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The Role of Mathematics in the Development of Developing Countries Michel Waldschmidt Neishabour July Mathematics House

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Plan A concrete example Basic Sciences and Development « Pure » Mathematics Organisms of scientific cooperation Mathematics in developing countries Conclusion

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An example where mathematical modelisation is useful International Conference at St Louis du Senegal « Mathematics and applications to the problems of development in Sahel » Supported by CIMPA december 15-20, 2003

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The river Senegal Barrage to stop salted water 30 km 6 km Cutting the tongue Barbarie Tongue TOWN SAINT-LOUIS RIVER

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Opening barbarie tongue river Senegal, St Louis

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Applications of researches in physics Computers (microprocessors, optic lecteurs) Telephones (transmission between fixed dialers, optic cables) Television (emission and reception of waves) New materials Study of the sand and its properties.

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Applications of researches in mathematics Credit cards (cryptography) Internet (data compression) Medecine (reconstruction of images, scanner, medical images) Building (simulation of the deformation of bridges and sky-scrappers related to winds and earth quakes)

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Mathematics as a tool Nuclear Physics Synthesis of chemical molecules Automatic recognition of forms, data processing, error correcting codes (telecommunications) Conception of mobile robots (work in hostile surrounding) Automatic driving systems (landing under any weather condition) Oil extraction: Computer Commutative Algebra (Gröbner bases, Zanjan CIMPA School)

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L’explosiondesMathématiques

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« Mr Fourier thought that the main aim of mathematics was public utility and explanation of natural phenomenons. A philosopher like him should have known that the unic goal of Science is the honor of human spirit, and therefore a question of number has the same value as a question of the world system. » Carl Gustav Jacobi Joseph Fourier Gustav Jacobi

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Henri Poincaré « Mathematics deserve to be studied for themselves, the theory which can be applied to physics should be developed as well as others.»

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« Mathematics have always progressed under a double stimulation, one from inside coming from studying the problems arising from mathematics itself, the other coming from outside arising from other sciences, from engineering, services and from the society in general. » Jean Pierre Bourguignon, director of IHÉS (Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, France)

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Mathematics as a cultural component Mathematics is a universal language, it provides a structure to thinking, enables to treat the problems in a scientific, rational way. It is a necessary step to access basic culture. Helps to create an intellectual elite Historical development of mathematics « Free» (not finalized) research Regional centers of excellence

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Hidden face of mathematics If we consider either art or mathematics, we are in the world of ideas and imagination Roger Rotmann, Director of National Center for Contemporary Art Georges Pompidou, 18/03/2004

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Usefulness of cooperation (Re)constitution of an intellectual elite in Developping Countries To create a network of academic people of high level who are indispensable for economic development (able to collaborate with industrials) Avoid brain drain (sandwich theses - cotutelle) Reciprocal benefit of exchanges Francophony

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To enable countries from south to acquire the necessary expertise for their development Teaching: preparation to the formation of technicians, engineers, scientifics - education is a preliminary basis for development Technology Computer science Banks, insurances (actuariat),… (jobs in mathematics and in physics)

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Reduction of communication costs increases the agglomeration of richness rather that its dispersion. A consequence of polarisation is a concentration of expertise in the centers to the detriment of periphery. Poor countries should find means for their prosperity which do not come from rich countries.

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To develop networks in southern countries Unión Matemática de America Latina y el Caribe Southeast Asian Mathematical Society African Mathematical Union

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Mathematics in India Tata Institute, Bombay (Mumbai): Homi Bhabha, Tata, Nehru DAE (Department of Atomic Energy) Bangalore: silicon valley

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« Pure » Mathematics Non peaceful applications : DAE Department of Atomic Energy in India and IAEA for ICTP NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization Cooperation with Iraq,… Concurrence with countries like China and India

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French Cooperation MAE (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Budget of Foreign Affairs in 2000: 9 billions French Francs (1.5 billion Euros) (Ministry of Economy and Finances: 8,3 billions French Francs)

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A general institut for cooperation IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement) French Institute of scientific research for the development in cooperation ex ORSTOM (Office de recherche scientifique et technique outre -mer) Budget: 180 millions € (1 600 positions, including researchers or engeeniers).

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A specialized institute CIRAD (Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement) Budget: 78 millions € (1 800 people, including 900 staffs).

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Other french institutions which take part to the cooperation (Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique) (Institut National de Recherche Agronomique) (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

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COPED Comité pour les pays en développement Committee for developing countries (Academy of Science) Aim: to promote initiatives which will help french scientific research in connection with developing countries January 2002: workshop with CIMPA, SMF and SMAI (the two french mathematical societies) on the subject : Mathematics and developing countries.

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Learned Societies SMF (Société Mathématique de France = French Mathematical Society) SMAI (Société de Mathématiques Appliquées et Industrielles= Applied and Industrial Mathematical Society ) SFP (Société Française de Physique = French Physical Society)

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CIMPA Centre International de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées (1978) International Center of pure and applied mathematics Budget: € Including salaries: € Between 5 to 8 schools per year Contribute to workshops and networks

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CIMPA : since 1978, 124 schools and 55 Seminars, workshops in the field of Pure and Applied Mathematics and Computer Science In 41 south countries including 15 in Africa 5 in South East Asia and India 10 in Latine America and Caraïbean 6 in Middle East 3 in East Europa trainees, 700 lecturers (110 from south countries

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UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

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ICTP International Center for Theoretical Physics (1964) under IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Abdu Salam Centre, Trieste 17 Millions € (85% from italian gouvernment) « Associate members » from south countries

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ISP International Science Program, University Uppsala (Sweeden) Faculty of Science and Technology Born in ,8 Millions € / year Physic, Chemistry, then Maths.

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ISP: International Science Program Constitution of networks North/South and South/South, Visits in developed countries of scientifics from developing countries Africa: Cameroun, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambie, Zimbabwe Asie: Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thaïland Latin America : Colombia, Equador, Perou

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ICMS Edimburg International Center of Mathematical Sciences (1990) The main aims of the ICMS are To create an environment in which mathematical sciences will develop in new directions. To encourage and exploit those areas of mathematics that are of relevance to other sciences, industry and commerce (trade). To promote international collaboration within these aims and in particular with mathematicians in the developing world.

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EMS CDC European Mathematical Society Committee for developing countries IMU CDE International Mathematical Union Commission on Development and Exchanges

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Physics in Developing Countries

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UNO United Nation Organization FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations helping to build a world without hunger HWO: Health World Organization The United Nations Children's Fund

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The World Bank is an institution for development Whose aim is to reduce poverty by increasing growth International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

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AMMSI The African Mathematics Millennium Science Initiative The Challenge of Strengthening Mathematics in Africa

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Budget : 1,8 million US$/year

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Mathematicians in the world World Directory of Mathematicians 2002 (International Mathematical Union) mathematicians in 71 countries ( in 1998) CNFM (Comité National Français des Mathématiciens) ~ mathematicians in France (2 855 in 1998)

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ASIA CountryNPBNPB/inhabitant

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Mathematicians in Asia Source: World Directory of Mathematicians

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Wuhan Mumbai Chennai Hyderabad

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Mathematics in China Cultural revolution International Congress of Mathematics in 2002 (Beijing) - science and technology Academia Sinica Peking University (Beida), Tsinghua

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Cooperation between France and China about mathematics Wuhan: Centre Sino-Français de Mathématiques, Shanghai: Institut Sino-Français de Mathématiques Appliquées. Peking University (Beida), Tsinghua

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Mathématics in India Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc Chennai) Harish Chandra Research Institute (Allahabad)

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Indo French Centre for the promotion of advanced research A program of scientific cooperation between France and India, supported by the Indian Department of Science and Technology and the French Ministry of Foreign Affaires(Foreign Office)

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Indo-french Cooperation in mathematics Fr. Racine (Tiruchirappalli, Madras) Tata Institute (Laurent Schwartz,… ) Cyber University Bangalore/Toulouse IFIM Institut Franco-Indien de Mathématiques = Indo French Institute of Mathematics.

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Mathematicians in Middle East Source: World Directory of Mathematicians

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Basic Sciences in Iran

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AFRICA CountryNPBNPB/inhabitant

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Mathematicians in Africa Source: World Directory of Mathematicians

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Some centers of research in Africa CARIM: Centre Africain de Recherche en Informatique et en Mathématiques = African Research Center in Computer Science and Mathematics (Cameroun) IMSP: Institut de Mathématiques et de Sciences Physique (Porto Novo) National Center for Mathematical Sciences (Accra, Ghana) National Mathematical Center (Abuja, Nigeria) Senegal Benin

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Two networks CARI (Colloque Africain de Recherche en Informatique = African meeting for research in computer science) Coordinator: INRIA GIRAGA (Groupe Africain de Recherche en Algèbre Géométrie et Applications = African Research Group in Algebra, Geometry and Applications) Supports: CIMPA, ICTP, UNESCO

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Other networks EDP = PDE (Partial Differential Equations) Contrôle- Modélisation (Saint Louis du Sénégal, Ouagadougou, Nouakchott) seminars of 2 weeks every year RAGAAD Réseau Africain de Géométrie et Algèbre Appliquées au Développement = African Network in Geometry and Algebra applied to the development (Niger, Sénégal, Burkina-Faso, Mali) RAMAD Réseau Africain de Mathématiques Appliquées au Développement = African Network in Mathematics Applied to the development (Yaounde + Congo, Centrafrica, Tchad)

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Bénin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroun, Centrafrique, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Guinée, Madagascar, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Sénégal, Tchad, Togo. CAMES Comité Africain et Malgache pour l’Enseignement Supérieur (African and Malgache Committee for Higher Education)

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Mathematic Research in the french langage part of Africa Claude Lobry: Mathematical Research in Africa Is it necessary for the development? L’Harmattan (ed.), 2003

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SARIMA Soutien aux Activités de Recherche Informatique et Mathématique en Afrique = Support to the Activities of Research in Computer Science and Mathematics in Africa Improve the potential of research of academic research teams in the the region with priority solidarity (ZSP Zone de Solidarité Prioritaire) in Africa and in the Mediterranean Region in fields of mathematics, science and Information Technology. FSP (Fonds de Solidarité Prioritaire) Interministériel - MAE € per year for 4 years. Institutions: INRIA, CIMPA Approved in 2002, starts in 2005

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Latine America CountryNPBNPB/inhabitant

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Mathematicians en Latin America Source: World Directory of Mathematicians

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Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e Aplicada (Rio, Brésil)

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Mathematics Modelization Center in Santiago du Chili Franco-Chile laboratory, Centre de modélisation mathématique april 2000 unité mixte de recherche CNRS

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Other research centers in Latine America IMCA Instituto de Matemática y Ciencias Afine (Lima, Pérou) IVIC Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (Caracas, Vénezuela) UNAM Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (Mexique)

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Main points: Fundamental Research is an essential component of Sustainable Development Basic science is international, without borders, all countries are entitled to participate.

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Objections « We have enough problems to solve in our countries » « The situation is hopeless! »

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Conclusions There is a place for a strong cooperation based on academic structures. A large number of contacts between french scientists and scientists from developing countries already exist, for instance thanks to the scientists who have studied in France. The funds which should be necessary are comparatively not high, but so far they are not sufficient. It is part of the mission of scientists, professors and researchers to participate, and this should be considered as part of their job, not only on a voluntary basis.

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Conclusions All the efforts which have been devoted in the past by the french scientific and cultural cooperation has given good results. The existing potential will soon disapear if the scientific research is not properly organized. Basic sciences need to be supported in developing countries.

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