Presentation on theme: "Bible History Overview"— Presentation transcript:
1Bible History Overview Week Ten – LeviticusFellowship With GodBible History OverviewPreparedbyKellyBoyd
2Fellowship With GodIn the book of Genesis, we saw the fall of man, due to his sin. In the book of Exodus, we see God redeeming His people with His great power, and the covenant made. In the book of Leviticus, we see God explaining the terms of the covenant, and the way to maintain that relationship (fellowship) with Him.The theme of the book is captured in one key verse: “I am the Lord who brought you up out of Egypt to be your God; therefore be holy, because I am holy.” 11:45
3Offerings to God – Lev. 1-7Offerings to God had begun as soon as mankind realized that his separation from God was because of sin. (Gen. 4:3-5) In these seven chapters we see God detailing the kinds of offerings that would please Him.Five separate offerings are described, and each teaches something unique about how a sinner must approach the holy God.
4The Burnt Offering – 1:1-17;6:8-13 This offering was unique in that the total animal was consumed in the fire, symbolizing the complete devotion of the worshiper. Different animals are suggested depending on the financial means of the giver, indicating that God is accessible by everyone, regardless of income.This offering is not connected to forgiveness, but rather was simply a gift, an expression of total surrender to God.
5The Grain Offering – 2:1-16; 6:14-23 This is an offering of daily devotion, and thanks for God’s provision of daily needs. The ingredients were very common kitchen items, and make clear that God is concerned with the mundane routine of everyday life.This offering accompanied the Burnt Offering, and likewise was not connected to forgiveness of sin.
6The Fellowship Offering – 3:1-17; 7:11-34 This offering expressed the relationship between God and the worshiper as they shared a common meal. There were some parts of the animal that were offered on the altar, and the rest the worshiper would eat.It was not to restore fellowship, but rather a celebration of a fellowship that already existed. It is called the Peace Offering in some translations.
7The Sin Offering – 4:1 – 5:13; 6:24-30 The purpose of this offering was to atone for unintentional sin committed by the people. In the first three offerings, the offerer comes as a worshiper, but here he comes as a convicted sinner. Through this offering he would be forgiven, and his fellowship with God restored.
8The Guilt Offering - 5:14-6:7; 7:1-10 This offering emphasizes the damage done to another as a result of sin. It sends the guilty party back to the one he has wronged to make restitution. (Matt. 5:23,24) An offering must also be brought to God, which shows that a sin committed against our fellow man is a sin against God.Note that there is no provision in this system for forgiveness of premeditated sin, that which most cries out for punishment.
9The Priests – 8-10,21,22Of the twelve tribes of Israel God chose one to care for the tabernacle – Levi. Of the tribe of Levi, one family, of Aaron, would be the priests. The priests served as mediators between God and the people, to maintain their covenant relationship with Him.They also served as medical officers and in dispute resolution, even presiding over trials in capital cases, and assigning values to economic loss, and valuations of land, houses and animals. The priest’s decision was the final one, without appeal. (27:12) In the days before kings they were the defacto government of Israel, because God was their King. (1 Samuel 8:7)
10The Priests – 8-10,21,22After a week long ordination service of the family of Aaron, which included elaborate washings, the putting on of the priestly garments, the sprinkling of blood and oil and repeated sacrifices of all kinds, “the glory of the Lord appeared to all the people”, and “fire came out from before the Lord and consumed the burnt offering and the fat portions on the altar” (9:23,24).The holy God had accepted their worship, and made his presence known. The people shouted and bowed low before their God.
11Various Laws – 11-15, 17-20,27The young nation of Israel needed a religious and legal framework by which to maintain their covenant relationship with God. This includes clean and unclean foods, purification after childbirth, regulations about infectious diseases, the eating of blood, unlawful sexual relations, punishment for sins, vows made to God, and the tithe. All of these were overseen by the priesthood.
12Religious Festivals – 23-25 These were instituted so that specific days would be set aside to meditate on God and His provision for them. They also give back to God as they have been blessed.The SabbathThe Passover and Unleavened BreadFirstfruitsFeast of Weeks (Pentecost)Feast of TrumpetsDay of AtonementFeast of TabernaclesSabbatical YearJubilee
13The Sabbath – 23:3This was a day when no work was to be done, throughout the whole year, every seventh day. It was to commemorate the creative work of God, when He rested on the seventh day.Jews of later times failed to keep the Sabbath, and were punished severely by God for it. See Lev. 26:34 where God prophesies the coming captivity in Babylon.
14The Sabbath – 23:3Our day of worship as Christians is not the Sabbath (Saturday). In the early church, the “first day of the week” began on what we would call Saturday night, since days were counted from sundown to sundown. (Acts 20:7)This means that Sunday is not a day of rest, strictly speaking, the way the Jewish Sabbath was. Therefore it is not a sin to do work on a Sunday, but we need to heed the admonition about “not forsaking the assembly, as is the habit of some” (Hebrews 10:25).
15The Passover and Unleavened Bread – 23:4-8 This celebration was in memory of their deliverance from slavery in Egypt and the death of the firstborn. It was an annual, week-long festival.The Passover also fell into disuse in later times, with periodic revivals such as under king Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 30:21-26)
16Firstfruits – 23:9-14The Israelites were not to eat of their harvest until they had offered the “first fruits” to the Lord, along with a burnt offering, a grain offering and a drink offering.
17Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) – 23:15-22 Celebrated 50 days after Passover, it was a type of thanksgiving feast, to acknowledge God’s provision through the harvest to meet their daily needs.
18The Feast of Trumpets – 23:23-25 This is Jewish New Year’s Day by the patriarchal calendar, believed to mark the actual day of creation. The blowing of rams horns punctuates the giving of thanks for another year of life. Modern Jews call this “Rosh Hashanah”.
19The Day of Atonement – 16:1-34; 23:26-32 Ten days after New Years Day, this annual ritual was to offer sacrifices for the sins of the people. Being sorry is not enough, the penalty must be paid, and animal substitutes died in their place. (Hebrews 9:22).This was the only day of the year when the high priest was allowed into the Most Holy Place, to sprinkle blood on the top of the ark of the covenant. It was a day of fasting. Today it is known as Yom Kippur.The timing of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur suggest that Adam and Eve may have only been in the garden for 10 days before they sinned.
20The Feast of Tabernacles – 23:33-43 This week-long festival commemorates the time when the Israelites lived in tents during their wilderness journey. People left their homes and lived in tents for the entire week, re-experiencing and reminding themselves of their total dependency on God.
21The Sabbatical Year – 25:1-7 As the people were to keep the sabbath once a week, the land was to enjoy a sabbath every seventh year. No one was to work the land (plant or harvest) for an entire year. God’s promise was that the harvest in the sixth year would be so abundant that the food would carry them through the sabbatical year.Modern crop management research has shown this concept so valuable for the soil that we now pay farmers to leave fields fallow.
22The Year of Jubilee – 25:8-55Every fiftieth year, or once a generation, was the Year of Jubilee. No planting or harvesting was to be done, and the land would revert to the tribe or family that originally received it after the conquest. All Hebrew slaves were to go free, and the poor would be specially provided for. If done properly, it would have relieved social injustice and inequality, and restored tranquility to the land.
23A Look Into the Future – Ch. 26 Leviticus 26 gives us a general outline of the rest of the Old Testament. The first 13 verses tell of all the blessings the Israelites could expect if they faithfully kept God’s covenant, as they had promised.The next section, verses 14-39, detail the awful curses that would come upon them if they disobeyed. We see here God’s mercy, patience and love for His people, but also that there is a limit. There could be a point at which the covenant would be irretrievably broken, and they would lose the Promised Land.
24A Look Into the Future – Ch. 26 The third section, verses 40-45, tell of the conditions under which the covenant could be restored. Those are:Confessing their sinsConfessing the sins of their fathersHumbling their heartsPaying for their sins
25A Look Into the Future – Ch. 26 As it turned out, Israel did keep the covenant for many years, and enjoyed the blessings. However, eventually the sin of the people and their kings was so great that the covenant was completely broken, and they lost their land. However, the southern kingdom of Judah was restored seventy years later, and they received back their land.All the events of Leviticus 26 did come to pass, and for that reason, it can serve as an outline of the rest of the Old Testament, from Joshua to Nehemiah.
26A Look Into the Future – Ch. 26 Blessings For ObedienceRain and cropsSafety and PeaceDefeat of Their EnemiesIncreased NumbersGod’s Dwelling w/ThemGod Walking w/ThemFulfillmentPsalm 65:9-13Joshua 21:44Joshua 10:40-42; 23:9,10Num. 26:51; 1Chron. 21:51 Kings 8:62-9:3Joshua 23:3-5
27A Look Into the Future – Ch. 26 Punishment 14-39Sudden terrorWasting disease/feverSeed planted in vainDefeated by enemiesRuled by hated onesNo rain – sky like ironGround like bronzeSoil won’t yield cropsWild animals kill kidsFulfillmentPsalm 78:332 Chronicles 21:12-19Judges 6:3-61 Samuel 4:10Psalm 106:411 Kings 17:11 Kings 18:5Jeremiah 12:132 Kings 2:23,24
28A Look Into the Future – Ch. 26 PunishmentDeserted roadsSword brought on themA plagueSupply of bread cut offContinual hungerEat childrens’ fleshIdols destroyedDead bodies defile idolsGod to abhor themFulfillment2 Chronicles 15:5,6Judges 2:10-152 Samuel 24:152 Kings 6:24,25Ezekiel 4:16,172 Kings 6:28,292 Chronicles 14:3-62 Kings 23:19,20Jeremiah 12:8
29A Look Into the Future – Ch. 26 PunishmentCities into ruinsNo delight in offeringsScattered to the nationsLand to enjoy SabbathsThose left -fearful heartPerish among nationsSurvivors to waste awayFulfillment2 Kings 25:8-10Hosea 6:6,72 Kings 17:5,6; 25:112 Chronicles 36:212 Kings 25:25,26Hosea 8:8Ezekiel 33:10
30A Look Into the Future – Ch. 26 Terms of Covenant Restoration vsConfess their sins, and their father’s sins, humble themselves, repentFulfillmentEzra 9:5 – 10:1Nehemiah 9:1-3Daniel 9:4-19
31ConclusionThe people are given a choice, whether to obey or not. They would “have it made”, enjoying peace, prosperity and blessing, if only they would keep their covenant with God. If they strayed, He would discipline them. If they utterly broke the covenant, God would bring disaster. If they were willing to submit to God, and turn again, He would restore them once more.
32Seeing Christ in This Passage As Israel’s high priest entered the Most Holy Place and sprinkled the blood, so Jesus has entered heaven with his own blood, as our eternal and perpetual high priest (Hebrews 9:11-14).Like the Old Testament sacrifices, Jesus too was “without blemish” (Hebrews 7:26).Sin brings death. The animal sacrifices took the place of the offerer. Jesus takes our place (2 Corinthians 5:21).The priests served as mediators between God and man. Jesus is our mediator (Hebrews 9:15).
33Next WeekPlease read the books of Numbers and Deuteronomy (especially Numbers 13 & 14 and Deuteronomy 4 – 8.