Presentation on theme: "PROBABLE MARKETING STRATEGIES OF FLY ASH BRICKS IN WEST BENGAL BY MADHURI BHATTACHARYA Research Scholar, Dept. of Business Administration, University of."— Presentation transcript:
PROBABLE MARKETING STRATEGIES OF FLY ASH BRICKS IN WEST BENGAL BY MADHURI BHATTACHARYA Research Scholar, Dept. of Business Administration, University of Burdwan.
FLY ASH Fly Ash, an industrial by product from Thermal Power Plants is proven suitable for variety of applications as ad mixture in cement/ concrete/ mortar/ bricks/ block etc. Fly Ash as a building material has many advantages, like cost effectiveness, environmental friendly, increases in strength and conservation of other natural resources and materials.
The ash is generally available in forms of Fly Ash, Bottom Ash. About 70-80% of the total ash comes out from boilers along with flue gases are collected by mechanical separators, bag houses or electrostatic precipitators. This is termed as “fly ash”. The balance 30-20% “bottom ash” collected at the bottom of the boiler. Out of total ash production, Fly Ash contributes to a small percentage, majority being Pond Ash and Bottom Ash.
Why Fly Ash based Bricks? According to the report published by the census in March, 2011, the total population of the country was 1,210,193,422. A total of 181 billion people increased from the previous census of 2001. Presently mostly populated states of India are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Madhya Pradesh.
Raw Materials for Fly Ash based bricks Fly Ash, Sand and Cement (Ordinary Portland Cement). Or Fly Ash, Sand, Lime and Gypsum (FAL-G). Consumption of Fly Ash to produce a single fly ash based brick is 1.250gm. In West Bengal yearly production of fly ash based bricks is 10 crores approx
Present scenario of Fly Ash based brick industries in West Bengal The Central and State Governments are greatly concerned about top soil erosion for the production of massive quantities of clay bricks for enormous housing needs. The Ministry of Power, Government of India, issued circulars to all concerned department and organizations to promote the use of Fly-Ash in the production of building materials.
During the rainy seasons supply of clay bricks are very difficult. Therefore, in order to fulfill the required demand there will be a great chance to start more units in the field of fly ash bricks. In West Bengal, presently 65 nos. fly ash based brick units are running. There are more 16 units upcoming in 2013. With a single machine 20,000 nos bricks making are possible in two shifts/ day. The price of the cement based fly ash bricks is little bit higher than the lime gypsum based bricks, but lower than traditional clay burnt brick.
Central Electricity Authority of New Delhi is monitoring fly ash generation and its utilization at coal/ lignite based thermal power stations in the country since 1996 on behalf of Ministry of Power. They made a report on 90 coal/lignite based Thermal Power Stations of India which generates Fly Ash & utilize them in different areas. Here I only mention the data of West Bengal.
Power utility wise fly ash generation and utilization for 1st half of the year 2011-12 Name of Power Utility Nos of TPP Installed capacity (MW) Fly ash generation (mt) Fly ash utilization (mt) Percentage of utilization West Bengal Power Development Corporation Ltd. (W.B.P.D.C. L) 5 3610 3.332.8986.78
FLY ASH GENERATION & ITS UTILIZATION IN WEST BENGAL Nos of TPP capacity (MW) Fly ash generation (mt) Fly ash utilization (mt) Percentage of utilization 12 9156 7.42 5.8779.11
Level of ash utilizationNos. of Power Stations 100% and more than 100% 16 Less than 100% and up to 75% 19 Less than 75% and up to 60% 14 Less than 60% (for plants commissioned before 3rd Nov.2009) 39 Less than 50% (for green field plants commissioned after 3rd Nov.2009). 2
Sl. No. Name of Thermal Power Stations Name of Power utilities Fly ash utilization in Percentage 1.B.B.G.SC.E.S.C.100.00 2.S.G.SC.E.S.C.100.00 3.T.G.SC.E.S.C.100.00 4.BakreshwarW.B.P.D.C. L 122.09 5.BandelW.B.P.D.C. L 140.68
Power Stations in Ash Utilization Range of less than 100% and up to 75% during 1st half of the year 2011-12 in West Bengal are Sl. No. Name of Thermal Power Stations Name of Power utilities Fly Ash utilization (%) 1.D.P.LD.P.L (West Bengal) 90.70 2.KOLAGHATW.B.P.D.C.L.(West Bengal) 99.80
Name of TPSCement (mpta) Bricks (mpta) Roads, Embankmen t & Ash Dykes (mpta) Reclamati on (mpta) Mine Filling (mpta) Agriculture (mpta) Other s (mpta ) B.B.G.S.0.560.01----0.18 S.G.S.0.12----0.02 T.G.S.0.010.03 ---0.10 DURGAPUR-0.00--0.06- MEJIA0.270.020.530.83 D.P.L0.010.000.040.22- KOLAGHAT0.230.08----0.93 SAGARDIG HI 0.040.01----0.00 BANDEL-0.01----0.40 SANTALDIH-0.00----- BAKRESWA R 0.410.010.00---0.75 FARAKKA0.390.000.330.04-- Area of Fly Ash utilization in West Bengal
After sundry atleast for 7 days, product will ready for delivery Curing of stacked Cement base fly ash bricks by water spraying for 21 days Air dry under covered shed for 24 hours from basic stacking Machine room Mixing zone of composite mortar Raw materials stacking yard (Fly ash, Cement, Sand) FLY ASH BASED BRICK MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Basic Technical Details of Fly Ash Bases Bricks in Comparison with Clay Burn Bricks Sl. No.ItemsConventional clay burnt bricks Fly Ash based bricks 1.Dimension in mm(LXWXH) 250mmX125 mmX75mm 190mmX90m mX90mm 230mmX110 mmX75 2.ColourRedGrey 3.Basic Ingredientearth or clayfly ash 4.Density (gm/cc)1.60-1.701.80-1.90 5.Dry weight(in kgs)3.75-4.002.80-2.903.3- 3.5 6.Common building bricks compressive strength (kg/cm2) 50-6570-9075-100 7.Water absorption (in %) 15-2510-15 8.Breakage5-7 1/2 percentLess than 1%
9.Efflorescencepresentnegligible 10.Eco-friendlyNOYES 11.Mortar saving: During laying During plastering N.A N.A. 10-15% 25-30% 10-15% 25-30% 12.Carpet area savings per % rmt N.A. 6.8m 2 2.80m 2 13.Brick requirement per % sqm Per % cum 4951 Nos 38,900 Nos 5065 Nos 50,000 Nos 4951 Nos 40,600 Nos 14.Labour Cost20 – 30%15 – 20% 15.Quality ControlLess possible100% 16.Outside plasteringmustMay be avoided, ruled pointing may be applied 17.Water treatment: Dipping in water before use prior brick work Labour cost involved(24 hours must) Labour cost nil 18.Whether qualifies for CMD in terms of Kyoto Protocol NOYES
Maximum Fly Ash is used in cement industries. In all over India, only 6.51% of Fly Ash is used in Brick making. It is clear from the mentioned data is that all most all the Thermal Power Stations are involved in sending Fly Ash to different Fly Ash based brick industries, a eco friendly construction material.
Marketing scenario of Fly Ash Based bricks in West Bengal In west Bengal, mainly direct marketing of Fly Ash based bricks are done by the Manufacturers. On the other side, marketing is also done by retailers and syndicates. Presently, the users of Fly Ash based bricks are mainly private sectors, and partly under taking Govt. sectors. As transportation cost of Fly Ash based bricks are uneconomic, for this reason in rural areas it is preferable to install the Fly Ash based brick plants on those areas for smooth supply and work shops are highly required in those brick plants. Awareness is increasing day by day in urban and rural areas. In near future Govt initiatives are highly required to popularization of the utility of Fly Ash based bricks and Blocks.
Recommended Marketing strategies in West Bengal:- Production of Fly Ash based brick depends on process technologies. So maintaining the quality with quantity is very important. Work shop is required in rural areas to increase the awareness about the fly ash based brick. In coastal area salinity level is very high. Mostly Fly Ash based bricks are salinity free bricks. With the support of Govt, if supply of bricks in those areas may done in West Bengal then the building strengths of those areas will increase and brick will also get the popularity.
In city’s popular places, Govt may build small Model houses with this Fly Ash based bricks for marketing purposes. Ministry of Rural Development through Indira Awas Yojana(IAY) undertake the project of housing for rural poor with Centrally sponsored scheme where the cost shared between the Centre and States on a 75:25 basis. In this kind of schemes or Yojana West Bengal state Govt. may use Fly Ash based bricks for housing to reduce the cost. In Sundarban area, many Govt projects are running. There Fly Ash based bricks can be used instead of Clay Burnt bricks.
Conclusion If Fly Ash bricks can replace 50% of clay bricks then it will reduce emission of green house gas by 435,000 tons each year. Fly Ash based Bricks industries needs fragmented market that are serviced by plants located in the local area. The present utilization of Fly Ash in the country is nominal as compared to other advanced countries. Continuous effort is needed to increase the utilization of the Fly Ash in our country. There is a necessity in future for all Thermal Power Stations to utilize as much quantity of ash as possible to reduce the disposal problems. Bricks consumption has recorded a three- fold increase in last decade mainly due to step increase in demand from the housing segment Infrastructure and industrial construction from the other major consumer of the brick industry.
Good transportation facilities need to be created and organized for enabling easy availability at point of use for the Fly Ash based brick industries. Greater awareness to companies needs to be provided for use of Fly Ash in brick making. India produces a lot of Ash in its Thermal Power production process, but the quality of Ash produced is a major hindrance in its widespread utilization. The Fly Ash constitutes only a small fraction of the Total Ash produced, primarily because of the Technological Limitation of the Power Plants which are mostly old and still produce coarse and Wet Ash which is difficult to use for construction purposes. Also Wet Ash is difficult to handle and transport, resulting in formation of huge Ash Ponds.
West Bengal Pollution Control Board had submitted a project proposal on “Capacity Building for Efficient Utilization of Coal based Thermal Power Plants ash in the State of West Bengal” to the Fly Ash Unit, Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. Objective of this project is to transfer the Knowledge for effective utilization of Fly Ash in Constructions among the target groups.