2 1) What was the “Black Period of Surgery?” The removal of pain made doctorsover confident. They took too longand infection rates went right up
3 2) What key discovery had to be made – including year – for the need for cleanliness to be realised? 1861GERM THEORY!!!
4 3) What did Semmelweiss do to stop doctors spreading infections? Made doctors wash their hands (in lime chloride)
5 4) What were the ideas and methods of Joseph Lister? Noticed thatCARBOLIC ACID wasused in sewers to killthe smell. Started to useit in operations to killgerms. It was sprayedall over the place.
6 5) What was the key drawback of antiseptic surgery? Very expensiveVery uncomfortable – acid burnt the skin
7 Instead of killing germs, remove them altogether by sterilising 6) What was the solution to the problems of antiseptic surgery, and how did it work?ASEPTIC SURGERYInstead of killing germs, removethem altogether by sterilisingeverything
8 7) Which of the key problems with operations in 1800 had not been solved by 1900? BLOOD LOSS!