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Development of Mobile Applications for Pilots Author: Andrei-Mihai DOBRE Supervisors: Octavian Thor PLETER, PhD, PhD, MBA(MBS) Adrian BĂRZOI, Pilot SFO (A320,A330,A33X),BEng

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Development of Mobile Applications for Pilots public class MainActivity extends Activity protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.activity_main) Button b = (Button) findViewById(R.id.button1); ImageView img = (ImageView) findViewById(R.id.imageView3);

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CONTENTS OF THE PRESENTATION 1.Electronic Flight Bags 2.One Engine Inoperative procedure 3.Aerodynamic and Performance calculations behind OEI 4.Development of OEI Application for Android Platform 5.OEI Application Demo 6.Conclusions

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EFB = ELECTRONIC FLIGHT BAG Electronic device Helps flight crews Flight management Efficient manner

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ADVANTAGES – EFB Flight bag mass reductionTime saving instrument

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THE CHALLENGES 1. Find, understand and model a procedure for an Electronic Flight Bag 2. This procedure needs to be complex and not already implemented on EFBs.

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ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE For ETIHAD Airways – Airbus A

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OEI – AIRBUS A OEI or One Engine Inoperative is a procedure to be followed in case of engine failure (one engine out of two) no matter the reason for which the engine ceased to undertake its normal task. This procedure is part of the Flight Crew Operations Manual and consists of 130 pages of definitions, explanations and performance data tables. This chapter probably represents 3% of the whole FCOM.

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OEI STRATEGIES There are 3 types of strategies which can be used in case of an engine failure: STANDARD Strategy OBSTACLE Strategy FIXED SPEED Strategy

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STANDARD STRATEGY The standard strategy is the most used one and it is for the general routine when there are no mountainous areas in the vicinity of the aircraft, or when no speed restrictions are imposed by the air traffic control unit due to air traffic management reasons like high traffic flows in the area. Another speed restriction can appear as a result of structural damage due to an engine explosion which led to the one engine inoperative situation. Also, the speed may need to be increased in ETOPS situations.

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OBSTACLE STRATEGY The obstacle strategy is used when there are mountainous areas in the vicinity of the aircraft. This strategy is performed using the aircraft in its cleanest configuration and at the green dot speed. This speed provides the best lift to drag ratio, thus making the descent from the occurrence flight level to the LRC as long as possible. Making the descent as long as possible, the mountainous area can be cleared. This strategy becomes very important when flying over areas with high terrain which is extensively spread over large areas.

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FIXED SPEED STRATEGY If there are no other speed restrictions that need to be applied due to ATM reasons or structural damages, this strategy will be used as stated in the FCOM. This section provides single engine performance data for two fixed speed diversion strategies (fixed descent and cruise speed schedules) recommended for ETOPS operation. According to the ETOPS certification (90 mins, 120 mins, 138 mins, 180 mins or 240 mins) that aircraft is capable of, different speeds will be considered for this strategy.

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STANDARD STRATEGY - SOP

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STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – PAGE 1 Gross Weight at engine failure moment Kg Flight Level at engine failure moment FL 350 TemperatureISA Distance to Destination Airport440 NM WindNO Anti-iceNO Initial data:

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STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – PAGE 2 First step is represented by the selection of the Long Range Cruise Ceiling which is depending on the GW at the engine failure moment.

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STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – PAGE 3

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STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – PAGE 4

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STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – PAGE 5

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STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – PAGE 6

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The values corresponding to the present situation are the following ones: Fuel burnt for NM : ( ) * = kg Time spent to cover a distance of NM : ( )* = 1 hour and 1.5 minutes Fuel correction : * ( ) = kg / 1000kg above GW= kg Extra fuel due to increased mass : ( – )*(12.276/1000) = kg Total fuel burnt from LRC to landing : = kg Air Distance Fuel - FL230 Time – FL230Fuel correction – FL STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – PAGE 7

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STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – PAGE 8 As observed in the table, the long range speed for FL230 and an approximate GW of 188 tons, is 261 kts. This means that the cruise part of the flight will be conducted at an IAS of 261 kts. Considering the above calculations, this example can conclude. In order to cover a distance of 440 NM from an altitude of ft and a mass of kg, an Airbus A will burn = kg of fuel in 1 hour and minutes.

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PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS AND AERODYNAMICS Topics covered in this chapter: Green Dot Speed Conversion from TAS to IAS Maximum Range Maximum Range Speed and Long Range Cruise Speed Long Range Cruise Ceiling

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GREEN DOT SPEED – PAGE 1 Below the green dot speed the induced drag increases and above the green dot speed the parasitic drag increases. The induced drag for a wing with an elliptical lift distribution, which is the case of an airbus A is computed as follows. Equation Equation Equation 2.3.2

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GREEN DOT SPEED – PAGE 2 Equation Equation 2.3.6

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GREEN DOT SPEED – PAGE 3 Equation Equation 2.3.9

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GREEN DOT SPEED – PAGE 4 Equation Equation

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DEVELOPMENT OF OEI APPLICATION FOR ANDROID PLATFORM 7500 code lines compose the following application.

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OEI APPLICATION DEMO

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CONCLUSIONS The advantages do not consist only in the reduction of the paper quantity used inside the cockpit, but they are also related to time improvements. It can be deduced that the EFB used for this study has the theoretical capacity to store around 180 Kg of manuals and procedures. The time used to perform the computations with the aid of the application is 6.3 times smaller than the time used to perform the same performance computations, but having available only pen and paper. The overall benefits of using Electronic Flight Bags and in particular, the OEI Application are high. In the next 5 to 10 years, a sustained growth of the EFBs is anticipated.

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Thank you for your attention !!!

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Development of Mobile Applications for Pilots Author: Andrei-Mihai DOBRE Supervisors: Octavian Thor PLETER, PhD, PhD, MBA(MBS) Adrian BĂRZOI, Pilot SFO (A320,A330,A33X),BEng

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