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When settlers were taken captive by the Indians, it raised the fundamental issue of A)ransom to be paid. B)which culture was civilizing the other. C)military.

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Presentation on theme: "When settlers were taken captive by the Indians, it raised the fundamental issue of A)ransom to be paid. B)which culture was civilizing the other. C)military."— Presentation transcript:

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2 When settlers were taken captive by the Indians, it raised the fundamental issue of A)ransom to be paid. B)which culture was civilizing the other. C)military rescue operations. D)treaty provisions covering prisoners of war. 2. Metacomet (King Philip) leads a war against New England settlers in the 1670s because A)trade was declining between the settlers and Indians. B)Puritan missionaries had become too aggressive. C)settlers continued to encroach upon Indian lands. D)he needed to divert attention away from internal problems.

3 outright war to kill Indians and seize lands outright war to kill Indians and seize lands Bacon - leader Bacon - leader legislation that allowed Indians to be termed: legislation that allowed Indians to be termed: ‘enemies if they left their village without permission from the English’ ‘enemies if they left their village without permission from the English’

4 Governor ordered the end of hostilities Governor ordered the end of hostilities Bacon rode into Jamestown. Bacon rode into Jamestown. Chased the governor away and burnt the capital building Chased the governor away and burnt the capital building offered freedom to any of Berkeley’s supporters, servants or slaves who joined them. offered freedom to any of Berkeley’s supporters, servants or slaves who joined them.

5 Just as Bacon and rebellion at height of its power Just as Bacon and rebellion at height of its power Bacon died Bacon died possibly of dysentery possibly of dysentery Rebellion was over. Rebellion was over. Berkeley regained control Berkeley regained control punished Bacon’s supporters punished Bacon’s supporters

6 Aftermath English government sent to troops to quell uprising English government sent to troops to quell uprising Virginia at peace long before they arrived. Virginia at peace long before they arrived. Berkeley recalled Berkeley recalled New governor implemented some reforms and hit rebels hard New governor implemented some reforms and hit rebels hard Executed leaders and imprisoned others Executed leaders and imprisoned others Sending a message that rebellion was never justified, no matter what the provocation. Sending a message that rebellion was never justified, no matter what the provocation. The long term effect for Indians was that the frontier was again pushed back The long term effect for Indians was that the frontier was again pushed back

7 Possible Explanations A) Instability on frontier A) Instability on frontier mixing of freed servants, blacks, Indians; taxes high, discontent over spending priorities, so rebellion a symbol of class conflict mixing of freed servants, blacks, Indians; taxes high, discontent over spending priorities, so rebellion a symbol of class conflict B) lower death rates and immigration of royalists meant social mobility falling B) lower death rates and immigration of royalists meant social mobility falling Establishing First Families of Virginia – even Bacon excluded Establishing First Families of Virginia – even Bacon excluded C) Bacon as popular democratic hero struggling vs tyranny C) Bacon as popular democratic hero struggling vs tyranny failure leads to ‘end of American Independence’ failure leads to ‘end of American Independence’

8 Back to the British colonies Not Virginia Not Virginia Not New England Not New England But the richest place in the British Empire But the richest place in the British Empire Barbados Barbados

9 Colonized 1630s Colonized 1630s Annual sugar exports Annual sugar exports ,000 pounds ,000 pounds 1700 – 50 Million 1700 – 50 Million 1680 planter in Barbados 1680 planter in Barbados 4 times richer than tobacco planter in Chesapeake 4 times richer than tobacco planter in Chesapeake

10 Important for two reasons Important for two reasons Wealth Wealth Structure Structure Both transferred to mainland Both transferred to mainland

11 Remember this man? Remember this man? Virginia and wider Chesapeake region was: Virginia and wider Chesapeake region was: Growing Growing Losing attractiveness for Indentured servants Losing attractiveness for Indentured servants But still needed But still needed Cheap labor Cheap labor 1650s Africans 3% of Chesapeake 1650s Africans 3% of Chesapeake Majority population on Barbados Majority population on Barbados

12 1663 John Collerton 1663 John Collerton Barbadian planter Barbadian planter Obtained charter to create colony south of Chesapeake Obtained charter to create colony south of Chesapeake Carolina Carolina 1670 settled in Charles Towne 1670 settled in Charles Towne 1712 split into two 1712 split into two

13 New England Not as good as the old one in my opinion!

14 New England Colonies Pilgrims founded Plymouth in 1620 Pilgrims founded Plymouth in 1620 Separatists Separatists Holland 1608 Holland 1608 Initially intended to settle in Virginia Initially intended to settle in Virginia Blown off course and ended up well north of Virginia’s boundaries Blown off course and ended up well north of Virginia’s boundaries 102 survived crossing 102 survived crossing Arrived late fall Arrived late fall Mayflower Compact bound settlers to accept will of the majority Mayflower Compact bound settlers to accept will of the majority

15 Rescued from disaster by local Wampanoag Indians Rescued from disaster by local Wampanoag Indians Samoset, then Squanto Samoset, then Squanto Wampanoag provided knowledge and help that enabled them to survive the following winter Wampanoag provided knowledge and help that enabled them to survive the following winter First full year was still difficult and harsh First full year was still difficult and harsh Only seven buildings erected Only seven buildings erected ½ colonists died ½ colonists died New colonists arrived New colonists arrived Sickly, and without supplies – strained resources further Sickly, and without supplies – strained resources further Like James Town without out help from local native population colony would not have survived Like James Town without out help from local native population colony would not have survived

16 According to Governor William Bradford first winter “was most sad and lamentable” According to Governor William Bradford first winter “was most sad and lamentable” “In two or three months’ time half of [our] company died... Being the depth of winter, and wanting houses and other comforts [and] being infected with scurvy and other diseases” “In two or three months’ time half of [our] company died... Being the depth of winter, and wanting houses and other comforts [and] being infected with scurvy and other diseases”

17 New England Colonies New England Colonies (cont) Puritans secured charter in 1629 Established colony for the Massachusetts Bay Company Settlers arrived in waves, created numerous towns About 13,000 settlers arrived in New England by 1641

18 Colony prospered economically, but eroded religiously Colony prospered economically, but eroded religiously Anne Hutchinson Anne Hutchinson Non-Separatists Non-Separatists

19 When settlers were taken captive by the Indians, it raised the fundamental issue of A)ransom to be paid. B)which culture was civilizing the other. C)military rescue operations. D)treaty provisions covering prisoners of war. 2. Metacomet (King Philip) leads a war against New England settlers in the 1670s because A)trade was declining between the settlers and Indians. B)Puritan missionaries had become too aggressive. C)settlers continued to encroach upon Indian lands. D)he needed to divert attention away from internal problems.

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21 sees massive increase in Eng settlement on east coast sees massive increase in Eng settlement on east coast Restoration Colonies Restoration Colonies But also major threats to colonial society But also major threats to colonial society New England and Chesapeake - King Philip’s War & Bacon’s Rebellion New England and Chesapeake - King Philip’s War & Bacon’s Rebellion New Mexico – Pope New Mexico – Pope

22 PROBLEMS IN NEW ENGLAND King Philip’s War

23 Indian – White relations at low ebb by 1670s. Indian – White relations at low ebb by 1670s. Treaties with Indians not kept, Treaties with Indians not kept, no real attempt by whites to engage with Indians no real attempt by whites to engage with Indians nefarious tactics to get land. nefarious tactics to get land.

24 Metacom – named ‘King Philip’ by whites, chief of Wampanoags, Metacom – named ‘King Philip’ by whites, chief of Wampanoags, Specific grievances Specific grievances loss of tribal lands loss of tribal lands effect of alcohol and guns on people effect of alcohol and guns on people also Puritan treatment of ‘praying Indians’ also Puritan treatment of ‘praying Indians’ confined to praying villages, taken away from homes and families confined to praying villages, taken away from homes and families

25 War probably planned by Metacom/King Philip War probably planned by Metacom/King Philip betrayed by Christian Indian, John Sassamon. betrayed by Christian Indian, John Sassamon. Sassamon murdered, seen as evidence his warnings were correct Sassamon murdered, seen as evidence his warnings were correct 3 Wampanoag Indians tried and executed for his murder – but real suspicion directed at King Philip 3 Wampanoag Indians tried and executed for his murder – but real suspicion directed at King Philip Puritans mount pre-emptive strike vs Wampanoag in late 1675 Puritans mount pre-emptive strike vs Wampanoag in late 1675

26 Consequences 3000 Indians killed (50% of popn) 3000 Indians killed (50% of popn) Loss of tribal leaders Loss of tribal leaders exile of many Indians to west, captives sold into slavery exile of many Indians to west, captives sold into slavery Remaining tribes confined to praying villages. Remaining tribes confined to praying villages. End of Native threat in New England End of Native threat in New England

27 Cost £100,000 - came close to bankrupting many colonies. Cost £100,000 - came close to bankrupting many colonies white settlers killed 2500 white settlers killed 10% of white men of fighting age 10% of white men of fighting age Damaged 52 of the 90 settlements in New England, totally destroying 12 of them. Damaged 52 of the 90 settlements in New England, totally destroying 12 of them. Psychological – King Philip’sWar ‘so dreadful a judgment’ for straying from path of righteousness, Psychological – King Philip’sWar ‘so dreadful a judgment’ for straying from path of righteousness, i.e. a warning from God, yet victory shows God still on white side i.e. a warning from God, yet victory shows God still on white side White settlement restricted, doesn’t reach 1675 levels again until 1710 White settlement restricted, doesn’t reach 1675 levels again until 1710

28 More Problems in New England Between June – September 1692 in a New England town Between June – September 1692 in a New England town 19 men and women were carted to Gallows Hill for hanging 19 men and women were carted to Gallows Hill for hanging Another man pressed to death under heavy stones Another man pressed to death under heavy stones Dozens languished in jail for months without trials. Dozens languished in jail for months without trials. Then, almost as soon as it had begun, the hysteria that swept through Puritan Massachusetts ended. Then, almost as soon as it had begun, the hysteria that swept through Puritan Massachusetts ended.

29 Background 1688, John Putnam 1688, John Putnam an influential elder of Salem Village, an influential elder of Salem Village, invited Samuel Parris, invited Samuel Parris, a marginally successful planter and merchant in Barbados, a marginally successful planter and merchant in Barbados, to preach in the Village church to preach in the Village church A year later, after negotiations over salary, inflation adjustments, and free firewood, Parris accepted the job as Village minister. A year later, after negotiations over salary, inflation adjustments, and free firewood, Parris accepted the job as Village minister. He moved to Salem Village with his wife Elizabeth, He moved to Salem Village with his wife Elizabeth, six-year-old daughter Betty, six-year-old daughter Betty, niece Abagail Williams, niece Abagail Williams, Indian slave Tituba, acquired by Parris in Barbados. Indian slave Tituba, acquired by Parris in Barbados.

30 Salem in the midst of change Salem in the midst of change mercantile elite was beginning to develop mercantile elite was beginning to develop two clans (the Putnams and the Porters) were competing for control of the village and its pulpit two clans (the Putnams and the Porters) were competing for control of the village and its pulpit Debate raging over how independent Salem Village Debate raging over how independent Salem Village tied more to the interior agricultural regions tied more to the interior agricultural regions should be from Salem, a center of sea trade. should be from Salem, a center of sea trade.

31 February 1692 February 1692 Betty Parris became strangely ill. Betty Parris became strangely ill. Dashed about, Dashed about, Dove under furniture, Dove under furniture, Contorted in pain, Contorted in pain, Complained of fever. Complained of fever. The cause of her symptoms may have been combination of The cause of her symptoms may have been combination of stress, asthma, guilt, boredom, child abuse, epilepsy, and delusional psychosis. stress, asthma, guilt, boredom, child abuse, epilepsy, and delusional psychosis.

32 At the time there was another theory to explain the girls' symptoms. At the time there was another theory to explain the girls' symptoms. Cotton Mather recently published "Memorable Providences," Cotton Mather recently published "Memorable Providences," Described suspected witchcraft of an Irish washerwoman in Boston Described suspected witchcraft of an Irish washerwoman in Boston Betty's behavior in some ways mirrored that of the afflicted person Betty's behavior in some ways mirrored that of the afflicted person

33 Easy to believe in 1692 in Salem Easy to believe in 1692 in Salem Remains of an Indian war raging less than seventy miles away Remains of an Indian war raging less than seventy miles away many refugees from the war had settled in the area many refugees from the war had settled in the area The devil was close at hand The devil was close at hand Sudden and violent death occupied minds. Sudden and violent death occupied minds.

34 Why did this travesty of justice occur? Why did this travesty of justice occur? Why did it occur in where it did? Why did it occur in where it did? Nothing about this tragedy was inevitable. Nothing about this tragedy was inevitable. Only an unfortunate combination of Only an unfortunate combination of an ongoing frontier war an ongoing frontier war economic conditions economic conditions congregational strife congregational strife teenage boredom teenage boredom personal jealousies personal jealousies can account for the accusations, trials, and executions that occurred in the spring and summer of 1692 in Salem can account for the accusations, trials, and executions that occurred in the spring and summer of 1692 in Salem


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