Presentation on theme: "Relative Pronouns (Relative pronouns begin subordinate clauses)"— Presentation transcript:
Relative Pronouns (Relative pronouns begin subordinate clauses)
Relative Pronouns 0 A relative pronoun is a pronoun used to begin a subordinate clause; it can be referred to as a relative pronoun since it indicates the relationship of the subordinate clause to the rest of the sentence. 0 Relative clauses are ADJECTIVE CLAUSES!
Common Relative Pronouns 0 Who/whom 0 Whoever/whomever 0 That 0 Which
Relative Pronouns Can Be Used As A Possessive In Some Clauses 0 Whose is the only possessive relative pronoun. The antecedent of “whose” can be both people and things. 0 The family whose house burnt in the fire was immediately given a complimentary suite at a hotel. 0 The book whose author won a Pulitzer Prize has become a bestseller. (Notice that there are no commas that set off the clauses above; that is because these are restrictive clauses and are necessary to the full understanding of the sentence. (Restrictive Clause=no comma needed!)
Some Relative Clauses Are Set Off By Commas 0 Relative pronouns that introduce clauses that are “non- restrictive” provide non-essential information about the antecedent in the main clause. Often “which” is the relative pronoun that begins non-restrictive clauses. The theater, in which the play debuted, housed 300 people. The sculpture, which he admired, was moved into the basement of the museum. (If you remove these clauses, the meaning of the main clause does not change, and the information that the clause provides is not necessary; it is non-essential) (non-essential=commas needed)
“That”…Use Only In Restrictive Clauses (no comma needed) 0 The relative pronoun that can only be used in restrictive clauses. It can also be substituted for who (when it refers to a person) or which (when it refers to a thing). 0 Sparky was a puppy that became a member of our family immediately. 0 William Harvey was the man who played in five different World Series. 0 That spotted dog was the one that bit me on the leg. 0 He is a kind person who will never let you down.
When should I use “that” and when should I use “which” 0 There are several cases when that is more appropriate than which: 0 After the pronouns “all,” “anything,” “few,” “many,” “much,” “nothing,” “none,” and “something.” 0 The police usually ask for all details that help identify a missing person. 0 Dessert is something that he wants.
Case 21 Example Question 0 Which of the following sentences does not contain a RELATIVE CLAUSE (a subordinate clause that begins with a relative pronoun)? 0 A. The man who drove the white car caused the accident. 0 B. The man to whom she is engaged has enlisted in the military. 0 C. The elephant that performed in the circus was a hefty animal. 0 D. Although she likes Leonard, she is too shy to tell him.
AND THE ANSWER IS…D 0 A. The man who drove the white car caused the accident. (relative clause) 0 B. The man to whom she is engaged has enlisted in the military. (relative clause) 0 C. The elephant that performed in the circus was a hefty animal. (relative clause) 0 D. Although she likes Leonard, she is too shy to tell him. (While “Although she likes Leonard” is a dependent or subordinate clause, it IS NOT a relative clause because it does not begin with a relative pronoun! It is actually an adverb clause that begins with a subordinate conjunction.)
Case 21 Example Question 0 Which of the following sentences is complex with a relative pronoun and has a singular, possessive, feminine personal pronoun? (Underline exactly what the question is asking!) A. While she may be stubborn, she is not unreasonable. B. She who laughs last is the one who does not understand her own joke. C. Her mother is such a kind person, but she is not. D. My favorite food is chicken-on-a-stick, yet my brother who works at the fair has never tried it.
AND THE ANSWER IS…B 0 Which of the following sentences is complex with a relative pronoun and has a singular, possessive, feminine personal pronoun? (Underline exactly what the question is asking!) A. While she may be stubborn, she is not unreasonable. (THIS SENTENCE IS COMPLEX BUT DOES NOT HAVE A RELATIVE PRONOUN NOR A FEMININE, SINGULAR POSSESSIVE PRONOUN.) B. She who laughs last is the one who does not understand her own joke. (THIS IS YOUR ANSWER!!!) C. Her mother is such a kind person, but she is not. (This sentence is compound, not complex; it does, however have a feminine, singular possessive pronoun.) D. My favorite food is chicken-on-a-stick, yet my brother who works at the fair has never tried it. (This sentence is compound-complex with a relative pronoun, but it does not have a feminine, singular possessive pronoun.)
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