2Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels ContentsEnergy ResourcesTypes of energy resourcesNon-renewable fuelsElectricity from fuelsComparing fuelsSummary activities
3Sources of energyWhat are the sources for most of the energy on Earth?1. The vast majority of the energy resources on Earth can trace their energy back to the Sun.2. The Moon is another source of energy.3. Radioactive elements made in supernova explosions are another source of energy.
4Energy resources What energy resources are shown in this scene? Renewable energy resources shown in this scene are:wind, wave and tidal power at sea;hydroelectric dam in the mountains;wind turbines inland;solar panels on the roof of the farmhouse;forest, hay and animal dung to represent biofuel.Non-renewable energy resources shown in this scene are:oil rig at sea;coal mine in the background;nuclear power station (which does not have a chimney).
7Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels ContentsEnergy ResourcesTypes of energy resourcesNon-renewable fuelsElectricity from fuelsComparing fuelsSummary activities
8A fuel is a store of (chemical) energy. Fossil fuelsWhat is a fuel?A fuel is a store of (chemical) energy.What is a fossil fuel?A fossil fuel is a fuel formed from the remains of animals and plants over millions of years.Name three fossil fuels:1. ___________2. ___________3. ___________CoalOilNatural gas
10How coal formedMillions of years ago trees died and fell to the bottom of swamps.Over time they became covered by mud and rock.…the trees became fossilized, forming coal.Over millions of years, due to high temperatures and pressure…
12How oil and natural gas formed Millions of years ago plankton died and fell to the bottom of seas and oceans.Over time they became covered by mud and rock.…the plankton became oil and natural gas.Over millions of years, due to high temperatures and pressure…
14Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels ContentsEnergy ResourcesTypes of energy resourcesNon-renewable fuelsElectricity from fuelsComparing fuelsSummary activities
15Fossil fuel power stations Fossil fuel power stations convert c______ energy into e______ energy.hemicallectricalOil and coal fired power stations work in a very similar way. The fuel is burnt and the heat boils water to make high pressure superheated steam, which is used to turn a turbine.Natural gas fired power stations do not use steam. The natural gas is burnt, which produces hot gases that turn the turbine directly.
18Nuclear power stations Nuclear power stations convert n_____ energy into e______ energy.uclearlectricalIn a nuclear power station the fuel is not burnt; instead it undergoes a fission reaction in the nuclear reactor, which releases heat.Like in a coal fired power station the heat is used to make high pressure steam.What are the energy transfers in a nuclear power station?ReactorTurbineGeneratornuclearheatkineticelectrical
19Start-up timesPower stations cannot just be turned on at the flick of a switch. They need to be started up – this process can take days!The graph below shows the typical start-up times for different types of power station
21Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels ContentsEnergy ResourcesTypes of energy resourcesNon-renewable fuelsElectricity from fuelsComparing fuelsSummary activities
22Burning fossil fuels heat energy burn in oxygen ash carbon dioxide What is produced when fossil fuels are burnt?heat energyburn in oxygenashcarbon dioxidesulfur dioxideFossil fuels are cheap and the heat energy is useful.However, there are problems with burning fossil fuels:ash is a waste product that needs to be disposed;carbon dioxide causes the greenhouse effect;sulfur dioxide causes acid rain.
24Global warmingC_____ d_____ is a greenhouse gas – it lets the Sun’s heat energy into the Earth’s a_________ but it will not let it escape.arbonioxidetmosphereThis results in the Earth getting w_____. This effect is called the g e G w results in the icecaps melting, which could lead to flooding and changing weather patterns.armerreenhouseffectlobalarming
25Carbon dioxide from fuels Some fossil fuels release less carbon dioxide when burnt than others.The graph below shows the relative amounts of carbon dioxide released per unit of electricity produced:
26corrodes buildings and statues Acid rainBurning fossil fuels containing sulfur causes sulfur dioxide to be formed. This gas is released by power stations and mixes with water in the atmosphere to form acid rain.sulfur in coalsulfur dioxideacid raincombustionmixed with waterWhat does acid rain do to the environment?kills treescorrodes buildings and statueskills water lifeacidifies soil
27Reducing acid rainAcid rain is mostly caused by sulfur dioxide (which forms sulfuric acid), but carbon dioxide also contributes (by forming carbonic acid).How can acid rain be reduced?Burn fewer fossil fuels – generate electricity in other ways.Remove sulfur from oil and natural gas before it is burnt.Scrub waste gases to remove sulfur dioxide.Use expensive coal that contains little sulfur.
28Pros and cons of fossil fuels Although there are problems burning fossil fuels in power stations there are also advantages:AdvantagesDisadvantagesreadily availablenon-renewableeasily transportedacid rainlow fuel costgreenhouse effectlow building costsinefficientshort start-up times
29Pros and cons of nuclear power Although there are problems in the use of nuclear power, there are also advantages:AdvantagesDisadvantagesCheap to runExpensive to buildConserves fossil fuelsExpensive to decommissionNo sulfur dioxide emissionsRadioactive wasteNo carbon dioxide emissionsLinks with cancerSafe under normal conditionsNon-renewableLittle fuel used means less transport neededRisk of disaster
30Fuel reserves Fuel Time until reserves run out (years) natural gas oil coalnuclear25-30about 75about 300thousandsEven though nuclear fuel will last thousands of year it will still run out eventually.natural gasoilcoalnuclear
31Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels ContentsEnergy ResourcesTypes of energy resourcesNon-renewable fuelsElectricity from fuelsComparing fuelsSummary activities
32non-renewable – An energy source that cannot be used again. Glossaryacid rain – Rainwater that is more acidic than normal because acidic gases have dissolved in it.fossil fuel – A fuel made from the remains of decayed plants or animals.generator – A device that transforms kinetic energy into electrical energy.global warming – The increase in the temperature of the Earth, which some scientists think is causing climate change.greenhouse effect – The trapping of heat from the Sun by certain gases in the Earth’s atmosphere.non-renewable – An energy source that cannot be used again.renewable – An energy source that can be regenerated.turbine – A device that turns heat energy into kineticenergy.