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Holocaust/Genocide Lecture Notes Night 1. STANDARD 3.12 3.12 Literary Criticism: Analyze the way in which a work of literature is related to the themes.

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Presentation on theme: "Holocaust/Genocide Lecture Notes Night 1. STANDARD 3.12 3.12 Literary Criticism: Analyze the way in which a work of literature is related to the themes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Holocaust/Genocide Lecture Notes Night 1

2 STANDARD Literary Criticism: Analyze the way in which a work of literature is related to the themes and issues of its historical period. (Historical approach). 2

3 DO NOW: NIGHT/Genocide Unit List and briefly explain everything you know about the Holocaust, World War II, Adolf Hitler, and everything you know about GENOCIDE in particular. 3

4 Genocide Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group. The term "genocide" was coined by Raphael Lemkin) from the Greek root génos (family, tribe or race - gene); secondly from Latin -cide (—to massacre, kill). 4

5 Ethnic Cleansing: the elimination of an unwanted ethnic group or groups from a society, as by genocide or forced emigration. This is just another term for GENOCIDE. Holocaust:(from the Greek: holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt") Shoah: "calamity,”—catastrophe, great big devastation. 5

6 World War II Germany and the World at war from 1938 to Russia, America, England and others—allies. As Germany defeated countries in Europe, they began deporting all Jews from the countries to POLAND— where most of the death camps were located. Germany was defeated in Russia played a major role in the war—they lost over 25 million people fighting the Germans. Russia marched into Berlin, the capital of Germany in 1945, and defeated the Germans. As the Russians were fighting the war, they liberated- (freed) many concentration camps where the Jews were being killed. 6

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8 Map of World Lets look at Germany, Russia, Armenia, Turkey England, and Romania—the birthplace of Elie Wiesel 8

9 World Map 9

10 From Talat Pasha and the Armenians to Hitler and the Jews 10 Armenian Genocide—April 24, 1915 WWII Between

11 From the Ottoman Turks to the Nazi Germans 1.5 Million Armenians6 Million Jews Both countries combined are responsible for the murder, rape, and torture of over 7.5 Million men, women, and children. Ottoman TurksNazi Germans 11

12 From Hitler to Saloth Sar to Slobodan Milošević President of Yugoslavia-Responsible for killed hundreds of thousands of ethnic Albanians. He thought the Albanians were inferior and wanted a pure, ethnically clean Serbia for only pure Serbs. Saloth Sar-AKA Pol Pot, was responsible for the killing of over a million Cambodians in 1970s. 12

13 Milosovich to Pot Serbs kill over 350,000 Albanians-1994 Over 1 Million Cambodians Killed-1970s Over 500,000 Sudanese Murdered in Darfur- Happening NOW

14 It Starts with the Armenians 14

15 The Armenian Genocide Starting in 1915, Turkey systematically murdered over 1.5 million Armenians. The Armenian Genocide is remembered every year on April 24. April 24, 1915 is when the Turks first started massacring the Armenians. Reasons: Religious. Armenians are Christians Turks are Muslim. Turkey wanted an all Muslim nation. 15

16 Hanging of the Armenians 16

17 Armenian Genocide 17

18 Armenian Woman and Her Child 18

19 Death Marches Death Marches of the Armenians. This would again be repeated with the Jews. 19

20 Death Marches of the Armenians 20

21 Eternal Fire Burning in Armenia 21

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23 The Armenian Genocide (1915) Adolf Hitler: “After all, who remembers the killings of the Armenians?” 23

24 Holocaust Terms Concentration Camp, Any imprisonment camp for holding "enemies of Hitler’s Germany.” The construction of concentration camps began almost immediately after Hitler gained power in Germany. There were several kinds: labor camps, prison camps and death camps. Most of the concentration and death camps were located in POLAND, the rest in Germany. 24

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26 Holocaust Terms Dachau: a concentration camp located in Germany. First experiment with gas chambers were undertaken. Auschwitz: The largest of Nazi Germany's concentration camps. Located in Germany- occupied southern Poland, it took its name from the nearby town of Oświęcim (Auschwitz in German).Nazi Germany's concentration campsPolandOświęcim German Belzec: Death Camp located in Poland. More than 600,000 Jews were gassed at Belzec between 1941 and

27 Inside Dachau 27

28 Concentration Camp-Auschwitz 28

29 Work Will Set You Free 29

30 Crematoriums 30

31 Crematoriums 31

32 Gas Chambers 32

33 Zyklon B 33

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36 36

37 Crematoriums 37

38 Crematoriums 38

39 The Gas Chambers: Disguised as Showers 39

40 Mass Killings 40

41 Trip to Concentration Camp Show pictures and short video clip from Dachau 41

42 MUST KNOW VOCABULARY HUTU: The majority ethnic group living in Rwanda. The Hutu planned and killed hundreds of thousands of Tutsi’s in TUTSI-The minority ethnic group living in Rwanda. Ottoman Empire-Also known as the Turkish Empire, the nation that destroyed 1.5 Million Armenians. Final Solution-The system of exterminating Jews, developed by Adolf Hitler. 42

43 MUST KNOW VOCABULARY CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY- Crimes, such as murder, rape, and torture, against a collective group of people that can occur in times of war and peace. “All that is needed for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing!” 43

44 POEM- “First They Came for the Jews” First They Came for the Jews First they came for the Jews and I did not speak out because I was not a Jew. Then they came for the Communists and I did not speak out because I was not a Communist. Then they came for the trade unionists and I did not speak out because I was not a trade unionist. Then they came for me and there was no one left to speak out for me. Pastor Martin Niemöller 44

45 First they came… Bystander Witness Testimonial 45

46 Sonderkommando Sonderkommandos/Capos were Jewish work units of Nazi death camp prisoners forced to aid the killing process during The Holocaust— Jews who worked inside the death camps. Their tasks including transporting victims of gassing to the ovens, cleaning the gas chambers of human excrement and blood, removal of gold from the teeth of the victims, shaving the heads of those going to the gas chambers.Nazideath campThe Holocaust 46

47 Holocaust Terms===SKIP Death Camps, or Killing Centers, a concentration camp the distinct purpose of which was the extermination of its inmates. Almost all of the German death camps were located in Poland: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzek, Chelmo, Madjanek, Sobibor, Treblinka. Death Marches, At the end of the war when it became obvious that the German army was trapped between the Soviets to the east and the advancing Allied troops from the west, the Nazis, in an attempt to prevent the liberation of camp inmates, forced them to march westward. Thousands died in these marches. 47

48 Holocaust Terms Deportation, the removal of people from their areas of residency for purposes of resettlement elsewhere. With regard to the Jews of Europe, deportation meant removal either to a ghetto or a concentration camp in preparation for yet another removal to an extermination center. Trains—Cattle cars 48

49 Gestapo and the Nazi Commanders Gestapo, the German internal security police - secret police. They terrorized the Jews. SS, originally Hitler's elite guard.—the SS was in charge of the death camps. 49

50 The SS Humiliating Jews 50

51 Heinrich Himmler-2 nd in Command 51

52 Ghetto Ghetto, a Yiddish word referring to a walled section of a city in which Jews were required to live during the Middle Ages. The concept was revived by the Nazi regime as part of the Final Solution to the Jewish Question. 52

53 Ghetto 53

54 Ghetto 54

55 Terms to Know Juden, The German word for Jew. Judenrat, Jewish community authority, appointed by the Nazis for administration within the ghetto. Kristallnacht, "Night of broken glass," November 9, 1938, pogrom against German Jews, Jewish businesses and synagogues orchestrated by the Gestapo in retaliation for the assassination of a minor German embassy official in Paris by a 17 year-old Jewish youth named Herchel Grynzspan. 7,500 businesses and 101 synagogues were destroyed, almost 100 Jews were killed and several thousand were arrested and sent to concentration camps. The beginning of the Holocaust. 55

56 Kristallnacht 56

57 Terms to Know Rabbi: Leader of a Jewish congregation, similar to the role of a priest or minister. (synagogue) Star of David: A six-pointed star which is a symbol of Judaism. During the Holocaust, Jews throughout Europe were required to wear Stars of David on their sleeves or fronts and backs of their shirts. Synagogue—Jewish house of worship—a Jewish Church. 57

58 Terms to Know Aryan: A term for peoples speaking the language of Europe and India. In Nazi racial theory, a person of pure German "blood." The term "non- Aryan" was used to designate Jews, part-Jews and others of supposedly inferior racial stock. “Aryan” people include: Greeks, Slavs, Romans, Armenians, Germans, Celts, Batls, Iranians, Indians, and other peoples of European race. Hitler took this idea of the perfect “Aryan” race and made it exclusive to Blond Hair, Blue Eyes German people. 58

59 Terms to Know Antisemitism: Opposition to and discrimination against Jews. Stereotype: Biased generalizations about a group based on hearsay, opinions, and distorted, preconceived ideas. Discrimination: : racial and religious intolerance. Dehumanization: The Nazi policy of denying Jews basic civil rights such as practicing religion, education, and adequate housing. (First they take away your freedom, then your shelter, your home, then your family, then your name, and finally, your life). 59

60 Terms to Know Prejudice- an unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason. Intolerance-lack of toleration; unwillingness or refusal to tolerate or respect contrary opinions or beliefs, persons of different races or backgrounds, etc. Bigotry- stubborn and complete intolerance of any creed, belief, or opinion that differs from one's own. 60

61 Ethnocentricity Ethnocentricity- the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture. 61

62 More Examples of Enthnocentrism 62

63 Ethnocrentricity 63

64 We Should Be Careful These same flags and ethnocentric beliefs are also used by the wrong groups. The KKK in the US Nazis in Russia Nazis in America 64

65 Diversity-The only way to be Free 65

66 Diversity and Testimonials Testimonials- A statement in support of a particular truth, fact, or claim. In order for us to avoid another Genocide, We must all, as Members of the Human Race,: Educate ourselves Tolerate people’s differences Stop Sterotyping Celebrate each other’s differences Educate ourselves about other cultures, religions, and traditions. Be careful with our words and actions And to stand up and speak when we see racism, hatred, or intolerance. 66

67 Homework On DQ CARDS re-write the key points of the lecture. Highlight all the major parts. Make it colorful and easy to study off of. 67

68 Propaganda Propaganda: False or partly false information used by a government or political party intended to sway/change the opinions of the population. Propaganda uses methods of persuasion to exaggerate and convince people that what they are saying is the absolute truth. BEWARE…BEWARE…BEWARE…BEWARE 68

69 Propaganda Techniques Attack your opponent, as opposed to attacking their arguments. Appeal to Fear-Make people afraid. Ex. The world will end if we don’t end Global Warming. If we don’t attack Iraq, they will attack us. Bandwagon-Join in and do it because everyone is doing it. Ex. Vote for Obama…Why? Because everyone is voting for him it’s cool…. Lies Demonizing the Enemy-Making them non-human Stereotyping or name calling Scapegoating-Blame it on whatever or whoever you are attacking. USE Patriotism or Religion to convince someone (Flags, Army, Weapons). Emotional Appeal 69

70 Appeal to Emotions/Patriotism 70

71 Propaganda (Examples) 71

72 “LONG LIVE GERMANY” 72

73 “HITLER IS BUILDING. HELP HIM! BUY GERMAN GOODS!” 73

74 AGAINST THE JEWS 74

75 US PROPAGANDA POSTERS 75

76 American Propaganda Posters (War) 76

77 Themes Dehumanization: Taking away Jews natural rights. Following the 6 steps of dehumanization. Gott is Tot: God is Dead in German “Poetry is not a luxury ” – Audre Lorde. Giving a name to the nameless. Telling other people’s story. A form of expression. Silence: Wiesel emphasizes the silence that allowed the concentration camps; the silence of God to allow such atrocities to occur. Denial : You’ll come across sections in the novel where people are denying what’s happening to them. Unaccepting of the truth. Family Love : The relationship between father and son. 77


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