Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Rhetoric"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Rhetoric Rhetoric, Devices and Appeals
2 RhetoricThe art of speaking or writing effectively
3 Rhetorical FeaturesAuthors who want to communicate ideas effectively use rhetorical features to intentionally influence audiencesFeatures often include:Devices --> Language ToolsAppeals --> Language Strategies
4 Rhetorical DevicesLanguage Tools that author’s intentionally use for a desired effect.Focus Devices:RepetitionParallelismLoaded Language
5 Repetition Definition: Repeating words or phrases Desired Effect(s): Emphasis, ReinforcesHe is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
6 ParallelismDefinition: Similarity of grammatical structure in a pair or series of related words, phrase or clausesDesired Effect(s): balance, order, clarity, rhythmFor Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury: For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
7 Loaded LanguageDefinition: Language intended to elicit an emotional responseDesired Effect(s): Emotional responseHe has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
9 Aristotle From Aristotle’s Rhetoric Three Kinds of Persuasion: “Persuasion is achieved by the speaker's personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible.[ethos] [...] Secondly, persuasion may come through the hearers, when the speech stirs their emotions.[pathos] [...] Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question.[logos]See Chapter 2 here:
10 Logos: appealing to logic A logical appeal relies on factual evidence and seem to be objective.ExamplesEvidence from other sourcesExpert testimonySystematic Logic (e.g. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning)
11 Logos in Practice—it this logical? Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causesBut when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security(locate and label on your text)
12 Pathos: appealing to emotion Pathos is an appeal to your readers’ values and emotions.Examples: Loaded language, Personal examples or anecdotes, Objects of emotion (pets, family members, cars, etc.)
13 Pathos in Practice—is this emotional? He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.(locate and label on your text)
14 Ethos: creating an effective persona Appeals to the audience’s view of the speakerCreate an impression of sound sense, high moral character and benevolence/good willAppeals to the audience’s sense of trust and familiarity
15 Ethos in PracticeWhen in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
16 SummaryAuthors who want to communicate ideas effectively use rhetorical features to intentionally influence audiencesFeatures often includerhetorical devices, or language tools used for clarity and effectrhetorical appeals, or language strategies used to influence audiences in specific ways.