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Ethical and Moral Philosophy Sources of Our Moral Values Family Moral Values.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethical and Moral Philosophy Sources of Our Moral Values Family Moral Values."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ethical and Moral Philosophy

3 Sources of Our Moral Values Family Moral Values

4 Sources of Our Moral Values Family Moral Values Religion Education

5 Sources of Our Moral Values Family Moral Values Culture Religion Personality Education

6 Sources of Our Moral Values Family Moral Values Culture Leadership /Mentors Religion Personality Education

7 Sources of Our Moral Values Family Moral Values Culture Leadership /Mentors Religion ExperiencePersonality Education

8 Sources of Our Moral Values Family Moral Values Culture Leadership /Mentors Religion ExperiencePersonality Reflection Education

9 Ethical Systems and Schools of Thought Rule Based: Deontology Ends-Based: Teleology Care-Based: Situational Ethical Systems Deontology Deontological ethics (from the Greek Deon meaning obligation) or Deontology is an ethical theory holding that decisions should be made solely or primarily by considering one's duties and the rights of others. Deontology posits the existence of a priori moral obligations, further suggesting that people ought to live by a set of permanently defined principles that do not change merely as a result of a change in circumstances.

10 Ethical Systems and Schools of Thought Ethical Systems Teleology Teleological moral systems are characterized primarily by a focus on the consequences which any action might have (for that reason, they are often referred to as consequentalist moral systems, and both terms are used here). Thus, in order to make correct moral choices, we have to have some understanding of what will result from our choices. When we make choices which result in the correct consequences, then we are acting morally; when we make choices which result in the incorrect consequences, then we are acting immorally. Rule Based: Deontology Ends-Based: Teleology Care-Based: Situational

11 Ethical Systems and Schools of Thought Ethical Systems Ethic of Care The ethics of care is one of a cluster of normative ethical theories that were developed by feminists in the second half of the twentieth century. While consequentialist and deontological ethical theories emphasize universal standards and impartiality, ethics of care emphasize the importance of relationships. The basis of the theory is the recognition of: 1) The interdependence of all individuals for achieving their interests; 2) The belief that those particularly vulnerable to our choices and their outcomes deserve extra consideration to be measured according to the level of their vulnerability to one's choices and the level of their affectedness by one's choices and no one elses; 3) The necessity of attending to the contextual details of the situation in order to safeguard and promote the actual specific interests of those involved.result in the incorrect consequences, then we are acting immorally. feministsconsequentialistdeontological Care-Based: Situational Rule Based: Deontology Ends-Based: Teleology

12 Ethical Systems and Schools of Thought The Grand Mean Categorical Imperative Utilitarianism Situational Relativism Devine Command Justice Egoism Ethical Systems Rule Based: Deontology Ends-Based: Teleology Care-Based: Situational Cultural Relativism

13 Moral Values Personal Code of Ethics Ethical Systems and Schools of Thought Law Our Personal Code of Ethics Professional Ethics

14 Personal Code of Ethics Leadership Business Ethics Corporate Citizenship Social Change Making a Difference Through Leadership

15 Ethical Systems

16 Ethical Perspectives  Teleology  Deontology  Moral Relativism

17 The Relativist Perspective  Defines ethical behavior subjectively from the experiences of individuals and groups Relativists use themselves or those around them as their basis for defining ethical standards A positive group consensus indicates that an action is considered ethical by the group  Acknowledges that we live in a society in which people have different views There are many different bases from which to justify a decision as right or wrong

18 Deontology Adapted from: Lawrence M. Hinman, Ph.D. Aristotle and the Ethics of Virtue Kant and the Categorical Imperative Divine Command

19 Deontology  Focuses on the rights of the individual, not consequences (considers intentions)  Believes in equal respect and views certain behaviors as inherently right  Proposes that individuals have certain inherent freedoms Freedoms: conscience, consent, privacy, speech and due process  Rule deontologist Conformity to general moral principles  Act deontologists Evaluate ethicalness based on the act

20 Virtue  Strength of character (habit)  Involving both feeling and action  Seeks the mean between excess and deficiency relative to us  Promotes human flourishing Aristotle

21 Virtues and Spheres of Existence

22 Spheres of Existence--2

23 Two Conceptions of Morality  We can contrast two approaches to the moral life. The childhood conception of morality:  Comes from outside (usually parents).  Is negative (“don’t touch that stove burner!”).  Rules and habit formation are central. The adult conception of morality.  Comes from within (self-directed).  Is positive (“this is the kind of person I want to be.”).  Virtue-centered,often modeled on ideals.

24 The Purpose of Morality  Both of these conceptions of morality are appropriate at different times in life.  Adolescence and early adulthood is the time when some people make the transition from the adolescent conception of morality to the adult conception.

25 Rightly-ordered Desires  Aristotle draws an interesting contrast between: Continent people, who have unruly desires but manage to control them. Temperate people, whose desires are naturally—or through habit, second-nature—directed toward that which is good for them. Weakness of will (akrasia) occurs when individuals cannot keep their desires under control.

26 The Goals of Moral Education  Moral education may initially seek to control unruly desires through rules, the formation of habits, etc.  Ultimately, moral education aims at forming rightly- ordered desires, that is, teaching people to desire what is genuinely good for them.

27 Virtue As the Golden Mean  Strength of character (virtue), Aristotle suggests, involves finding the proper balance between two extremes. Excess: having too much of something. Deficiency: having too little of something.  Not mediocrity, but harmony and balance.

28 Virtue and Habit  For Aristotle, virtue is something that is practiced and thereby learned—it is habit (hexis).  This has clear implications for moral education, for Aristotle obviously thinks that you can teach people to be virtuous.

29 Courage  The strength of character necessary to continue in the face of our fears Deficiency: Cowardice, t he inability to do what is necessary to have those things in life which we need in order to flourish  Too much fear  Too little confidence Excess  Too little fear  Too much confidence  Poor judgment about ends worth achieving

30 Courage  Both children and adults need courage.  Without courage, we are unable to take the risks necessary to achieve some of the things we most value in life. Risk to ask someone out on a date. Risk to show genuine vulnerability. Risk to try an academically challenging program such as pre-med.

31 Courage and the Unity of the Virtues  To have any single strength of character in full measure, a person must have the other ones as well. Courage without good judgment is blind, risking without knowing what is worth the risk. Courage without perseverance is short-lived, etc. Courage without a clear sense of your own abilities is foolhardy.

32 Courage

33 Compassion  Etymology: to feel or suffer with…  Both cognitive and emotional  Leads to action  Excess:the “bleeding heart”  Deficiency:moral callousness  Contrast with pity

34 Compassion as an Emotion  Emotion is often necessary: to recognize the suffering of others  emotional attunement part of the response to that suffering  others often need to feel that you care

35 Cleverness and Wisdom  The clever person knows the best means to any possible end.  The wise person knows which ends are worth striving for.

36 Self-Love  Involves feeling, knowing, and acting  Characteristics of loving another person: Feelings of tenderness, care, appreciation, respect toward that person Knowing that person (infatuation usually does not involve knowledge) Acting in ways that promote the flourishing of that person

37 Self-Love: Principal Characteristics Characteristics of self-love Having feelings of care, appreciation, and respect for others Valuing yourself--flows from feelings of self- love Knowing yourself--a long, often arduous, and never completed task Acting in ways that promote your genuine flourishing

38 Self-Love: Deficiency Deficiency Too little feeling: self-loathing Too little self-valuing: self-deprecating Too little self-knowledge: unwilling or unable to look at one’s own motivations, feelings, etc. Too little acting: not taking steps to insure one’s own well-being

39 Self-Love: Excess  Excesses of self-love take many forms: arrogance, conceit, egoism, vanity, and narcissism are but a few of the ways in which we can err in this direction.  Too much caring: self-centeredness  Too much self-valuing: arrogance, conceit  Too much self-knowledge: narcissistic  Too much acting for self: selfishness

40 Forgiveness  This, too, is a virtue indispensable for human flourishing In any long-term relationship (friendship, marriage, etc.), each party will do things that must be forgiven by the other. Long term relationships are necessary to human flourishing. If we cannot forgive, we cannot have continuing long term relationships

41 Forgiveness: Excess and Deficiency  Excess: the person who forgives too easily and too quickly may undervalue self may underestimate offense  Deficiency: the person who can never forgive may overestimate his or her own importance usually lives a life of bitterness and anger

42 Concluding Evaluation  Virtues are those strengths of character that enable us to flourish  The virtuous person has practical wisdom, the ability to know when and how best to apply these various moral perspectives.

43 Divine Command We will consider three different accounts of the relationship between religion and reason in ethics:  Religion takes priority over reason: Divine command theories Teleological suspension of the ethical  Compatibilist theories  Autonomy of reason theories  These theories claim that something is right because God wills it.

44 Compatibilist Theories  Compatibilist theories say that reason and religion can never contradict one another Strong: they are saying the same thing Weak: they say different things, but not contradictory things

45 Weak Compatibilism Thomas Aquinas believed that reason and faith could never contradict one another, but faith may reveals truths beyond the react of reason.

46 Rationalistic Theists Immanuel Kant believed in God, but felt that even God was subject to the dictates of reason.

47 A Crucial Distinction  Distinguish two questions: Content. Can reason provide us with adequate guidelines about how we should act? The answer appears to be “yes.” Motivation. Can reason provide us with adequate motivation to do the right thing? Here the answer appears to be “no.”

48 Possible Relationships between Religion and Reason in Ethics Supremacy of Religion Compatibilist Theories Supremacy of Reason Strong versionAll morality based on divine commands  Fundamentalism Reason and religion are identical  Hegel Ethics based only on reason; atheistic or agnostic  Russell Weak versionTeleological Suspension of the Ethical  Kierkegaard Reason and religion may be different but do not conflict  Aquinas Even God must follow dictates of reason  Kant

49 God’s Relationship to the World

50 God’s Interaction with the World  In this view, God interacts with the world in several ways: God creates the world God is in contact interaction with the world God’s creative act (esse) continually sustains the world in its existence God gives the world a final purpose or goal or telos toward which it strives

51 Overview We will consider three different accounts of the relationship between religion and reason in ethics:  Religion takes priority over reason: Divine command theories Teleological suspension of the ethical  Compatibilist theories  Autonomy of reason theories

52 Divine Command Theories  These theories claim that something is right because God will it. Augustine and the voluntarist tradition Clear in Islam, where the will of Allah is the measure of all that is right  Also characteristic of much of fundamentalism in all religions.

53 Criticisms of Divine Command Theories  How can we know God’s will?  Does divine command theory undermine human autonomy?  Can be used to subjugate the masses.

54 Abraham and Isaac In the old Testament, God commands Abraham to sacrifice his only son, Isaac.

55 The Story of Abraham Genesis, 22:1-10 And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am. And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of. And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him. Then on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off. And Abraham said unto his young men, Abide ye here with the ass; and I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to you. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they went both of them together. And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering? And Abraham said, My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering: so they went both of them together. And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood. And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son.

56 The Story of Abraham Genesis, 22:11-19 And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I. And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son. And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen. And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time, And said, By myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son: That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies; And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice. So Abraham returned unto his young men, and they rose up and went together to Beersheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beersheba.

57 The Issue  God’s command that Abraham should kill his only son as a sacrifice to God seems to go against reason and morality  The issue: can God ask us to do things that go against reason and morality? Which takes precedence, God’s command or reason?

58 Immanuel Kant and the Ethics of Duty

59 Two Conceptions of Duty  Duty as following orders The Adolph Eichmann model Duty is external Duty is imposed by others  Duty as freely imposing obligation on one’s own self The Kantian model Duty is internal We impose duty on ourselves  The second conception of duty is much more morally advanced than the first.

60 Duty and Inclination  Kant was mistrustful of inclinations (Neigungen) as motivations This was part of his view of the physical world as causally determined  Saw feelings as Unreliable Passive Phenomenal

61 Types of Imperatives  Hypothetical Imperative: “If you want to drive to UCLA from San Diego, take the 405 freeway.” Structure: if…then…  Categorical Imperative “Always tell the truth” Unconditional, applicable at all times

62  Most of us live by rules much of the time. Some of these are what Kant called Categorical Imperatives—unconditional commands that are binding on everyone at all times. The Categorical Imperative  “Always act in such a way that the maxim of your action can be willed as a universal law of humanity.” --Immanuel Kant

63 Categorical Imperatives: Respect  “Always treat humanity, whether in yourself or in other people, as an end in itself and never as a mere means.” --Immanuel Kant

64 Categorical Imperative: Publicity  Always act in such a way that you would not be embarrassed to have your actions described on the front page of The New York Times.

65 Conclusion  Kant saw that morality must be fair and evenhanded.  The Kantian path offers a certain kind of moral safety in an uncertain world.

66 Teleology  Considers acts as morally right or acceptable if they produce some desired result such as pleasure, knowledge, career growth, the realization of a self interest, or utility  Assesses moral worth by looking at the consequences for the individual

67 Categories of Teleology  Egoism Right or acceptable behavior defined in terms of consequences to the individual Maximizes personal interests Enlightened egoists take a longer term perspective and allow for the well being of others.  Utilitarianism Concerned with consequences Considers a cost/benefit analysis Behavior based on principles of rules that promote the greatest utility rather than on an examination of each situation (greatest good for greatest number of people)

68 The Relativist Perspective  Defines ethical behavior subjectively from the experiences of individuals and groups Relativists use themselves or those around them as their basis for defining ethical standards A positive group consensus indicates that an action is considered ethical by the group  Acknowledges that we live in a society in which people have different views There are many different bases from which to justify a decision as right or wrong

69 Three Types of Justice  Distributive justice An evaluation of the outcomes or results of a business relationship (evaluating benefits derived/equity in rewards)  Procedural justice Based on the processes and activities that produce the outcomes or results (evaluating decision making processes and level of access, openness and participation)  Interactional justice Based on an evaluation of the communication processes used in business relationships (evaluating accuracy of information and truthfulness, respect and courtesy in the process)

70 Cognitive Moral Development  Kohlberg’s model consist of 6 stages: Punishment and obedience Individual instrumental purpose and exchange Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and conformity Social system and conscience maintenance Prior rights, social contract or utility Universal ethical principles

71 Kohlberg’s Model  Kohlberg’s 6 stages can be reduced to 3 different levels of ethical concern: Concern with immediate interests and with rewards and punishments Concern with “right” as expected by the larger society or some significant reference group Seeing beyond norms, laws, and the authority of groups or individuals


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