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Prepared by Kelly Boyd Week Ten – Leviticus Fellowship With God.

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1 Prepared by Kelly Boyd Week Ten – Leviticus Fellowship With God

2 In the book of Genesis, we saw the fall of man, due to his sin. In the book of Exodus, we see God redeeming His people with His great power, and the covenant made. In the book of Leviticus, we see God explaining the terms of the covenant, and the way to maintain that relationship (fellowship) with Him. The theme of the book is captured in one key verse: “I am the Lord who brought you up out of Egypt to be your God; therefore be holy, because I am holy.” 11:45

3 Offerings to God – Lev. 1-7 Offerings to God had begun as soon as mankind realized that his separation from God was because of sin. (Gen. 4:3-5) In these seven chapters we see God detailing the kinds of offerings that would please Him. Five separate offerings are described, and each teaches something unique about how a sinner must approach the holy God.

4 The Burnt Offering – 1:1-17;6:8-13 This offering was unique in that the total animal was consumed in the fire, symbolizing the complete devotion of the worshiper. Different animals are suggested depending on the financial means of the giver, indicating that God is accessible by everyone, regardless of income. This offering is not connected to forgiveness, but rather was simply a gift, an expression of total surrender to God.

5 The Grain Offering – 2:1-16; 6:14-23 This is an offering of daily devotion, and thanks for God’s provision of daily needs. The ingredients were very common kitchen items, and make clear that God is concerned with the mundane routine of everyday life. This offering accompanied the Burnt Offering, and likewise was not connected to forgiveness of sin.

6 The Fellowship Offering – 3:1-17; 7:11-34 This offering expressed the relationship between God and the worshiper as they shared a common meal. There were some parts of the animal that were offered on the altar, and the rest the worshiper would eat. It was not to restore fellowship, but rather a celebration of a fellowship that already existed. It is called the Peace Offering in some translations.

7 The Sin Offering – 4:1 – 5:13; 6:24-30 The purpose of this offering was to atone for unintentional sin committed by the people. In the first three offerings, the offerer comes as a worshiper, but here he comes as a convicted sinner. Through this offering he would be forgiven, and his fellowship with God restored.

8 The Guilt Offering - 5:14-6:7; 7:1-10 This offering emphasizes the damage done to another as a result of sin. It sends the guilty party back to the one he has wronged to make restitution. (Matt. 5:23,24) An offering must also be brought to God, which shows that a sin committed against our fellow man is a sin against God.Matt. 5:23,24 Note that there is no provision in this system for forgiveness of premeditated sin, that which most cries out for punishment.

9 The Priests – 8-10,21,22 Of the twelve tribes of Israel God chose one to care for the tabernacle – Levi. Of the tribe of Levi, one family, of Aaron, would be the priests. The priests served as mediators between God and the people, to maintain their covenant relationship with Him. They also served as medical officers and in dispute resolution, even presiding over trials in capital cases, and assigning values to economic loss, and valuations of land, houses and animals. The priest’s decision was the final one, without appeal. (27:12) In the days before kings they were the defacto government of Israel, because God was their King. (1 Samuel 8:7)27:121 Samuel 8:7

10 The Priests – 8-10,21,22 After a week long ordination service of the family of Aaron, which included elaborate washings, the putting on of the priestly garments, the sprinkling of blood and oil and repeated sacrifices of all kinds, “the glory of the Lord appeared to all the people”, and “fire came out from before the Lord and consumed the burnt offering and the fat portions on the altar” (9:23,24). The holy God had accepted their worship, and made his presence known. The people shouted and bowed low before their God.

11 Various Laws – 11-15, 17-20,27 The young nation of Israel needed a religious and legal framework by which to maintain their covenant relationship with God. This includes clean and unclean foods, purification after childbirth, regulations about infectious diseases, the eating of blood, unlawful sexual relations, punishment for sins, vows made to God, and the tithe. All of these were overseen by the priesthood.

12 Religious Festivals – These were instituted so that specific days would be set aside to meditate on God and His provision for them. They also give back to God as they have been blessed. The Sabbath The Passover and Unleavened Bread Firstfruits Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) Feast of Trumpets Day of Atonement Feast of Tabernacles Sabbatical Year Jubilee

13 The Sabbath – 23:3 This was a day when no work was to be done, throughout the whole year, every seventh day. It was to commemorate the creative work of God, when He rested on the seventh day. Jews of later times failed to keep the Sabbath, and were punished severely by God for it. See Lev. 26:34 where God prophesies the coming captivity in Babylon.Lev. 26:34

14 The Sabbath – 23:3 Our day of worship as Christians is not the Sabbath (Saturday). In the early church, the “first day of the week” began on what we would call Saturday night, since days were counted from sundown to sundown. (Acts 20:7)Acts 20:7 This means that Sunday is not a day of rest, strictly speaking, the way the Jewish Sabbath was. Therefore it is not a sin to do work on a Sunday, but we need to heed the admonition about “not forsaking the assembly, as is the habit of some” (Hebrews 10:25).

15 The Passover and Unleavened Bread – 23:4-8 This celebration was in memory of their deliverance from slavery in Egypt and the death of the firstborn. It was an annual, week-long festival. The Passover also fell into disuse in later times, with periodic revivals such as under king Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 30:21-26)2 Chronicles 30:21-26

16 Firstfruits – 23:9-14 The Israelites were not to eat of their harvest until they had offered the “first fruits” to the Lord, along with a burnt offering, a grain offering and a drink offering.

17 Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) – 23:15-22 Celebrated 50 days after Passover, it was a type of thanksgiving feast, to acknowledge God’s provision through the harvest to meet their daily needs.

18 The Feast of Trumpets – 23: This is Jewish New Year’s Day by the patriarchal calendar, believed to mark the actual day of creation. The blowing of rams horns punctuates the giving of thanks for another year of life. Modern Jews call this “Rosh Hashanah”.

19 The Day of Atonement – 16:1- 34; 23:26-32 Ten days after New Years Day, this annual ritual was to offer sacrifices for the sins of the people. Being sorry is not enough, the penalty must be paid, and animal substitutes died in their place. (Hebrews 9:22).Hebrews 9:22 This was the only day of the year when the high priest was allowed into the Most Holy Place, to sprinkle blood on the top of the ark of the covenant. It was a day of fasting. Today it is known as Yom Kippur. The timing of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur suggest that Adam and Eve may have only been in the garden for 10 days before they sinned.

20 The Feast of Tabernacles – 23:33-43 This week-long festival commemorates the time when the Israelites lived in tents during their wilderness journey. People left their homes and lived in tents for the entire week, re-experiencing and reminding themselves of their total dependency on God.

21 The Sabbatical Year – 25:1-7 As the people were to keep the sabbath once a week, the land was to enjoy a sabbath every seventh year. No one was to work the land (plant or harvest) for an entire year. God’s promise was that the harvest in the sixth year would be so abundant that the food would carry them through the sabbatical year. Modern crop management research has shown this concept so valuable for the soil that we now pay farmers to leave fields fallow.

22 The Year of Jubilee – 25:8-55 Every fiftieth year, or once a generation, was the Year of Jubilee. No planting or harvesting was to be done, and the land would revert to the tribe or family that originally received it after the conquest. All Hebrew slaves were to go free, and the poor would be specially provided for. If done properly, it would have relieved social injustice and inequality, and restored tranquility to the land.

23 A Look Into the Future – Ch. 26 Leviticus 26 gives us a general outline of the rest of the Old Testament. The first 13 verses tell of all the blessings the Israelites could expect if they faithfully kept God’s covenant, as they had promised. The next section, verses 14-39, detail the awful curses that would come upon them if they disobeyed. We see here God’s mercy, patience and love for His people, but also that there is a limit. There could be a point at which the covenant would be irretrievably broken, and they would lose the Promised Land.

24 A Look Into the Future – Ch. 26 The third section, verses 40-45, tell of the conditions under which the covenant could be restored. Those are: Confessing their sins Confessing the sins of their fathers Humbling their hearts Paying for their sins

25 As it turned out, Israel did keep the covenant for many years, and enjoyed the blessings. However, eventually the sin of the people and their kings was so great that the covenant was completely broken, and they lost their land. However, the southern kingdom of Judah was restored seventy years later, and they received back their land. All the events of Leviticus 26 did come to pass, and for that reason, it can serve as an outline of the rest of the Old Testament, from Joshua to Nehemiah.

26 A Look Into the Future – Ch. 26 Blessings For Obedience Rain and crops Safety and Peace Defeat of Their Enemies Increased Numbers God’s Dwelling w/Them God Walking w/Them Fulfillment Psalm 65:9-13 Joshua 21:44 Joshua 10:40-42; 23:9,10 Num. 26:51; 1Chron. 21:5 1 Kings 8:62-9:3 Joshua 23:3-5

27 Punishment Sudden terror Wasting disease/fever Seed planted in vain Defeated by enemies Ruled by hated ones No rain – sky like iron Ground like bronze Soil won’t yield crops Wild animals kill kids Fulfillment Psalm 78:33 2 Chronicles 21:12-19 Judges 6:3-6 1 Samuel 4:10 Psalm 106:41 1 Kings 17:1 1 Kings 18:5 Jeremiah 12:13 2 Kings 2:23,24

28 Punishment Deserted roads Sword brought on them A plague Supply of bread cut off Continual hunger Eat childrens’ flesh Idols destroyed Dead bodies defile idols God to abhor them Fulfillment 2 Chronicles 15:5,6 Judges 2: Samuel 24:15 2 Kings 6:24,25 Ezekiel 4:16,17 2 Kings 6:28,29 2 Chronicles 14:3-6 2 Kings 23:19,20 Jeremiah 12:8

29 Punishment Cities into ruins No delight in offerings Scattered to the nations Land to enjoy Sabbaths Those left -fearful heart Perish among nations Survivors to waste away Fulfillment 2 Kings 25:8-10 Hosea 6:6,7 2 Kings 17:5,6; 25:11 2 Chronicles 36:21 2 Kings 25:25,26 Hosea 8:8 Ezekiel 33:10

30 Terms of Covenant Restoration vs Confess their sins, and their father’s sins, humble themselves, repent Fulfillment Ezra 9:5 – 10:1 Nehemiah 9:1-3 Daniel 9:4-19

31 Conclusion The people are given a choice, whether to obey or not. They would “have it made”, enjoying peace, prosperity and blessing, if only they would keep their covenant with God. If they strayed, He would discipline them. If they utterly broke the covenant, God would bring disaster. If they were willing to submit to God, and turn again, He would restore them once more.

32 Seeing Christ in This Passage As Israel’s high priest entered the Most Holy Place and sprinkled the blood, so Jesus has entered heaven with his own blood, as our eternal and perpetual high priest (Hebrews 9:11-14).Hebrews 9:11-14 Like the Old Testament sacrifices, Jesus too was “without blemish” (Hebrews 7:26).Hebrews 7:26 Sin brings death. The animal sacrifices took the place of the offerer. Jesus takes our place (2 Corinthians 5:21).2 Corinthians 5:21 The priests served as mediators between God and man. Jesus is our mediator (Hebrews 9:15).Hebrews 9:15

33 Next Week Please read the books of Numbers and Deuteronomy (especially Numbers 13 & 14 and Deuteronomy 4 – 8.


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