The building blocks of Matter Consists of Protons (+), Electrons (-), and Neutrons (N). Consists of only one kind of atom, Cannot be broken down into a simpler type of matter by either physical or chemical means Can exist as either atoms or molecules (more than 1 atom bonded together) Images are from http://www.chem4kids.com
A molecule consists of two or more atoms of the same element, or different elements, that are chemically bound together. In the animation above, two nitrogen atoms (N + N = N2) make one Nitrogen molecule.
Animated images and notes from http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/elements.htmlhttp://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/elements.html Atoms of two or more different elements bound together. Can be separated into elements chemically, but not physically. In the animation above, water (H 2 0) is a compound made of Hydrogen and Oxygen.
Compounds contain more than one type of atom! Example of organic compound (a compound with carbon atoms): Example of inorganicc compound (a compound without carbon atoms): Carbon Dioxide – CO 2 (1 atom of carbon and two atoms of Oxygen) Water – H 2 O (2 atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen)
+ - An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a positive or negative charge!! A particle with a neutral charge has the same number of protons and electrons. An ion does not have the same number of electrons and protons. He + - A helium atom that is missing one electron. The atom has one more proton than electron, and must have a positive charge. Examples of ions:
They are substances held together by physical forces, not chemical. Can be separated physically. Solutions are types mixtures. Images are from http://www.chem4kids.com
Types of Mixtures: Heterogonous: The substances are not uniformly mixed. Example: Sand in a glass of water.
Are heterogeneous mixtures consisting of parts that are visible to the naked eye. Example: the ingredients in salad dressing Substances will settle over time.
Homogonous: Uniform Distribution. Example: Sugar and Water Solutions are homogonous mixtures made up of groups of molecules mixed in a completely even distribution Images are from http://www.chem4kids.com
The substance to be dissolved. The one doing the dissolving. Images are from http://www.chem4kids.com
Particle sizes are in between the size of particles found in solutions and suspensions. Can be mixed and remain evenly distributed without settling out.
Changing from one state to another is a Physical Change. If a new substance is formed it is a Chemical Change. Images are from http://www.chem4kids.com
Physical vs. Chemical Changes Physical CluesChemical Clues Change in size Change in shape Change in state Easily reversed A color change occurs A new chemical is formed It is difficult to reverse Energy in the form of light or heat is given off Bubbles of gas are formed. A new odor may be noticed.
Station Changes: 1. Marshmallow melt: melted was physical, burnt is chemical 2. Rip marshmallow: physical 3. Alka-seltzer: chemical 4. Baking soda and vinegar: chemical 5. Food coloring: physical 6. vinegar and milk: chemical 7. sugar cube: physical
Continued answers 8. rusty nail: chemical 9. burning candle: both 10. Toast burnt: chemical 11: Baking a cake: chemical 12: cutting paper: physical 13. stretching rubber band: physical 14. Melting ice/boiling water and evaporating water are all physical