive.C) settlers continued to encroach upon Indian lands.D) he needed to divert attention away from internal problems.
201660-85 sees massive increase in Eng settlement on east coast Restoration ColoniesBut also major threats to colonial societyNew England and Chesapeake - King Philip’s War & Bacon’s RebellionNew Mexico – PopeCan I find figures on population increase?
22Indian – White relations at low ebb by 1670s. Treaties with Indians not kept,no real attempt by whites to engage with Indiansnefarious tactics to get land.
23Metacom – named ‘King Philip’ by whites, chief of Wampanoags, Specific grievancesloss of tribal landseffect of alcohol and guns on peoplealso Puritan treatment of ‘praying Indians’confined to praying villages, taken away from homes and families
24War probably planned by Metacom/King Philip betrayed by Christian Indian, John Sassamon.Sassamon murdered, seen as evidence his warnings were correct3 Wampanoag Indians tried and executed for his murder – but real suspicion directed at King PhilipPuritans mount pre-emptive strike vs Wampanoag in late 1675
25Consequences3000 Indians killed (50% of popn)Loss of tribal leadersexile of many Indians to west, captives sold into slaveryRemaining tribes confined to praying villages.End of Native threat in New England
26Cost £100,000 - came close to bankrupting many colonies. 2500 white settlers killed10% of white men of fighting ageDamaged 52 of the 90 settlements in New England, totally destroying 12 of them.Psychological – King Philip’sWar ‘so dreadful a judgment’ for straying from path of righteousness,i.e. a warning from God, yet victory shows God still on white sideWhite settlement restricted, doesn’t reach 1675 levels again until 1710
27More Problems in New England Between June – September 1692 in a New England town19 men and women were carted to Gallows Hill for hangingAnother man pressed to death under heavy stonesDozens languished in jail for months without trials.Then, almost as soon as it had begun, the hysteria that swept through Puritan Massachusetts ended.
28Background 1688, John Putnam invited Samuel Parris, an influential elder of Salem Village,invited Samuel Parris,a marginally successful planter and merchant in Barbados,to preach in the Village churchA year later, after negotiations over salary, inflation adjustments, and free firewood, Parris accepted the job as Village minister.He moved to Salem Village with his wife Elizabeth,six-year-old daughter Betty,niece Abagail Williams,Indian slave Tituba, acquired by Parris in Barbados.
29Salem in the midst of change mercantile elite was beginning to develop two clans (the Putnams and the Porters) were competing for control of the village and its pulpitDebate raging over how independent Salem Villagetied more to the interior agricultural regionsshould be from Salem, a center of sea trade.
30Betty Parris became strangely ill. February 1692Betty Parris became strangely ill.Dashed about,Dove under furniture,Contorted in pain,Complained of fever.The cause of her symptoms may have been combination ofstress, asthma, guilt, boredom, child abuse, epilepsy, and delusional psychosis.
31Cotton Mather recently published "Memorable Providences," At the time there was another theory to explain the girls' symptoms.Cotton Mather recently published "Memorable Providences,"Described suspected witchcraft of an Irish washerwoman in BostonBetty's behavior in some ways mirrored that of the afflicted person
32Easy to believe in 1692 in Salem Remains of an Indian war raging less than seventy miles awaymany refugees from the war had settled in the areaThe devil was close at handSudden and violent death occupied minds.
33Why did this travesty of justice occur? Why did it occur in where it did?Nothing about this tragedy was inevitable.Only an unfortunate combination ofan ongoing frontier wareconomic conditionscongregational strifeteenage boredompersonal jealousiescan account for the accusations, trials, and executions that occurred in the spring and summer of 1692 in Salem