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History GCSE Controlled Assessment – Question 2. ‘The result of German air attacks on Britain in the Second World War was immense damage and destruction.

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Presentation on theme: "History GCSE Controlled Assessment – Question 2. ‘The result of German air attacks on Britain in the Second World War was immense damage and destruction."— Presentation transcript:

1 History GCSE Controlled Assessment – Question 2

2 ‘The result of German air attacks on Britain in the Second World War was immense damage and destruction – to life and buildings. In contrast, in the First World War, the threat from the air by Germany was almost non existent.’ How far do the sources you have used support this interpretation of the effects of the air raids on Britain in the two World Wars? To answer this question, examine the sources you have researched on this topic. You should examine at least 8 sources in explaining your answer. You should also use your own knowledge to comment on the evidence in the sources. (25 marks)

3 Contextual Knowledge

4 Source B Parts of the south of England were raided by Zeppelins, causing fear and shock if not the devastation their commanders had hoped for. For people still getting used to manned flight, death from the air and the ‘baby killer’ Zeppelins were a terrible shock. Air raid warnings involved policemen on bicycles blowing whistles and displaying placards; people died praying beside their beds. Later still, London was attacked, more lethally, by Gotha bombers. This was not 1940: far fewer people were killed. But the psychological effect of fearing that the bombers might swarm over at any moment was deep and lasting. The impact of bombing from the air on Britain in the First World War From The Making of Modern Britain by A MARR. It was published in 2009 and accompanied a BBC television series.

5 Source B Parts of the south of England were raided by Zeppelins, causing fear and shock if not the devastation their commanders had hoped for. For people still getting used to manned flight, death from the air and the ‘baby killer’ Zeppelins were a terrible shock. Air raid warnings involved policemen on bicycles blowing whistles and displaying placards; people died praying beside their beds. Later still, London was attacked, more lethally, by Gotha bombers. This was not 1940: far fewer people were killed. But the psychological effect of fearing that the bombers might swarm over at any moment was deep and lasting. The impact of bombing from the air on Britain in the First World War From The Making of Modern Britain by A MARR. It was published in 2009 and accompanied a BBC television series.

6 Source C An example of a visual source A photograph showing the devastation in Liverpool after bombing raid in 1940

7

8 Source D On another occasion people were walking over heads that had been blown off bodies. We brought out forty people on pieces of corrugated sheets. We used anything we could find. I remember bringing out one fellow who had lost his face down one side. His arm was gone. His leg was gone. He looked up at me and said: "Have you got a cigarette, mate? I lit it up for him and put it in his lips. He took a couple of puffs and said: "Will you tell me landlady I shall not be home to tea." And with that he closed his eyes and was gone. Harry Meacham worked as an air-raid warden during the Second World War. He was interviewed for the television documentary in The People's War (1987).

9 Source D On another occasion people were walking over heads that had been blown off bodies. We brought out forty people on pieces of corrugated sheets. We used anything we could find. I remember bringing out one fellow who had lost his face down one side. His arm was gone. His leg was gone. He looked up at me and said: "Have you got a cigarette, mate? I lit it up for him and put it in his lips. He took a couple of puffs and said: "Will you tell me landlady I shall not be home to tea." And with that he closed his eyes and was gone. Harry Meacham worked as an air-raid warden during the Second World War. He was interviewed for the television documentary in The People's War (1987).

10 Source E “At the end of 1916 Germany turned to long-range bombers because vulnerable Zeppelin airships had been maste4red by British fighters firing incendiary bullets. On 13 th June 1917, 14 twin-engine Gothas, each carrying a one-ton bomb load, took off on the first daylight raid on London killing 162 people and injuring 432. In autumn 1917 the Gothas began to attack by night. Paris too was a target. By the end of the war there had been 52 enemy raids on Britain in which 2,772 bombs were dropped, killing 857 people, injuring 2,058 and causing nearly £1,500,000 worth of damage. But the moral effects were all out of proportion to the material. The unexpected danger, the shattering noise of bombs and anti-aircraft guns, frayed the nerve of a population brought up in a safe tranquillity Victorian and Edwardian England.” The Great War by Correlli Barnett, Barnett was co-scriptwriter and historical consultant to the BBC TV series “The Great War”. Studied History at Oxford and National President of the Western Front Association. Given a CBE for his services to military history

11 Source E “At the end of 1916 Germany turned to long-range bombers because vulnerable Zeppelin airships had been maste4red by British fighters firing incendiary bullets. On 13 th June 1917, 14 twin-engine Gothas, each carrying a one-ton bomb load, took off on the first daylight raid on London killing 162 people and injuring 432. In autumn 1917 the Gothas began to attack by night. Paris too was a target. By the end of the war there had been 52 enemy raids on Britain in which 2,772 bombs were dropped, killing 857 people, injuring 2,058 and causing nearly £1,500,000 worth of damage. But the moral effects were all out of proportion to the material. The unexpected danger, the shattering noise of bombs and anti-aircraft guns, frayed the nerve of a population brought up in a safe tranquillity Victorian and Edwardian England.” The Great War by Correlli Barnett, Barnett was co-scriptwriter and historical consultant to the BBC TV series “The Great War”. Studied History at Oxford and National President of the Western Front Association. Given a CBE for his services to military history

12 Source F civil-defence#lightbox-object

13 Source F civil-defence#lightbox-object

14 Source G Photograph of damage caused by the raid to Edwin Place, Porter Street, Hull (AIR 1/569/16/15/142) The National Archives:The Zeppelin Raids How did First World War Zeppelin raids affect British civilians?

15 Source G Photograph of damage caused by the raid to Edwin Place, Porter Street, Hull (AIR 1/569/16/15/142) The National Archives:The Zeppelin Raids How did First World War Zeppelin raids affect British civilians?

16 Source H Transcript of Report of the raid by Major General Ferrier, Commander Humber Defences 1915 (AIR 1/569/16/15/142/A) (National Archives:The Zeppelin Raids : How did First World War Zeppelin raids affect British civilians?) 1:- Information was received at 7.25 p.m. that two Zeppelins were in the North Sea. I attach a copy of the important messages received during the night. 2:- At 9.30 p.m. I ordered all lights to be extinguished in Hull. 3:- At p.m. Hedon, six miles from Hull, reported Zeppelin coming to Hull, and almost immediately, the engines were heard in my telephone office. My Staff Officer went outside the Hotel and saw a Zeppelin over head, very distinct against a clear sky, at a height estimated by him as 3,000 feet. He saw three bombs dropped. As each one left the Zeppelin the airship was clearly lit up. He then reported to me, and I heard five explosions, and I saw from my window that two fires had started. 6:- At a.m. Brig.General Dixon reported several fires, one serious, which threatened Holy Trinity Church, several casualties, but all details working very well. Paull reported that the Zeppelin had passed over at a.m. going S.E. - counted 32 bombs dropped in Hull City. 7:- All arrangements for collecting wounded and extinguishing fires worked very well. Great credit is due to the troops and fire brigade for saving Hold Trinity Church, which was only 27' away from Messes. Davis large establishment, which was burnt to the ground. 10:- From reports received I am of opinion that there were two Airships in the vicinity of Hull, but only one dropped bombs. 12:- The casualties up to date are 19 (5 men, 9 women & 5 children) killed, 24 seriously wounded, and 40 cases dealt with at dressing stations and sent to their homes. 17:- In conclusion I beg to state, I am submitting separately a letter giving my suggestions as to what is in my opinion urgently required in view of other raids.

17 Source H Transcript of Report of the raid by Major General Ferrier, Commander Humber Defences 1915 (AIR 1/569/16/15/142/A) (National Archives:The Zeppelin Raids : How did First World War Zeppelin raids affect British civilians?) 1:- Information was received at 7.25 p.m. that two Zeppelins were in the North Sea. I attach a copy of the important messages received during the night. 2:- At 9.30 p.m. I ordered all lights to be extinguished in Hull. 3:- At p.m. Hedon, six miles from Hull, reported Zeppelin coming to Hull, and almost immediately, the engines were heard in my telephone office. My Staff Officer went outside the Hotel and saw a Zeppelin over head, very distinct against a clear sky, at a height estimated by him as 3,000 feet. He saw three bombs dropped. As each one left the Zeppelin the airship was clearly lit up. He then reported to me, and I heard five explosions, and I saw from my window that two fires had started. 6:- At a.m. Brig.General Dixon reported several fires, one serious, which threatened Holy Trinity Church, several casualties, but all details working very well. Paull reported that the Zeppelin had passed over at a.m. going S.E. - counted 32 bombs dropped in Hull City. 7:- All arrangements for collecting wounded and extinguishing fires worked very well. Great credit is due to the troops and fire brigade for saving Hold Trinity Church, which was only 27' away from Messes. Davis large establishment, which was burnt to the ground. 10:- From reports received I am of opinion that there were two Airships in the vicinity of Hull, but only one dropped bombs. 12:- The casualties up to date are 19 (5 men, 9 women & 5 children) killed, 24 seriously wounded, and 40 cases dealt with at dressing stations and sent to their homes. 17:- In conclusion I beg to state, I am submitting separately a letter giving my suggestions as to what is in my opinion urgently required in view of other raids.

18 Source I Robert Boothby, Boothby: Recollections of a Rebel (1978) Then came the Blitz. After Coventry, the East End of London had to bear the brunt. Every night, from dusk to dawn the German bombs fell upon them. Woolton suggested that I might go down there every morning about six o'clock when the 'All-clear' sounded, and see what I could do to help. I found that, as they came out of the shelters, what comforted them most was a kiss and a cup of tea. These were easily provided. Almost overnight I got the Ministry of Food to set up canteens all over the East End, manned by voluntary workers, where the tea was free. When we took them back to their homes, often reduced to rubble, their chief concern was what had happened to the cat. I am afraid that the cat searches which I tried to organize were less successful than the canteens. A number of people, including Kingsley Martin, the Editor of The New Statesman and Ritchie Calder, now Lord Ritchie- Calder, came down to help. But the dominant figure was a priest called Father Grozier. He never failed. He seemed to be everywhere all the time; and his very presence brought comfort, and revived confidence and courage, to thousands of people. The people of the East End of London - the true cockneys - are a race apart. Most of the men were dockers, all the women cosy. Taken as a whole, they were warm, affectionate, gay, rather reckless, and almost incredibly brave. Sometimes the language was pretty rough, but it was so natural and innocent that it never jarred. One day I came across a small boy crying. I asked him what the matter was, and he said: "They burnt my mother yesterday." Thinking it was in an air-raid, I said: "Was she badly burned?" He looked up at me and said, through his tears: "Oh yes. They don't muck about in crematoriums." I loved them, and I am glad to have been close to them in their hour of supreme trial.

19 Source I Robert Boothby, Boothby: Recollections of a Rebel (1978) Then came the Blitz. After Coventry, the East End of London had to bear the brunt. Every night, from dusk to dawn the German bombs fell upon them. Woolton suggested that I might go down there every morning about six o'clock when the 'All-clear' sounded, and see what I could do to help. I found that, as they came out of the shelters, what comforted them most was a kiss and a cup of tea. These were easily provided. Almost overnight I got the Ministry of Food to set up canteens all over the East End, manned by voluntary workers, where the tea was free. When we took them back to their homes, often reduced to rubble, their chief concern was what had happened to the cat. I am afraid that the cat searches which I tried to organize were less successful than the canteens. A number of people, including Kingsley Martin, the Editor of The New Statesman and Ritchie Calder, now Lord Ritchie- Calder, came down to help. But the dominant figure was a priest called Father Grozier. He never failed. He seemed to be everywhere all the time; and his very presence brought comfort, and revived confidence and courage, to thousands of people. The people of the East End of London - the true cockneys - are a race apart. Most of the men were dockers, all the women cosy. Taken as a whole, they were warm, affectionate, gay, rather reckless, and almost incredibly brave. Sometimes the language was pretty rough, but it was so natural and innocent that it never jarred. One day I came across a small boy crying. I asked him what the matter was, and he said: "They burnt my mother yesterday." Thinking it was in an air-raid, I said: "Was she badly burned?" He looked up at me and said, through his tears: "Oh yes. They don't muck about in crematoriums." I loved them, and I am glad to have been close to them in their hour of supreme trial.


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