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A basic overview FETI Drill 14-12 December, 2014 Dave Casey HOME HEATING FIRE RESPONSE HOME HEATING FIRE RESPONSE.

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Presentation on theme: "A basic overview FETI Drill 14-12 December, 2014 Dave Casey HOME HEATING FIRE RESPONSE HOME HEATING FIRE RESPONSE."— Presentation transcript:

1 A basic overview FETI Drill 14-12 December, 2014 Dave Casey HOME HEATING FIRE RESPONSE HOME HEATING FIRE RESPONSE

2 Introduction Winter heating appliances can result in fires and Carbon Monoxide poisoning Fires can start in chimneys, flues, heating plants, or spread from portable heaters or fireplaces Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from heating or fuel powered devices Contents herein include material from the Norfolk Volunteer Fire Department (CT) and the Poudre Fire Authority (CO). 2

3 Chimney Fires

4 Chimney Fire Definition: A chimney fire is the combustion of residue deposits referred to as creosote on the inner surfaces of chimney tiles, flue liners, stove pipes, etc. 4

5 Chimney Fires : Chimney fires can burn explosively - noisy and dramatic enough to be detected by neighbors or passersby. Flames or dense smoke may shoot from the top of the chimney. Homeowners report being startled by a low rumbling sound that reminds them of a freight train or a low flying air plane. 5

6 Chimney Fire Hazards : Failure of the chimney (cracks, collapse) & fire spread to adjoining partitions. Use Thermal Imager (TI) to check for any possible extension Be prepared / check for carbon monoxide (CO) within the structure due to restricted flues. Always Meter!! 6

7 Types of Stoves: Standard Fireplace and Inserts Multi-level houses will have separate flues for every fireplace 7

8 Types of Stoves : Fire Box Exposed Flue pipe into the chimney Creosote will form heavily at bends in any pipe work or angles in a chimney 8

9 Chimney Cleanouts : Cleanouts are located at the lower portion of the chimney Maybe located outside, under snow and ice Cleanouts can cause a fire hazard if not closed and next to combustible materials 9

10 Creosote is black or brown Can be crusty and flaky…tar-like, drippy and sticky…or shiny and hardened Is highly combustible Can builds up in chimney/flue and ignite Very hot, very stubborn fire 10 Chimneys and Creosote

11 Chimney Damper : Chimney Dampers are designed to close off the flue, preventing heat from escaping when the fire place is not in-use 11 Open DamperDamaged Damper

12 12 Chimney Shelf Burning creosote will break away from chimney and land on the chimney shelf and continue to burn The up-draft will carry small particles up chimney and re-ignite any un-burnt creosote

13 Extinguishing a Chimney Fire 13 Access to Chimney: Ground Ladders Aerial Trucks Determine where fire is burning Fire contained to chimney or flue? Wear Proper PPE/SCBA when operating near the chimney.

14 Roof Operations : Burning creosote needs to be removed from chimney and flue Stay upwind from the top of the chimney Constant updraft carries particles out, Never look directly into chimney! Use mirrors to check progress 14

15 Roof Operations (Cont.) Use of weights and chains will break apart creosote in the chimney. Drop the chimney weight until chimney sides are clear of debris. Spraying water down the chimney is less effective than from the bottom up. Remove Chimney cap if necessary 15

16 Indoor Operations Set up canvas tarps from the fireplace to the exit Extinguish fire in firebox and clear out fire shelf Remove ashes and logs Work with the roof team to shovel out ashes as they are knocked down Spray the water can into the chimney and allow steam to extinguish fire if needed Never look up the chimney, watch for the falling weight and ashes with mirrors 16

17 Fire Extension : 17 Use the Thermal imager on all floors to check for possible extension

18 The Homeowner: Advise the homeowner that even though the fire is extinguished, a thorough cleaning is needed by a professional cleaning company The fire place should not be used until inspected for any cracks in the chimney liner, missing or damaged bricks, or damage from excessive heat 18

19 Different Types of Chimneys : 19

20 Different Types of Chimneys: 20

21 Carbon Monoxide The Silent Killer!

22 **Disclaimer** This is basic response info: Carbon monoxide (CO) CO accidental poisoning, AND Detection, symptoms, tools and treatments This presentation is NOT intended to be a comprehensive resource about CO and should not be the only training a firefighter receives. More in depth information is available online and/or in books Resources and references at end of presentation

23 Presentation Overview CO Basics- the Hidden Danger At Risk Populations Accidental Poisoning Prevention What to do when you encounter CO Symptoms of CO Poisoning Treatments Civilian BLS ALS

24 Presentation Overview (Cont.) Understanding your CO Detector/Monitor Residential/Commercial and portable equipment carried by FD Exposure Limits

25 What Is Carbon Monoxide? CO is a compound of Carbon and Oxygen One atom carbon to one atom oxygen Colorless Odorless Tasteless POISONOUS Gas

26 CO is produced by the incomplete combustion of various fuels (hydrocarbons), including: Coal Wood Charcoal Oil Kerosene Propane Natural Gas Note production of CO from the fire on right

27 Common Causes of Incomplete Combustion Smoldering fires Burning wet wood Burning green wood Lack of O 2 during combustion Malfunctioning appliances Malfunctioning exhaust systems

28 Complete Combustion When a hydrocarbon burns completely Usually in environment abundant in oxygen Emitting carbon dioxide & water Zero emissions of CO Makes indoor gas cook stoves safe (right) Note the bright blue & uniform flames- indication of complete combustion

29 Common Sources of Carbon Monoxide Pollution WATER HEATERS & FURNACESFIREPLACES



32 The Hidden Dangers of CO CO poisoning is most common exposure poisoning in the USA CO not easily recognized because the signs and symptoms are similar to other illness Odorless, colorless gas can cause sudden illness and death CO is very slightly lighter than air, and normally mixes with air rather than collects

33 At Risk Populations Due to the changes in physiology and exposure, the following populations are at the greatest risk: The very young The very old Pregnant women & most important- their fetus Fetal hemoglobin has an even higher affinity for CO than adult People with existing respiratory compromise Firefighters

34 Note on Portable Generators Remember our equipment (PPV fans, generators, etc.) have emissions including CO. During power outages place portable generators at least 50 feet from your home If possible, place generator downwind and away from any openings in your home: Windows Doors Vents/Air Intakes

35 What To Do- Emergency Responders Use portable gas detectors Perform a fresh air calibration in fresh air Review your department SOP/SOG regarding carbon monoxide calls periodically Always remember safety first! S.C.B.A.

36 Understanding Your Home Detector Read & understand detector instructions before use Detectors should be battery operated or backed up Check/change batteries each time you change your clocks (daylight savings) If your CO detector sounds, call 911 for assistance Remember detectors with digital readers give you more accurate information than those without

37 Understanding Your Monitor The user should review monitor’s instruction manual periodically If you have further questions, refer to your department’s monitor technician(s) Monitor should be properly calibrated per manufacturer, generally: Once per month Anytime it’s exposed to 200 ppm or higher

38 Exposure Limits A properly ventilated building with properly functioning appliances should have zero CO present Generally speaking, levels between 0-5 parts per million (a measurement of substance in air, indicated by the letters- ppm) are commonly found indoors and is considered safe

39 Common Sources of CO Unvented cooking appliances Wood burning fireplace Gas, oil, wood or coal furnace Chimney Slide 39

40 Common Sources of CO Gas water heater, clothes dryer Gas/oil space heaters Barbeque grill Attached garage Unvented heaters Slide 40

41 Entrance of home and living areas Warm air register Near CO alarm Near all combustion appliances class # and topicSlide 41 Where to Sample

42 Around all unvented appliances Heat exchanger exhaust ports on furnace Under draft diverter of hot water heater Slide 42 Where to Sample

43 Action Levels- Lower Limits 0 to 9 ppm- Normal No Action: Typically from multiple potential sources 10 to 35 ppm- Marginal This level could become problematic Actions: Occupants should leave the building and be advised of a potential health hazard to small children, elderly people and persons suffering from respiratory or heart problems Find source and mitigate/fix problem

44 Action Levels- Medium Limits Conditions must be mitigated Actions: Ask occupants to step outside and query about health symptoms Contact Gas Company and/or Contractor Advise occupants to seek medical attention If occupants exhibit any symptoms of CO poisoning, they should be immediately transported to a medical facility Preferably by ambulance Have EMS respond 36 to 99 ppm- Excessive: Medical Alert

45 Action Levels- Higher Limits 100 – 200 ppm- Dangerous: Medical Alert Emergency conditions exist Actions: Evacuate the building immediately and check occupants for health symptoms All occupants Should Be Evaluated by EMS Personnel If occupants exhibit any symptoms of CO poisoning, they should be immediately transported to a medical facility Preferably by ambulance Greater than 200 ppm- Very Dangerous: Medical Alert Actions: Same as Above

46 Symptoms of CO Poisoning ANY OR ALL OF: Headache Dizziness Irritability Confusion/Memory Loss Disorientation Nausea and Vomiting Abnormal Reflexes Difficulty in Coordinating Difficulty in Breathing Chest Pain Cerebral Edema Convulsions/Seizures Coma Death

47 Be highly suspicious of co poisoning if: Any of the symptoms found on previous slide is present in more than one individual in the building Any of these symptoms are sudden (acute) Any of these symptoms accompanied by a sounding CO detector If you suspect faulty appliances

48 Treatment of CO poisoning for victims of acute and/or mild exposure Move victims to fresh air immediately This will only relieve immediate symptoms of acute poisoning Administer high-flow oxygen Monitor vital signs Transport via ALS if Symptom(s) persist

49 Carboxyhemoglobin & Smokers Non-smokers generally have less than 1.5% CO in their blood Smokers tend to have between 3-15%

50 More Statistics Carbon Monoxide is the #1 cause for poisoning deaths in the U.S. Effects of CO poisoning can generally be experienced with as little as 10%

51 General Symptoms by Exposure -from NFPA 50 ppm: No adverse effects with 8 hours of exposure 200 ppm: mild headache after 2-3 hours of exposure 400 ppm: headache and nausea after 1-2 hours of exposure 1,600 ppm: headache, nausea, and dizziness after 20 minutes of exposure

52 IDLH 3,200 ppm: headache, nausea, and dizziness after 5-10 minutes; collapse and unconsciousness after 30 minutes of exposure 6,400 ppm: headache and dizziness after 1-2 minutes; unconsciousness and danger of death after 10-15 minutes of exposure 12,800 ppm: immediate physiological effects, unconsciousness and danger of death after 1-3 minutes of exposure

53 Tragedy In Colorado The Lofgren Family Photo; Parker, Caroline, Owen and Sophie

54 Faulty Heating Connection Leads to Carbon Monoxide Death of Family A prominent Denver family perished in a $9 million dollar home in Aspen The family of four all died in their sleep This tragedy could have been avoided with the proper use and installation of CO detectors

55 A National Problem The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has concluded that between 1999-2004 an average of 439 persons died annually from unintentional, non- -fire-related CO poisoning Rates were highest amongst persons 65 years old and older The average number of deaths was highest during January

56 Chemical & Physical Properties Flammability The NFPA has assigned a Flammability Rating of 4 (severe fire hazard) to Carbon Monoxide Autoignition Temperature: 1128 Degrees F Flammable Limits in Air (Percent By Volume): lower, 12.5; upper, 74

57 Fire Response to Furnace Fires Shut off fuel source (CNG, propane, fuel oil, etc.) Shut of associated electric service Extension through the ductwork can be remote due to dust build up. Check with thermal imagers and where ever possible actually open ductwork if heat readings are present Extension into wall and ceiling closest to the fire is a very strong possibility. Again check with TI and open areas of concern Slide 57

58 Resources: Response Guide s/cofirstresp.pdf s/cofirstresp.pdf CDC “Responding to Residential CO Incidents” df df Sample response SOPs for CO: 29278278360.pdf 29278278360.pdf DG12 Home Heater & COSlide 58

59 References stresp.pdf oxide/recognition.html /tabid/191/ArticleId/107/Carbon-monoxide- poisoning.aspx xide_facts 07-18-2007.html

60 0a1.htm 0a1.htm Carbon-Monoxide-Detectors/h_d1/NCC- 1701/h_d2/ContentView?pn=Smoke_Carbon_Monoxide _Detectors&storeId=10051&langId=-1&catalogId=10053 Carbon-Monoxide-Detectors/h_d1/NCC- 1701/h_d2/ContentView?pn=Smoke_Carbon_Monoxide _Detectors&storeId=10051&langId=-1&catalogId=10053 oxide/recognition.html oxide/recognition.html

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