Types of Oil Carbon-Hydrogen Chains –1-4 carbonslight hydrocarbons, ex. Methane (CH 4 ) –4-14 carbonsnaptha ==> gasoline –12-15 carbonskerosene ==> jet aircraft fuel –15-25 carbonsgas oil ==> heating oil and bunker fuel –>25 carbonsresidual oils Carbon-Hydrogen Rings = Aromatics –Benzene C 6 H 6 –Toluene C 6 H 5 CH 3 –Xylenes C 6 H 4 (CH 3 ) 2 ==> polyester CH H H H H H H H H H C CC C C C
Sources of Oil in the Marine Environment Natural oil seeps Oil exploration and production Industrial Discharge Urban Runoff (highways, oil changes) Vessel Operations (leaks, cleaning) Accidental Big Spills
10. Shipping lanes 800 - 1,100 Oil Tankers Annually Enter San Francisco Bay
Major Oil Spills in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary 1984PUERTO RICAN1.4 million gal 1986APEX HOUSTON20,000 gal 1996CAPE MOHICAN42,000-50,000 gal 1997-98Point Reyes Tarball Incident 1998COMMAND2,500 gal 2001-02sunken J. LUCKENBACH unknown 3 quarts per oil change 4 times per year is how many gallons?