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**Adrian BĂRZOI, Pilot SFO (A320,A330,A33X),BEng**

Development of Mobile Applications for Pilots Dear professors and colleagues, today I would like to present you the most important project of my life, until this moment. It is entitled "Development of Mobile Applications for Pilots". Now given the fact that I did not have the chance to meet you before, instead of going straight to the subject I would like to say a few words about myself and my supervisors Author: Andrei-Mihai DOBRE Supervisors: Octavian Thor PLETER, PhD, PhD, MBA(MBS) Adrian BĂRZOI, Pilot SFO (A320,A330,A33X),BEng

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**In order to start this project, I thought I will also need a pilot’s opinion.**

I had the pleasure to work with a SFO , Adrian Barzoi, from one of the biggest airline companies at this moment, Etihad Airways

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**Development of Mobile Applications for Pilots**

public class MainActivity extends Activity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.activity_main) Button b = (Button) findViewById(R.id.button1); ImageView img = (ImageView) findViewById(R.id.imageView3); Enough with the advertising, I shall get back to the subject

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**Contents of the presentation**

Electronic Flight Bags One Engine Inoperative procedure Aerodynamic and Performance calculations behind OEI Development of OEI Application for Android Platform OEI Application Demo Conclusions

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**EFb = Electronic flight bag**

Electronic device Helps flight crews Flight management Efficient manner

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**ADVANTAGES – EFB Flight bag mass reduction Time saving instrument**

Left picture: A classic paper based flight bag can weigh up to 60 kgs while an EFB can reach a maximum of 1 kg. Right picture: a standard procedure...for example the OEI can take up to 19 minutes ( following all the steps and performance calculations). Using an EFB modelled app can take maximum 2 minutes. Flight bag mass reduction Time saving instrument

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**THE CHALLENGEs 1. Find, understand and model**

a procedure for an Electronic Flight Bag 2. This procedure needs to be complex and not already implemented on EFBs.

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**ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE**

The choice is OEI For ETIHAD Airways – Airbus A

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Oei – airbus a OEI or One Engine Inoperative is a procedure to be followed in case of engine failure (one engine out of two) no matter the reason for which the engine ceased to undertake its normal task. This procedure is part of the Flight Crew Operations Manual and consists of 130 pages of definitions, explanations and performance data tables. This chapter probably represents 3% of the whole FCOM.

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**OEI STRATEGIES STANDARD Strategy OBSTACLE Strategy**

There are 3 types of strategies which can be used in case of an engine failure: STANDARD Strategy OBSTACLE Strategy FIXED SPEED Strategy

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Standard strategy The standard strategy is the most used one and it is for the general routine when there are no mountainous areas in the vicinity of the aircraft, or when no speed restrictions are imposed by the air traffic control unit due to air traffic management reasons like high traffic flows in the area. Another speed restriction can appear as a result of structural damage due to an engine explosion which led to the one engine inoperative situation. Also, the speed may need to be increased in ETOPS situations.

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OBSTACLE STRATEGY The obstacle strategy is used when there are mountainous areas in the vicinity of the aircraft. This strategy is performed using the aircraft in its cleanest configuration and at the green dot speed. This speed provides the best lift to drag ratio, thus making the descent from the occurrence flight level to the LRC as long as possible. Making the descent as long as possible, the mountainous area can be cleared. This strategy becomes very important when flying over areas with high terrain which is extensively spread over large areas.

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FIXED SPEED STRATEGY If there are no other speed restrictions that need to be applied due to ATM reasons or structural damages, this strategy will be used as stated in the FCOM. This section provides single engine performance data for two fixed speed diversion strategies (fixed descent and cruise speed schedules) recommended for ETOPS operation. According to the ETOPS certification (90 mins, 120 mins, 138 mins, 180 mins or 240 mins) that aircraft is capable of, different speeds will be considered for this strategy.

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**Standard Strategy - SOP**

In this case, after the occurrence of the failure, before descending, the pilot will set the throttle lever of the working engine to Maximum Continuous Thrust. The MCT is different from the Maximum Take-Off Thrust which represents the maximum thrust available for no more than 5 minutes. The MTO is known to generate high stresses and temperatures in the engine. After the MCT is set, the auto-thrust should be turned off because the pilot would want to maintain the flight level until the decision regarding the strategy is made. The aircraft will certainly not be able to maintain the current speed at the present flight level. So with the A/THR of it will decelerate to green dot aerodynamically, maintaining the flight level. Next step is to declare the emergency to the ATC in order for the unit to clear the flight levels below the aircraft. Up to this step, the aircraft maintains the flight level, but it decelerates, even though the thrust is set to MCT. The pilot should pay attention to the indicated airspeed not to decrease below the green dot speed. The green dot speed is a calculated airspeed for which the aircraft delivers the best lift to drag ratio, given a certain flight level. In this case, decelerating below the green dot speed will result in a dangerous situation, also creating as a consequence an increase in the fuel consumption. These minutes should also be dedicated to the determination of the long range ceiling (i.e. the flight level at which the aircraft will spend most of its cruise to the destination airport). This flight level is carefully computed in order to determine the altitude at which the aircraft is able to provide sufficient lift and not too much drag. The LRC represents a function of mass, the higher the mass of the aircraft, the lower the LRC will be. The last step at this stage is to perform all ECAM actions which besides explaining the chain of failures due to the incapacity of the engine to deliver power, it also presents a list of procedures to be followed in order to correct certain problems. The descent phase is done at Mach 0.82 if the aircraft is above FL 250 or at an IAS of 300 kts if below FL250. The LRC being known from the previous step, now it is introduced in the Flight Control Unit. Because the thrust was set to MCT, the speed is controlled automatically by the elevator, thus the vertical speed will vary. This procedure can lead to a vertical speed which is less than 500 ft/min and wasting too much time between flight levels can be dangerous and inefficient. If the VS drops below 500 ft/min, the vertical speed mode should be selected at more than 500. All this time, the auto-thrust is off. The rest of the flight is performed at a flight level as close as possible to the long range ceiling level and at the long range speed. The long range speed is a speed higher than the maximum range speed. The maximum range speed is the speed at which the maximum number of nautical miles can be covered with a certain amount of fuel. The long range speed is the speed at which 99% of the maximum range can be achieved. So a reduction in range with 1 % can be converted into a speed increase of approximately 5-7 %. In this flight phase, the A/THR must be turned on. The landing part mostly depends upon the ATC procedures and should be performed in accordance with the flight level, at 300 kts or 250 kts until the initial approach point.

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**Standard Strategy – Example – page 1**

Initial data: Gross Weight at engine failure moment Kg Flight Level at engine failure moment FL 350 Temperature ISA Distance to Destination Airport 440 NM Wind NO Anti-ice

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**STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – Page 2**

First step is represented by the selection of the Long Range Cruise Ceiling which is depending on the GW at the engine failure moment. In this case the LRC corresponding to a GW of Kg is close to FL235. Due to ATM reasons, the approximated LRC will be at FL230, because the aircraft may not be able to maintain a higher flight level, like 240.

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**STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – Page 3**

There are also anti-icing systems which can increase the load on the working engine, thus making the LRC to be even lower. The table determining this case is the following one. It is not the case here to apply icing conditions.

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**STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – Page 4**

For FL 350: Time increment is : (44.8−43.9) = / kg Fuel increment is: (3595−3576) = / kg Distance increment is: (306−299) = / kg Time at FL 350 and GW = kg is: 44.8− ∗ − =𝟒𝟒.𝟎𝟖 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒖𝒕𝒆𝒔 Fuel at FL 350 and GW = kg is: ∗ − =𝟑𝟓𝟗𝟏.𝟐 𝒌𝒈 Distance at FL 350 and GW = kg is: 306− ∗ − =𝟑𝟎𝟎.𝟒 𝑵𝑴 The next step represents the distance, fuel and time calculations during the descent phase. As observed in the following table, there are some interpolations that need to be performed in order to find out the correct values. The computation algorithm is based on subtracting the number corresponding to the LRC from the number corresponding to the initial flight level.

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**STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – Page 5**

For FL 230: Time is 26 minutes Fuel increment is: (2108.5−2049) = / kg Distance is 165 NM Fuel at FL 230 and GW = kg is: ∗ − − =𝟐𝟎𝟗𝟔.𝟔 𝒌𝒈 Descending from FL 350 to FL 230: The time spent will be – 26 = minutes The fuel burnt will be – = kg The distance covered will be: – 165 = NM After the initial descent, the aircraft will have a mass of – = kg and a distance left of 440 – = NM.

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**STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – Page 6**

The remaining distance is used to calculate the time and fuel which will be wasted during the last phase of flight. The table helping the pilot to determine the time and fuel needed is the following one.

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**STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – Page 7**

The values corresponding to the present situation are the following ones: Fuel burnt for NM : ( ) * = kg Time spent to cover a distance of NM : ( )* = 1 hour and 1.5 minutes Fuel correction : * ( ) = kg / 1000kg above GW= kg Extra fuel due to increased mass : ( – )*(12.276/1000) = kg Total fuel burnt from LRC to landing : = kg Air Distance Fuel - FL230 Time – FL230 Fuel correction – FL230 300 1.0075 12 350 3998.5 1.09 15

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**STANDARD STRATEGY – EXAMPLE – Page 8**

As observed in the table, the long range speed for FL230 and an approximate GW of 188 tons, is 261 kts. This means that the cruise part of the flight will be conducted at an IAS of 261 kts. Considering the above calculations, this example can conclude. In order to cover a distance of 440 NM from an altitude of ft and a mass of kg, an Airbus A will burn = kg of fuel in 1 hour and minutes. The cruise phase of the flight will be performed at a long range speed as specified in the following tables. The theory behind the long range speed will be discussed in the Performance Calculations and Aerodynamics Chapter.

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**Performance calculations and aerodynamics**

Topics covered in this chapter: Green Dot Speed Conversion from TAS to IAS Maximum Range Maximum Range Speed and Long Range Cruise Speed Long Range Cruise Ceiling I am not going to explain all of them due to time constraints, but they are all described in the paper.

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Green dot speed – Page 1 Below the green dot speed the induced drag increases and above the green dot speed the parasitic drag increases. The induced drag for a wing with an elliptical lift distribution, which is the case of an airbus A is computed as follows. 𝐶 𝐷 𝑖 = 𝐶 𝑙 2 𝜋∙𝑒∙𝜆 𝐶 𝑙 = 𝐿 1 2 ∙ 𝜌 0 ∙ 𝑉 𝑒 2 ∙𝑆 𝐷 𝑖 = 1 2 ∙𝜌∙ 𝑉 2 ∙𝑆∙ 𝐶 𝐷 𝑖 = 1 2 ∙ 𝜌 0 ∙ 𝑉 𝑒 2 ∙𝑆∙ 𝐶 𝐷 𝑖 Equation 2.3.0 The green dot speed is also known as the clean configuration operating speed with one engine out at which the best lift to drag ratio is provided. This green dot speed is estimated by Airbus to be calculated in the following way. Equation 2.3.1 Equation 2.3.2

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Green dot speed – Page 2 Considering that the total drag coefficient is equal with the induced drag plus the zero lift drag coefficient, the following relation can be obtained. 𝐿 𝐷 = 𝐶 𝑙 𝐶 𝑑 = 𝐶 𝑙 𝐶 𝐷 𝐶 𝑙 2 𝜋∙𝑒∙𝜆 Differentiating to find out the maximum value: 𝑑( 𝐿 𝐷 ) 𝑑 𝐶 𝑙 = 1∙ 𝐶 𝐷 𝐶 𝑙 2 𝜋∙𝑒∙𝜆 − 𝐶 𝑙 ∙2∙ 𝐶 𝑙 𝜋∙𝑒∙𝜆 (𝐶 𝐷 𝐶 𝑙 2 𝜋∙𝑒∙𝜆 ) 2 Equation 2.3.5 Equation 2.3.6

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Green dot speed – Page 3 𝑑( 𝐿 𝐷 ) 𝑑 𝐶 𝑙 =0=> 1∙ 𝐶 𝐷 𝐶 𝑙 2 𝜋∙𝑒∙𝜆 − 𝐶 𝑙 ∙2∙ 𝐶 𝑙 𝜋∙𝑒∙𝜆 =0=> 𝐶 𝐷 0 − 𝐶 𝑙 2 𝜋∙𝑒∙𝜆 =0 C D 0 = C l 2 π∙e∙λ From Equation it results that the zero lift drag coefficient equals induced drag coefficient in the case of maximum L/D ratio. Also, from the same equation results that the lift coefficient is equal to : 𝐶 𝑙 = C D 0 ∙π∙e∙λ Equation 2.3.8 Equation 2.3.9

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Green dot speed – page 4 Including equation in equation it results that the maximum lift to drag ratio is equal with: 𝐿 𝐷 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1 2 ∙ π∙e∙λ C D 0 Considering the lift equal with the weight of the aircraft during the cruise flight, the speed for maximum lift to drag ratio or the green dot speed is depicted in the following formula. 𝑉=𝐺𝐷𝑆= 2∙𝑊 𝜌∙𝑆∙ C D 0 ∙π∙e∙λ Equation Considering the air density, ρ, at a specific flight level, the above computed speed for maximum lift to drag ratio will be a true airspeed. In the case of an engine failure, the drag coefficient will increase due to the fact that the stopped fan is increasing the overall drag. e is the Oswald Efficiency number which represents a correction due to the fact that a real wing is a three dimensions one , in comparison with the ideal wing. Equation

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**Development of OEI Application for Android Platform**

7500 code lines compose the following application.

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Oei application demo Use Samsung S3 and Team Viewer.

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conclusions The advantages do not consist only in the reduction of the paper quantity used inside the cockpit, but they are also related to time improvements. It can be deduced that the EFB used for this study has the theoretical capacity to store around 180 Kg of manuals and procedures. The time used to perform the computations with the aid of the application is 6.3 times smaller than the time used to perform the same performance computations, but having available only pen and paper. The overall benefits of using Electronic Flight Bags and in particular, the OEI Application are high. In the next 5 to 10 years, a sustained growth of the EFBs is anticipated.

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**Thank you for your attention !!!**

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**Adrian BĂRZOI, Pilot SFO (A320,A330,A33X),BEng**

Development of Mobile Applications for Pilots Dear professors and colleagues, today I would like to present you the most important project of my life, until this moment. It is entitled "Development of Mobile Applications for Pilots". Now given the fact that I did not have the chance to meet you before, instead of going straight to the subject I would like to say a few words about myself and my supervisors Author: Andrei-Mihai DOBRE Supervisors: Octavian Thor PLETER, PhD, PhD, MBA(MBS) Adrian BĂRZOI, Pilot SFO (A320,A330,A33X),BEng

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