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Fossil Fuels.

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Presentation on theme: "Fossil Fuels."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fossil Fuels

2 What is a Fossil Fuel? Burn to change chemical structure and release energy Coal plants hardened by sand and mud (photosynthesis energy) Must be dug up (expensive and difficult) rate used greater than rate of production (non renewable)

3 What is a Fossil Fuel? Oil and Gas
microscopic organisms hardened over time easier to extract (liquid form) non renewable

4 Geography Easy to find (as of 4000 years ago)
Must use coal near source (hard to transport) eg: trains must carry coal OIl is easily pumped - can be transported (pipes) Drill technology allows drilling across world

5 History Originally wood used - more suited to needs
Coal accessible 1769 (Industrial Revolution) Coal has twice the energy density of wood Crude oil refined to kerosine (1852) oil has higher energy density than coal As of years of coal left (1E15kg) As of about 1E14 liters of crude oil left

6 Transportation and Storage
Coal Required a lot of time and energy to transport Combustion risks More efficient to produce electricity Oil and Natural Gas Can be pumped through pipes Transportation Environmental problems Stored indefinitely

7 Energy Density Energy Density( of Fuels) : The ratio of the energy released from the fuel to the mass of the fuel consumed The amount of energy that can be extracted per kg of fuel. Fuels with high energy density are easier to transport than those with lower densities.

8 Energy Density Chart

9 Power Stations A Power Station: An industrial place for the generation of electric power. Has a generator, a rotating machine that converts mechanical power into electrical power by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. It depends chiefly on which fuels are easily available, cheap enough and on the types of technology that the power company has access to.

10 Coal-fired Power Stations
Coal Steam Steam Electricity Steam Water

11 Coal-fired Power Stations
Sources of waste heat: exhaust gas turbine condensing friction 40% Efficiency

12 Oil-fired Power Stations
Same set-up as Coal-fired Power Stations Oil is burnt to produce energy needed to boil the water Cleaner, easier to get out of the ground, and easier to transport than coal Efficiency is about 59%

13 Gas-fired Power Station
More Efficient than coal Two stages of energy use Burning gas goes through a turbine => heat produced is used to boil water => steam powers a steam turbine

14 Gas-fired Power Stations
Up to 59% efficient If wasted heat goes to homes => 80% efficient

15 Environmental Repercussions
Coal-fired and Gas-fired Power Stations= harmful pollution from exhaust Oil refinement=efficiency… but also= oil spills Serious consequences (i.e. BP Oil Spill) Power Station developments focus on recovering exhaust (by different trapping techniques) back into the ground for reuse

16 Practice Problem #1 When a car is driving at 80 km/h it is doing work against air resistance at a rate of 40kW a) How much work does the car do against air resistance in 1 hour? 40E3(J/s) * 60 * 60 = 1.44 E8 J b) If the engine is 75% efficient, how much energy must the car get from fuel?

17 Problem 1 (cont) 1.44E8 J/.75 = 1.92E8 J c) If the energy density of the fuel is MJ/kg, how many kg of diesel will the car use? 1.92E8 J/45.8E6 J/kg = 4.2kg

18 Practice Problem #2 A coal-fired power station gives out 1000 MW of power a) How many joules will be produced in one day? 1000E6 J * 60 * 60 * 24 = 8.64E13 b) If the efficiency is 40%, how much energy goes in?

19 Problem 2 (cont) 8.64E13 J/ .4 = 2.16E14 J c) The energy density of coal is 32.5 MJ/kg. How many kg are used? 2.16E14 J/32.5E6 J/kg = 6.65E6kg d) How many rail trucks containing 100 tons each are delivered per day? 1 ton = 1000 kg

20 Problem 2 (cont) 6.65E6/(1000*100) = 66.5 67 rail trucks

21 Austyn Howard Ciara Jasinski Dillon Labban Tyler Ritter
Nuclear Power Austyn Howard Ciara Jasinski Dillon Labban Tyler Ritter

22 The Fission Reaction Big nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei
Loss of mass and energy, E=mc2 i.e. 236U → 92Kr + 142Ba + 2n Some neutrons are lost, so mass is lost The total number of protons remains the same

23 The Chain Reaction Splitting a nucleus requires energy
Can be gained by adding a neutron Adding a neutron increases the binding energy of the nucleus Nucleus can’t get rid of this energy and splits in two Results in too many neutrons, so some are released Released neutrons are captured by other nuclei, resulting in more nuclei splitting and a chain reaction

24 Moderation of Neutrons
Chain reaction only occurs if neutrons are moving slowly Otherwise they pass through the nucleus KE should be about 1 eV Neutrons must be slowed down Moderator nuclei are placed between nuclei where fission must occur in order to slow them down


26 Critical Mass Definition: the minimum mass required for a chain reaction Size of the reacting element, i.e. uranium, matters If it’s too small, the neutrons will pass the uranium before they slow down enough

27 Nuclear Fuel Natural Uranium is mostly made up of 238-U (99.3%) and 235-U (0.7%). Before it can be used as nuclear fuel it needs to go through fuel enrichment. in nuclear reactors the fuel is stored inside small cylinders that are stacked together to make rods Depleted uranium is used to penetrate armored vehicles, is 40% less radioactive than typical uranium When U-235 is used up it makes Pu-239 that goes through fission and can then be used for energy production or bombs

28 Controlling the rate of reaction The loss of control: The atom bomb
If more than one neutron from each fission goes on to make another fission then the reaction will accelerate; if less than one then it will slow down In order to keep the bomb from exploding before hitting the ground the uranium and moderator are kept separate from each other Weapon grade amount of Uranium and isotope: 85% 235-U is considered ‘weapon grade’ (about the same amount as a soft drink can would work) 20% isotope is possible to make a bomb The only way to slow down the reaction is to introduce neutron absorbing rods (such as Boron) in between the fuel rods

29 The Nuclear Power Station
nuclear reactor It’s mechanism is similar to that of a furnace in a steam generator

30 The Nuclear Power Station
nuclear reactor: an apparatus or structure in which fissile material can be made to undergo a controlled, self-sustaining nuclear reaction with the consequent release of energy (heat). 3 crucial components: fuel elements moderator cooling rods

31 The Nuclear Power Station
fuel elements heavy fissile elements 235U or 238U when these fuels are struck by neutrons, they are in turn capable of emitting neutrons when they break apart. chain reaction

32 The Nuclear Power Station
Moderator slows down neutrons heavy water (deuterium)

33 The Nuclear Power Station
control rods control the rate of fission reactions absorb neutrons Boron or Cadmium

34 Problems with Nuclear Energy
getting the uranium you can mine it, but… open-cast mining hurts the environment underground mining can hurt the workers you can use “leaching,” but… this can lead to contamination of groundwater

35 an open pit uranium mine in Namibia

36 Problems with Nuclear Energy
Steps to Achieve a Meltdown 1. do a bad job of controlling a nuclear reaction 2. allow fuel rods to melt 3. let the pressure vessel burst 4. release radioactive material into the atmosphere

37 Problems with Nuclear Energy
meltdowns can be caused by: a malfunction in the cooling system a leak in the pressure vessel the reactor would be severely damaged, but external damage is limited by the containment building protects the outside from dangerous material, protects the inside from missiles Tyler

38 revisiting the diagram, but examining different components

39 Waste low level waste traces of radioactive material that need to be carefully disposed of kept away from humans for years old reactors left alone for many years before demolition encased in concrete

40 Waste high level waste (spent fuel rods)
plutonium isn’t safe for at least 240,000 years suggestions: send it to the Sun put it at the bottom of the ocean bury it in the icecaps drop it into a very deep hole current plan: store it underwater at the site of the reactor for several years, then seal in steel cylinders

41 Waste weaponizing fuel not enough 235U to be used
process that enriches uranium into fuel, could be used to make it weapons grade plutonium is most commonly used, can get it by reprocessing spent fuel rods

42 Benefits of Fission Doesn’t produce CO2 or other greenhouse gases
Fission results in increased sustainability Plutonium can be created through the fission process, resulting in 2000 years of fuel Naturally found uranium is estimated to only last 100 years

43 Fusion was thought of as the answer to energy problems in the 1950s
the total mass of the larger nuclei is less than that of the smaller two combined, the extra mass is turned into energy fusion reactors have come close to creating more energy than what was put in but is still not enough to commercially produce energy Plasma (a gas in which nuclei and electrons are separate) is used to create energy in the system magnetic fields are used to move the particles through the system

44 Burning Plasma and Fusion Bombs
the problem with creating fusion through energy is that every time more plasma is added the temperature has to be significantly increased in order for the nuclei to fuse the fusion bomb (hydrogen bomb) gives out a huge amount of energy but is not controllable

45 The Sun gravity pulls all of the mass inward → creates super duper high pressure (100,000,000,000 atm) hydrogen atoms fuse together → nuclear fusion 15 million degrees Fahrenheit at the core

46 The Sun

47 Catrina Letterman Joseph Leung Cyam Cajegas
Wave Power Catrina Letterman Joseph Leung Cyam Cajegas

48 Origin of waves The movement of air disturbs the water, causing waves
As waves spread out, they spread their energy, which can be used to turn turbines

49 Oscillating Water Column (OWC) Ocean-Wave Energy Converter
Device built on land that uses the kinetic energy of waves to force [compress] air in and out of a turbine which generates electrical energy


51 Generating Electricity from Waves


53 Advantages/Disadvantages
No Greenhouse Gas Emissions Renewable Form of Energy Enormous Energy Potential (30 to 100 kW per meter) Reliable (Most in the winter season) Area Efficient (half square mile -> 30MW) Offshore Wave Power D 1. Environmental Effects (sea life and tourism) 2. Expensive 3. Regular Maintenance 4. Still Developing

54 Calculating Energy in a wave

55 Calculating Power in a wave

56 Practice Problems Waves of amplitude of 1 metre roll onto a beach at a rate of one every 12 seconds. If the wavelength of the waves is 120 metres, calculate: a. the velocity of the waves b. how much power there is per metre along the shore c. the power along a 2km length of beach

57 a. v = m/s 120 meters/12 seconds = 10 m/s b. Given that power = pvgA^2/2, (1kg/m^3 * 10 m/s * 9.8 m/s^2 * 1^2 m^2) 2 = 49 kW c. 49 kW * 2000 m = 98 MW

58 Tidal Power

59 Origin of tides Tides due to gravitational change of moon
Movement of tides can be used to drive turbines


61 Turbines are turned as tide comes in and goes out

62 Advantages/Disadvantages
No Greenhouse Gas Emissions Renewable Form of Energy Predict Tides Maintenance Cheap Long Lifespan High Energy Density D 1. Environmental Effects (sea life and tourism) 2. Expensive 3. Few Viable Locations 4. Still Developing 5. Unpredictable Tidal Energy 6. Short Duration of Power Generation 7. Energy Transmission expensive and difficult


64 1. From what energy source are waves directly derived from? a. The Sun
b. Wind c. Geothermal d.The Moon

65 2. What is NOT required to determine the power of a wave? a. Density
b. Wavelength c. Amplitude d. Temperature of water

66 3. The tides are mainly caused by… a. The Sun b. The earth’s rotation
c. The Moon d. The wind

67 4. How much power (approximately) can a pelamis generate
a. 150 horsepower b. 150 kJ/s c. 750 kW d. 750 kJ

68 5. An oscillating water column generates power by… a. Air compression
b. Tidal Change c. Wave’s Momentum d. Magnetic A/C Generator Buoy

69 Free Response Question
Waves off the 1.5km Leung Coast are used to generate power. A wave is modeled below


71 Free Response Question
a. Determine the wave velocity. b. Determine the mass of 1 wave approaching the coastline. The Density of Seawater is 1027 kg/m^3 c. Calculate the potential energy of one wave. d. Calculate the power of one wave.

72 Free Response Question
e. BONUS: What should the wave velocity be in order to power the 30000kW mega-awesome laserlight show in Joseph’s Coastal Mansion?

73 Ray Win KC Sumner Seanna Morin Jakob Hernandez
Wind Energy Ray Win KC Sumner Seanna Morin Jakob Hernandez

74 Kinetic Energy of Turbine
Wind Solar energy Sun heats earth, creates wind Solar Energy Kinetic Energy of Turbine Kinetic Energy of Wind Electrical Energy

75 Coastal Winds Due to different rates of heating of the land and sea
Sea has a larger specific heat capacity than the land Example: Wind at beaches

76 Katabatic Winds Formed when high air pressure is caused by dense cold air pressing down at the top of a mountain Air flows downhill Examples: When cold air from Alps and Massif flow down towards Mediterranean coast


78 The Wind Turbine Similar to a fan or a propeller on an airplane
Air pushes the fan blades causing a generator to turn, creating electrical energy Usually turbines grouped together in “wind farms”

79 The Wind Turbine Energy Calculations
Mass of column of air passing trubine in one second =𝜌𝑣𝜋 𝑟 2 𝐾 𝐸 = 1 2 𝑚 𝑣 2 = 1 2 𝜌𝑣𝜋 𝑟 2 𝑣 2 = 1 2 𝜌𝜋 𝑟 2 𝑣 3

80 The Wind Turbine Formula assumes wind stops moving after it passes turbine All kinetic energy is not transferred to the turbine Theoretically, maximum percentage of wind’s energy that can be extracted using a turbine is 59% Also finds power due to the calculation using mass of air that passes through in one second

81 Places for Wind Turbines
A windy place Regular wind Turbine doesn’t have to change orientation Easy to lay power lines Easy to build

82 Advantages Clean production Renewable energy source Free energy source
No harmful chemicals Renewable energy source Free energy source After initial cost

83 Disadvantages Wind is unreliable Low energy density
Large area required for significant energy Ruins country landscape Can be noisy Best places often far from population centers

84 Sample Problems A community wants to build a wind farm to fit its needs. Total required annual energy output: 100 TJ Space for 20 wind turbines Average annual wind speed: 9 ms-2 Deduce the average power output required for one turbine Estimate the blade radius that will give a power output found in part a (Density of Air = 1.2kgm-3)

85 Sample Problem Deduce the average power output required for one turbine 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑂𝑛𝑒 𝑌𝑒𝑎𝑟= 100 × ×60×24×365 There are 20 turbines 3.1× =1.6× 𝑊

86 Sample Problem Estimate the blade radius that will give a power output found in part a (Density of Air = 1.2kgm-3) 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡= 1 2 𝜌𝜋 𝑟 2 𝑣 3 1.6 × 10 5 = 1 2 (1.2)𝜋 𝑟 2 (9) 3 𝑟≈10.8 𝑚

87 By Ceres, Jace, Michael, and Terry
Solar Power By Ceres, Jace, Michael, and Terry

88 Energy from the Sun The sun emits 3.9E26 J per second of electromagnetic radiation This energy spreads out by the inverse square law since the energy is distributed in a sphere

89 Inverse Square Law Intensity can be found by the formula I=P/(4πr2)
I=Intensity (power per unit area) P= total power of point source r= distance away from the point source

90 Solar Power intensity on earth
Power per meter squared of solar energy above the Earth’s atmosphere: (solar constant) Earth’s orbital radius: 1.5E11 m Intensity = 3.90E26 / (4π X 1.5E11)2= W·m-2

91 Solar Power on Earth’s Surface
Amount of solar radiation that reaches the Earth surface depends on how much atmosphere the light has to get through Different latitudes on the Earth’s surface will receive different amounts of radiation Will also vary with the seasons

92 Atmosphere Travel Distance
More North Less

93 Solar Heating Panel Panel uses heat from sun to heat water for household use. Sunlight goes through glass panel and is absorbed by black metal plate. Hot metal plate then heats water for use.

94 Solar Heating Panel

95 Solar Example A 5 m2 solar heating panel is in a place where the sun’s intensity is 800 Wm-2. What is the power incident on the panel? 800 Wm-2 * 5 m2 = 4000 W

96 Solar Example If it is 40% efficient, how much energy is absorbed per second? 4000 W * .4 = 1600 W If 1 kg of water flows through the system in 1 minute, how much will its temperature increase?

97 Solar Example If 1 kg of water flows through the system in 1 minute, how much will its temperature increase? (Specific heat capacity of water Jkg-1K-1) q = mcT T = q/(mc) 1600 W*(60 s/1 min)/(1 kg*4200 Jkg-1C-1) = K

98 Photovoltaic Cell Converts solar radiation into electrical energy
Semiconductors release electrons when photons of lights are absorbed Different types of semiconductors create an electric field

99 Photovoltaic Cell Only produce a small amount of p.d. and current
Using in series will get higher voltages Using in parallel can provide higher current

100 Photovoltaic Cell

101 Photovoltaic Example A photovoltaic cell of 1 cm2 is placed in a position where the intensity of the sun is Wm-2. If it is 15% efficient, what is the power absorbed? 1 cm2 = .0001m2 1000 Wm-2 * m2 = .1W

102 Photovoltaic Example .1 W * .15 = .015 W
If the potential difference across the cell is 0.5 V, how much current is produced? P = IV I = P/V 0.015 W/0.5 V = .03 A

103 Advantages vs. Disadvantages
No harmful chemical by-products Renewable Free energy source Disadvantages Only utilized during the day Unreliable (cloudy days) Large area needed for significant amount of energy

104 Energy, Power, and Climate Change: Hydropower
Michele Wang Tori Barr Diego Martinez Jacobo Grimaldo

105 What is hydroelectric power?
The production of electricity through the conversion of gravitational potential energy from falling or flowing water.

106 Origin Originally from the sun:
Heat from the sun turns the water into vapor, which turns into clouds, which go over the land and rain over the land. Rain water on high ground has PE, and can be converted into electricity through rivers and lakes.

107 Water Cycle

108 Gravitational PE PE=mgh
h is the difference between the outlet from the lake and the turbine. Average height is used where the height is uneven.

109 Pumped Storage Schemes
Turn off hydroelectric power at night. Excess power from coal-fired power stations can be used to pump water into a reservoir. (costly to turn off and back on) Water from reservoir can drive turbines during night. Reduces amount of fossil fuel used.

110 Pumped Storage Schemes Cont.

111 Run-of-the-river power stations
Use water diverted from a fast-flowing river without damming the river. For areas where there would be need to dam river valley to create a difference in height for the turbines.

112 Issues Supplying electricity can be done through wires.
Result in energy loss since wires get hot. Factories dependent on this energy are located closer to the power stations. Some build small-scale power stations near where people live.

113 Pros: Renewable Emission-free Dams can provide a storm surge barrier
Local environmental impact, in contrast to global Regulate water flow

114 Cons: Construction costs Requires specific locations
Harm habitats along rivers Non-continuous




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