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© Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 35 KS4 Physics Energy Resources.

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Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 35 KS4 Physics Energy Resources."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 KS4 Physics Energy Resources

2 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Contents Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels Comparing fuels Summary activities Electricity from fuels

3 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Sources of energy What are the sources for most of the energy on Earth? 3. Radioactive elements made in supernova explosions are another source of energy. 1. The vast majority of the energy resources on Earth can trace their energy back to the Sun. 2. The Moon is another source of energy.

4 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Energy resources What energy resources are shown in this scene?

5 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Types of energy resource There are two types of energy resource: Renewable energy resources will never run out (at least not for a very long time), or can be regenerated. Examples: w___ and S__. Non-renewable energy resources will eventually run out – once used they cannot be used again. Examples: c___ and o_. indunoalil Non-renewableRenewable

6 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Energy resources

7 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels Comparing fuels Summary activities Electricity from fuels Contents

8 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Fossil fuels What is a fuel? What is a fossil fuel? Name three fossil fuels: 1. ___________ 2. ___________ 3. ___________ A fuel is a store of (chemical) energy. A fossil fuel is a fuel formed from the remains of animals and plants over millions of years. Oil Natural gas Coal

9 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 How coal formed

10 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 How coal formed Over millions of years, due to high temperatures and pressure… …the trees became fossilized, forming coal. Millions of years ago trees died and fell to the bottom of swamps. Over time they became covered by mud and rock.

11 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 How oil and natural gas formed

12 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 How oil and natural gas formed Over millions of years, due to high temperatures and pressure… …the plankton became oil and natural gas. Millions of years ago plankton died and fell to the bottom of seas and oceans. Over time they became covered by mud and rock.

13 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 What process releases the nuclear energy? What fuels are used in nuclear power stations? Nuclear fuels Uranium and plutonium Nuclear fission A large amount of energy for a small amount of fuel, no acid rain, no greenhouse effect, cheap to run once built. What are the main advantages of nuclear power?

14 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels Comparing fuels Summary activities Electricity from fuels Contents

15 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Fossil fuel power stations Fossil fuel power stations convert c______ energy into e______ energy. hemical lectrical Oil and coal fired power stations work in a very similar way. The fuel is burnt and the heat boils water to make high pressure superheated steam, which is used to turn a turbine. Natural gas fired power stations do not use steam. The natural gas is burnt, which produces hot gases that turn the turbine directly.

16 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 What happens in a power station?

17 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Energy changes in a power station

18 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Nuclear power stations convert n_____ energy into e______ energy. Nuclear power stations In a nuclear power station the fuel is not burnt; instead it undergoes a fission reaction in the nuclear reactor, which releases heat. Like in a coal fired power station the heat is used to make high pressure steam. What are the energy transfers in a nuclear power station? Reactor Turbine Generator nuclear heatkinetic electrical uclear lectrical

19 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Start-up times Power stations cannot just be turned on at the flick of a switch. They need to be started up – this process can take days! The graph below shows the typical start-up times for different types of power station

20 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Processes in a power station

21 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels Comparing fuels Summary activities Electricity from fuels Contents

22 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Burning fossil fuels burn in oxygen heat energy ash carbon dioxide sulfur dioxide Fossil fuels are cheap and the heat energy is useful. However, there are problems with burning fossil fuels: ash is a waste product that needs to be disposed ; carbon dioxide causes the greenhouse effect ; sulfur dioxide causes acid rain. What is produced when fossil fuels are burnt?

23 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 The greenhouse effect

24 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 This results in the Earth getting w_____. This effect is called the g e. G w results in the icecaps melting, which could lead to flooding and changing weather patterns. Global warming C_____ d_____ is a greenhouse gas – it lets the Sun’s heat energy into the Earth’s a_________ but it will not let it escape. tmosphere armer arbonioxide reenhouse ffect lobal arming

25 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Carbon dioxide from fuels Some fossil fuels release less carbon dioxide when burnt than others. The graph below shows the relative amounts of carbon dioxide released per unit of electricity produced:

26 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Acid rain Burning fossil fuels containing sulfur causes sulfur dioxide to be formed. This gas is released by power stations and mixes with water in the atmosphere to form acid rain. sulfur in coal sulfur dioxideacid rain combustion mixed with water What does acid rain do to the environment? kills trees kills water life corrodes buildings and statues acidifies soil

27 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Reducing acid rain Acid rain is mostly caused by sulfur dioxide (which forms sulfuric acid), but carbon dioxide also contributes (by forming carbonic acid). How can acid rain be reduced? 1.Burn fewer fossil fuels – generate electricity in other ways. 2.Remove sulfur from oil and natural gas before it is burnt. 3.Scrub waste gases to remove sulfur dioxide. 4.Use expensive coal that contains little sulfur.

28 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Pros and cons of fossil fuels AdvantagesDisadvantages non-renewable acid rain greenhouse effect readily available easily transported low fuel cost low building costs short start-up times inefficient Although there are problems burning fossil fuels in power stations there are also advantages:

29 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Pros and cons of nuclear power AdvantagesDisadvantages Expensive to build Expensive to decommission Radioactive waste Cheap to run Conserves fossil fuels No sulfur dioxide emissions No carbon dioxide emissions Safe under normal conditions Links with cancer Although there are problems in the use of nuclear power, there are also advantages: Little fuel used means less transport needed Non-renewable Risk of disaster

30 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Fuel reserves FuelTime until reserves run out (years) natural gas oil coal nuclear about 300 about 75 thousands coaloilnatural gas nuclear Even though nuclear fuel will last thousands of year it will still run out eventually.

31 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels Comparing fuels Summary activities Electricity from fuels Contents

32 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Glossary acid rain – Rainwater that is more acidic than normal because acidic gases have dissolved in it. fossil fuel – A fuel made from the remains of decayed plants or animals. generator – A device that transforms kinetic energy into electrical energy. global warming – The increase in the temperature of the Earth, which some scientists think is causing climate change. greenhouse effect – The trapping of heat from the Sun by certain gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. non-renewable – An energy source that cannot be used again. renewable – An energy source that can be regenerated. turbine – A device that turns heat energy into kinetic energy.

33 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Anagrams

34 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Energy resources

35 © Boardworks Ltd of 35 Multiple-choice quiz


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