Presentation on theme: "Organizing Data. The word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know”. Science is a way of knowing about the natural world. At the heart."— Presentation transcript:
The word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know”. Science is a way of knowing about the natural world. At the heart of science is inquiry, a search for information and explanation.
The field of science starts with curiosity and observations about the natural world. Recorded observations are called data.
Science is a limited field that can only answer certain types of questions. C=Consistency (repeatable experiments) O=Observability (with natural senses or tools) N=Natural (natural causes for natural events) P=Predictability (natural cause can be predicted) T=Testability (with experimentation) T=Tentative (can be changed with new evidence) Science is limited to questions that can be answered by experimentation and evidence.
There is no formula for successful scientific inquiry— no single scientific method with a rule book that researchers must follow.
In science, a hypothesis is a tentative answer to a well-framed question—an explanation on trial. It is usually an educated guess, based on experience and on the data available. Must be testable. Must be falsifiable.
Fig. 1-24b Test prediction Hypothesis #1: Dead batteries Hypothesis #2: Burnt-out bulb Test prediction Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Prediction: Replacing bulb will fix problem Test falsifies hypothesis Test does not falsify hypothesis
Many poisonous species are brightly colored, which warns potential predators Mimics are harmless species that closely resemble poisonous species Henry Bates hypothesized that this mimicry evolved in harmless species as an evolutionary adaptation that reduces their chances of being eaten
Fig. 1-25 South Carolina North Carolina Key Scarlet kingsnake (nonpoisonous) Eastern coral snake (poisonous) Range of scarlet kingsnake only Overlapping ranges of scarlet kingsnake and eastern coral snake
Graphs provide a visual image that allows you to analyze and organize your data in a meaningful way.
Data points plotted accurately. Label both axis. Dependent variable on Y-axis. Independent variable on X-axis. Must have a concise, explanatory title. Key identifies symbols or colors. Each axis has an appropriate scale. ← What’s wrong with this graph?
Line graphs are used when one variable (the independent variable) affects another, the dependent variable. The data is continuous for both variables. The dependent variable is usually the biological response. The independent variable is often time or the experimental treatment.
Bar graphs are used for data that is non- numerical and discrete (separate) for at least one variable. Data may be grouped into separate categories. There are no dependent or independent variables. Bars do not touch. Multiple sets of data may be displayed side-by-side.
Pie graphs can be used instead of bar graphs, generally in cases where there are six or fewer categories involved. A pie graph provides strong visual impact of the relative proportions in each category (particularly where one is dominant).
Histograms are plots of continuous data and are often used to represent frequency distributions, where the Y-axis shows the number of times a particular value was seen. Data is numerical and continuous, so the bars touch. X-axis usually records the class intervals. Y-axis usually records the number of individuals in each class.