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Lecture 4 GEOS24705 The pre-industrial energy crisis The steam engine Copyright E. Moyer 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 4 GEOS24705 The pre-industrial energy crisis The steam engine Copyright E. Moyer 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 4 GEOS24705 The pre-industrial energy crisis The steam engine Copyright E. Moyer 2011

2 Horse drawn combine, likely 1910s-20s. Source: FSK Agricultural Photographs “Bio-engines” and some technology make harvesting much more efficient. 27 horsepower! (or perhaps horse- +mule-power)

3 Very early a switch was made from vertical to horizontal axes Pitstone windmill, believed to be the oldest in Britain. Horizontal-axis waterwheel

4 What were the needs for mechanical work by mills? anything besides grinding grain?

5 Why so many windmills along rivers? Luyken, 1694 Source unknown

6 Pumping can be done with rotational motion alone… Dutch drainage mill using Archimedes’ screw from The Dutch Windmill, Frederick Stokhuyzen

7 Pumping can be done with rotational motion alone… Chain pumps, including bucket chain pumps (R) From Cancrinus, via Priester, Michael et al. “Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale Mining” Bucket chain pumps are seen as early as 700 BC. Common in ancient Egypt, Roman empire, China from 1 st century AD, Medieval Muslim world, Renaissance Europe.

8 Chain pumps need not involve buckets Chain pump cutaway From Lehman’s

9 …but linear motion allows more efficient pumping The lift pump Animation from Scuola Media di Calizzano Same technology used today in oil wells

10 Linear motions were needed very early in industrial history European hammer mill w/ cam coupling, 1556 A.D. Chinese bellows, 1313 A.D.

11 The cam converts rotational to linear motion The knife-edge cam Animation from the University of Limerick The noncircularity of the cam creates a push at only one part of the cycle

12 The cam converts rotational to linear motion The rocker arm & camshaft Animation from the University of Limerick The noncircularity of the cam creates a push at only one part of the cycle

13 Gold refining, France. D. Diderot & J. Le Rond d`Alembert eds, Encyclopédie méthodique. Paris & Gears and cams let one wheel drive multiple machines

14 Rotational Grindstones Pumps Winches Bucket lifts Spinning wheels Lathes, borers, drilling machines (first use) Linear (reciprocating) Hammer-mills Beaters Bellows Saws Looms Linear (non-reciprocating) Boats Machines powered by wind & water include:

15 Rotational Grindstones Pumps Winches Bucket lifts Spinning wheels Lathes, borers, drilling machines (first use) Linear (reciprocating) Hammer-mills Beaters Bellows Saws Looms Linear (non-reciprocating) Boats Machines powered by wind & water include:

16 Heating Large-scale wood-burning to make heat for industrial use Georg Acricola “De res metallica”, Book XII (“Manufacturing salt, soda, alum, vitriol, sulphur, bitumen, and glass”), Complex chemical transformations driven by heat were common in Medieval Europe.

17 Wood and coal fired technologies include Fuel burnt for Heating Metallurgy Glass-making Brewing (drying the malt) Baking Brick-making Salt-making Tiles and ceramics Sugar refining

18 Wood and coal fired technologies include Fuel burnt for Heating Metallurgy Glass-making Brewing (drying the malt) Baking Brick-making Salt-making Tiles and ceramics Sugar refining

19 Heating Large-scale wood-burning to make heat for industrial use Copper foundry, France D. Diderot & J. Le Rond d`Alembert eds, Encyclopédie méthodique. Paris & Foundries are wood-fired in 1700s and getting large enough to significantly affect the local fuel supply.

20 “When the fuel situation became difficult in France in the eighteenth century, it was said that a single forge used as much wood as a town the size of Chalon-sur- Marne. Enraged villagers complained of the forges and foundries which devoured the trees of the forests, not even leaving enough for the bakers’ ovens.” --- F. Braudel, The Structures of Everyday Life, The energy crisis in Europe: lack of wood 1700s

21 “Aeneas Sylvius (afterwards Pope Pius II), who visited Scotland… in the middle of the fifteenth century, mentions …that he saw the poor people who begged at churches going away quite pleased with stones given them for alms. ‘This kind of stone … is burnt instead of wood, of which the country is destitute.” “Within a few years after the commencement of the seventeenth century the change from wood fuel to coal, for domestic purposes, was general and complete.” --- R. Galloway, A History of Coal Mining in Great Britain, The energy crisis hit Britain first: lack of wood 1400s 1600

22 “The miners, no less than the smelters, had their difficulties during the seventeenth century, but of a totally different kind; for while the latter were suffering from too little fire, the former were embarrassed by too much water… the exhaustion of he coal supply was considered to be already within sight. In 1610, Sir George Selby informed Parliament that the coal mines at Newcastle would not last for the term of their leases of twenty-one years.” --- R. Galloway, A History of Coal Mining in Great Britain, The 2 nd British energy crisis: flooding of the mines 1600s

23 “Lack of energy was the major handicap of the ancien régime economies” --- F. Braudel, The Structures of Everyday Life By the 18 th century Europe’s energy crisis limits growth

24 1.Fuel had become scarce even when only used for heat Wood was insufficient, & coal was getting hard to extract Surface “sea coal”  deep-shaft mining below the water table 2. There were limited ways to make motion No way to make motion other than through capturing existing motion or through muscle-power 3. There was no good way to transport motion Water and wind weren’t necessarily near demand The great 18 th century European energy crisis

25 The 18 th century technological impasse All technology involved only two energy conversions Mechanical motion  mechanical motion Chemical energy  heat There was no way to convert chemical energy to motion other than muscles (human or animal) – no engine other than flesh Even for heating, the only means out of the energy crisis was coal – but to mine the coal required motion for pumps. 18 th century Europeans had complex and sophisticated technology, and an abundance of industrial uses for energy, but not enough supply

26 Newcomen “Atmospheric Engine”, 1712 The revolutionary solution = break the heat  work barrier (Note that “revolution” followed invention by ~100 years – typical for energy technology)

27 What is a “heat engine”? A device that generates converts thermal energy to mechanical work by exploiting a temperature gradient Makes something more ordered: random motions of molecules  ordered motion of entire body Makes something less ordered: degrades a temperature gradient (transfers heat from hot to cold)

28 The two technological leaps of the Industrial Revolution that bring in the modern energy era 1.“Heat to Work” Chemical energy  mechanical work via mechanical device Use a temperature gradient to drive motion Allows use of stored energy in fossil fuels Late 1700’s: commercial adoption of steam engine 2. Efficient transport of energy: electrification Mechanical work electrical energy mech. work Allows central generation of power Late 1800s: rise of electrical companies

29 Outline of next three lectures History of early steam engines (today) Fundamental physics of heat engines (Tues Apr. 12 th ) understanding heat  work History of Industrial Revolution (Tues. 12 th makeup or..with preview of electric generation Thurs. 14 th ) Organizing framework for energy conversion technology The modern energy system And then it’s on to individual energy technologies… Having finished with global energy flows and started history of human use, we’ll now do a tricky transition…

30 Hero of Alexandria, “Treatise on Pneumatics”, 120 BC “lebes”: demonstration of lifting power of steam “aeliopile” Physics: long understood that steam exerted force Evaporating water produces high pressure (Pressure = force x area)

31 Physics: condensing steam can produce suction force Low pressure in airtight container means air exerts force Same physics that lets you suck liquid through a straw (or use a suction pump)

32 First conceptual steam engine Denis Papin, 1690, publishes design Set architecture of reciprocating engines through modern day – piston moves up and down through cylinder Papin nearly invented the internal combustion engine in which the piston is pushed up by high pressure in the cylinder (from expanding air after an explosion of gunpowder). Unfortunately he couldn’t design the valves correctly to vent air after expansion, and gave up. He then designed an engine in which the piston is pulled down instead by low pressure in the cylinder (provided by condensing steam). This is deeply unfortunate for beginning students. Papin’s first design, now in Louvre. No patent, no working model.

33 First conceptual steam engine Denis Papin, 1690, publishes design Papin neither built his engine nor even patented it. He did not have the mechanical skill to actually build his engine successfully. He needed to machine the cylinder and piston air-tight to maintain a pressure gradient, and couldn’t manage that. He forms part of continuing trend in the history of energy technology: the person who invents a technology is not the person who makes it practical (and yet a third person is the one who makes money off it). Also: the French explained without building, the British built without explaining. Papin’s first design, now in Louvre. No patent, no working model.

34 First commercial use of steam: “A new Invention for Raiseing of Water and occasioning Motion to all Sorts of Mill Work by the Impellent Force of Fire which will be of great vse and Advantage for Drayning Mines, serveing Towns with Water, and for the Working of all Sorts of Mills where they have not the benefitt of Water nor constant Windes.” Thomas Savery, patent application filed 1698 (good salesman, but he was wrong – this can only pump water)

35 First commercial use steam Thomas Savery, 1698 Essentially a steam-driven vacuum pump, good only for pumping liquids. Max pumping height: ~30 ft. (atmospheric pressure) Efficiency below 0.1% Some use in Scottish and English mines, to pump out water. Fuel was essentially free times less efficient than people or animals, but they can’t eat coal. Drawbacks – mines were deeper, fire in mines leads to explosions

36 Newcomen’s design is state of the art for 60+ years First true steam engine: Thomas Newcomen, 1712, blacksmith Copy of Papin’s engine of design of 1690, with piston falling as steam cooled, drawn down by the low pressure generated First reciprocating engine: force transmitted by motion of piston Can pump water to arbitrary height. Force only on downstroke of piston Very low efficiency: 0.5% Intermittent force transmission

37 Newcomen’s design is state of the art for 60+ years First true steam engine: Thomas Newcomen, 1712, blacksmith Copy of Papin’s engine of design of 1690, with piston falling as steam cooled, drawn down by the low pressure generated First reciprocating engine: force transmitted by motion of piston Can pump water to arbitrary height. Force only on downstroke of piston Very low efficiency: 0.5% Intermittent force transmission

38 Newcomen’s design is state of the art for 60+ years First true steam engine: Thomas Newcomen, 1712, blacksmith Copy of Papin’s engine of design of 1690, with piston falling as steam cooled, drawn down by the low pressure generated First reciprocating engine: force transmitted by motion of piston Can pump water to arbitrary height. Force only on downstroke of piston Very low efficiency: 0.5% Intermittent force transmission

39 First modern steam engine: James Watt, 1769 (patent), 1774 (prod.) Higher efficiency than Newcomen by introducing separate condense Reduces wasted heat by not requiring heating and cooling entire cylinder

40 First modern steam engine: James Watt, 1769 (patent), 1774 (prod.) Higher efficiency than Newcomen by introducing separate condenser

41 First modern steam engine: James Watt, 1769 patent (1774 production model) Like Newcomen engine only with separate condenser Higher efficiency: 2% Force only on downstroke of piston Intermittent force transmission No rotational motion

42 Improved Watt steam engine: James Watt, 1783 model Albion Mill, London Separate condenser Higher efficiency: ca. 3% Force on both up- and downstroke Continuous force transmission Rotational motion (sun and planet gearing) Engine speed regulator

43

44 Improved Watt steam engine: James Watt, 1783 model Albion Mill, London Separate condenser Higher efficiency: ca. 3% Force on both up- and downstroke Continuous force transmission Rotational motion (sun and planet gearing) Engine speed regulator – don’t need electronics for controls sun and planet gearing Gearing lets the linear-motion engine produce rotation, mimic a water wheel

45 Improved Watt steam engine: James Watt, 1783 model Albion Mill, London Separate condenser Higher efficiency: ca. 3% Force on both up- and downstroke Continuous force transmission Rotational motion (sun and planet gearing) Engine speed regulator – don’t need electronics for controls! engine speed governor No need for electronics for controls – can use mechanical system

46 Double-action steam engine: Why use suction to pull the piston down – why not just push it down with another injection of steam? Piston pushed by steam on both up- and down-stroke. No more need for a condenser. Steam is simply vented at high temperature slide valve alternates input & exhaust

47 Double-action steam engine: slide valve alternates input & exhaust

48 Double-action steam engine What are benefits? What are drawbacks? What would you use one for?

49 Double-action steam engine What are benefits? Faster cycle – no need to wait for condensation. Can get more power, higher rate of doing mechanical work. Also lighter and smaller – no need to carry a condenser around. What are drawbacks? Inefficiency – venting hot steam means you are wasting energy. High water usage – since lose steam, have to keep replacing the water

50 Double-action steam engine: primary use: transportation

51 Double-action steam engine: Images top, left: Sandia Software Image bottom: Ivan S. Abrams water-intensive, fuel-intensive – requires many stops to take on water and fuel.

52 An alternate design choice with different tradeoff: Triple-expansion steam engine: primary use: steamships (because they can’t refuel, and weight is not a problem) Adds two more cylinders to get more out of the steam before condensing it. Benefits: More efficient – conserves fuel Conserves water Drawbacks Large, heavy if high power

53 Image: source unknown History of locomotives Trevithick’s first “railway engine”, 1804 (no image) Used for hauling coal – replaces horses. Speed: 5 mph “Puffing Billy”, William Hedley, 1813 Coal hauler 9” x 36” cylinders First locomotives are basically steam engines for the pumps now placed on wheels

54 History of locomotives Stephenson’s “Rocket”, 1820 First passenger locomotive 29 mph (unloaded), 14 mph loaded Image: source unknown

55 History of locomotives Central Pacific Railroad locomotive #173, Type 4-4-0, 1864 (Common American design, 1850s-1900) Image: Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum

56 History of locomotives Northern Pacific Railway steam locomotive #2681, 1930 Image: Buckbee Mears Company, Photograph Collection ca. 1930, Location no. HE6.1N p11, Negative no Source: Minnesota Historical Society


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