Presentation on theme: "The Reformation and Counter- Reformation "Europe's Search for Stability" Elisabeth Carter Andrea Chattler Marielle Hanley FROM:http://www.losal.org/146420319215526107/lib/146420319215526107/"— Presentation transcript:
The Reformation and Counter- Reformation "Europe's Search for Stability" Elisabeth Carter Andrea Chattler Marielle Hanley FROM:http://www.losal.org/146420319215526107/lib/146420319215526107/ The_Reformation_and_Counter-Reformation_2.ppt
Reformation/ Protestant Reformation Timeline October 31, 1517: Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of the Casle Church in Wittenberg and that heralded the start of the "Reformation" June-July 1519: At the Disputation at Leipzig, Andreas von Carlstadt and Luther debated with John Eck. Eck forced Luther to admit that he agreed with Hus. Jan 27-May 25, 1521: Many Imperial discussions (Diets) were held in Worms, but the most famous Diet of Worms was the one Martin Luther attended in 1521. May 25, 1521: The Edict of Worms, signed by Emperor Charles V declared Martin Luther a heretic and placed him under an imperial ban. It also specified that all Luther's books were to be burned.
Reformation Time Line (Continued) January 29, 1523: Ulrich Zwingli presented his 67 Theses at the Zurich Disputation. June 1524 -1525: The Peasant's Revolt began peacefully; by 1525, the protests turned violent and more than 40 German monasteries and castles were burnt. 1526: William Tyndale published an English language New Testament in Worms. June 25, 1530: The Augsburg Confession; Emperor Karl V called the Parliament together in Augsburg to resolved the political, religious and social problems created by the Reformation.
Reformation Time Line (Continued) 1530–1531: The Schmalkaldic League was formed as a defensive alliance against the empire. In a meeting set up by princes Philip of Hesse and John of Saxony, eight princes and eleven cities met and adopted the Augsburg Confession. 1536: Menno Simons, a former Priest, formed the Mennonites; this group has influenced Baptists, Amish, Hutterites and Quakers. April 1539: The Treaty of Frankfurt was an attempt to bring peace between the Schmalkaldic League and Emperor Charles V. It failed to prevent future wars between Catholics and Lutherans. 1549: "Consensus Tigurinius"
Reformation Time Line (Continued) September 25, 1555: The Peace of Augsburg was an edict of toleration for Lutheranism; each individual Prince could choose the religion for his area. 1563: The Heidelberg Catechism August 24, 1572: St Bartholomew's Day massacre; 10,000 Huguenots were killed. 1618-1648: The Thirty Years War; Germany was invaded by the imperial armies of Austria and then by the Swedish army who came to help the Protestants. October 24, 1648: The Peace of Westphalia; the start of the separation of church and state. Calvinists were added to the list of tolerated religions, which brought increased stability.
Counter-Reformation/ Catholic Reformation Timeline 1534: Paul III becomes Pope & Loyola founds the Jesuits 1545–1563: Council of Trent; met sardonically to reform parts of the Church. Popes: Paul III, Julius III, and Pius IV 1563: Spanish Inquisition; simony and indulgences uprooted, standardized worship, reorganized church law, new educational requirements for priests, reformed orders, scrutinized clergy 1580: Restoration of the Roman Catholic Church under Queen Mary 1618-1648: Thirty Year's War.
Political Reformation The posting of the Ninety-Five Theses on Wittenburg Church Diet of Worms, 1521 Charles V outlaws Luther Peace of Westphalia- May 15, 1648 Counter-Reformation Council of Trent
Intellectual Lutheranism: Justification by Faith, only valid source of doctrine is bible, transubstantiation Calvinism: predestination, banned card playing, gambling, dancing, swearing, prayer was nourishment for faith, consubstantiation Anglicanism: King Henry VIII's church used to divorce Catherine and marry Anne Boleyn Anabaptism: radicals, had to be baptized and undergo a conversion experience to be a "real" christian
Religious Martin Luther Ninety-Five Theses: attacked the papal abuses and the sale of indulgences by church officials Believed and taught that salvation is a gift of God's grace, received by faith and trust in God's promise to forgive sins for the sake of Christ's death on the cross Exiled after Diet of Worms Lutheranism First person to translate The New Testament in the commonly- spoken dialect of the German people; published in 1522 Martin Luther vs Pope Leo X rap
Religious (Continued) William Tyndale Captain of the Army of Reformers, and was their spiritual leader First man to ever print the New Testament in the English language Held and published views which were considered heretical, first by the Catholic Church, and later by the Church of England Tried for heresy and treason in a ridiculously unfair trial, and convicted; he was then strangled and burnt at the stake in the prison yard, Oct. 6, 1536
Religious (Continued) Ulrich Zwingli Appointed "People's Priest" in 1519 Zwinglian Protestantism, as well as its spiritual inheritors (the majority of Protestant churches), overwhelmingly stressed the divine nature of Christ Zwingli's theology and morality were based on a single principle: if the Old or New Testament did not say something explicitly and literally, then no Christian should believe or practice it
Religious (Continued) John Calvin Calvinism Institutes of the Christian Religion was published in 1536 Geneva adopted religious reform in May 1536 Placed great importance on sermons-logical and learned Ecclesiastical Ordinances: no bishops and all ministers were equal; they had to preach, administer the sacraments and look after the spiritual welfare of the people
Religious (Continued) St. Ignatius Loyola Wrote his famous "Spiritual Exercises" after seeing visions from God and other Catholic Saints Founded the Society of Jesus; vowed to travel to Jerusalem and preach the Gospel to the Muslims The Jesuits' Goals: o renewal of the Roman Catholic Church through extensive education and the encouragement of frequent use of the sacraments o extensive missionary work in non-Christian countries o a suitable response to the growing challenge of Protestantism
Artistic Reformation Calvin and Zwingli encouraged iconoclastic movement o iconoclasm: the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motivesreligiousiconsreligious Due to the idea that all of life can bring glory to God, Protestants depicted all areas of life in their art. Protestant artists focused on more secular subjects: landscapes, history painting, portraits, and still life. Counter-Reformation As a result of the Council of Trent, art in Southern Europe was regulated so as to maintain strictly religious content Catholics only painted religious symbols and depictions
Art Cont. Cranach the Elder's Altarpiece at Wittenburg. An early Protestant work depicting leading Reformers as Apostles at the Last Supper Peter Bruegel's Peasant Wedding Feast
Art Cont. The Last Judgment fresco in the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo (1534-41) came under persistent attack in the Counter-Reformation for, among other things, nudity, not showing Christ seated or bearded, and including the pagan figure of Charon. Scipione Pulzone's Lamentation, a typical Counter-Reformation work
Technological Printing Press The establishment of the printing press played a key role in mobilizing the Reformation. Martin Luther recognized the power of printing to mobilize the grass roots support for Reformation. Luther used the printing press to mass produce Scriptures and Reformation publications. The printing press was later used in the Counter-Reformation as a means of spreading their beliefs and mass publication.
Economic Reformation Shift from Mediterranean to Atlantic money markets, sophistication of business, division of West and East agriculture, economically dominant cities, rural industry, population shift, silver Calvinism helped promote the development of capitalism in Europe Counter-Reformation Some responded to the "faith not works" challenge of the Protestants by finding a new vocation in social justice. Vincent de Paul and Francis de Sales were intensely devoted to caring for the poor, founding orders with that mission at a time when an emerging capitalist economy was adding to the social wreckage. The capitalist society was not beneficial to all. It was a time of increasing poverty and homelessness in the face of growing wealth and power for the elite.
Social Reformation religion was not a matter of personal preference or opinion, it was the very basis of society. Religious uniformity was essential for social stability. The Peasants War, which began in 1524, is a response to Luther's urgings of democratic reform and a reaction to an unbalanced social system. As spouses and mothers, women brought the ideas of the Reformation to the families of the aristocracy and the common people. Counter-Reformation Women were allowed to choose their paths: mystical devotion or social service Prostitution became popular because it was a declaration of a woman's independence Witch-hunting