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KS4 Physics Energy Resources.

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Presentation on theme: "KS4 Physics Energy Resources."— Presentation transcript:

1 KS4 Physics Energy Resources

2 Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels
Contents Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels Electricity from fuels Comparing fuels Summary activities

3 Sources of energy What are the sources for most of the energy on Earth? 1. The vast majority of the energy resources on Earth can trace their energy back to the Sun. 2. The Moon is another source of energy. 3. Radioactive elements made in supernova explosions are another source of energy.

4 Energy resources What energy resources are shown in this scene?
Renewable energy resources shown in this scene are: wind, wave and tidal power at sea; hydroelectric dam in the mountains; wind turbines inland; solar panels on the roof of the farmhouse; forest, hay and animal dung to represent biofuel. Non-renewable energy resources shown in this scene are: oil rig at sea; coal mine in the background; nuclear power station (which does not have a chimney).

5 Types of energy resource
There are two types of energy resource: Renewable Non-renewable Renewable energy resources will never run out (at least not for a very long time), or can be regenerated. Examples: w___ and S__. Non-renewable energy resources will eventually run out – once used they cannot be used again. Examples: c___ and o_. Acknowledgement © Energy Northwest/DOE/NREL Turbine installation at the Nine Canyon Wind Project; largest wind farm to be built in Washington State © Warren Gretz/NOE/NREL Cherokee Station coal-powered plant, Denver, Colorado ind un oal il

6 Energy resources

7 Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels
Contents Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels Electricity from fuels Comparing fuels Summary activities

8 A fuel is a store of (chemical) energy.
Fossil fuels What is a fuel? A fuel is a store of (chemical) energy. What is a fossil fuel? A fossil fuel is a fuel formed from the remains of animals and plants over millions of years. Name three fossil fuels: 1. ___________ 2. ___________ 3. ___________ Coal Oil Natural gas

9 How coal formed

10 How coal formed Millions of years ago trees died and fell to the bottom of swamps. Over time they became covered by mud and rock. …the trees became fossilized, forming coal. Over millions of years, due to high temperatures and pressure…

11 How oil and natural gas formed

12 How oil and natural gas formed
Millions of years ago plankton died and fell to the bottom of seas and oceans. Over time they became covered by mud and rock. …the plankton became oil and natural gas. Over millions of years, due to high temperatures and pressure…

13 Nuclear fuels What fuels are used in nuclear power stations?
Uranium and plutonium What process releases the nuclear energy? Nuclear fission What are the main advantages of nuclear power? © British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Aerial view of Berkeley power station A large amount of energy for a small amount of fuel, no acid rain, no greenhouse effect, cheap to run once built.

14 Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels
Contents Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels Electricity from fuels Comparing fuels Summary activities

15 Fossil fuel power stations
Fossil fuel power stations convert c______ energy into e______ energy. hemical lectrical Oil and coal fired power stations work in a very similar way. The fuel is burnt and the heat boils water to make high pressure superheated steam, which is used to turn a turbine. Natural gas fired power stations do not use steam. The natural gas is burnt, which produces hot gases that turn the turbine directly.

16 What happens in a power station?

17 Energy changes in a power station

18 Nuclear power stations
Nuclear power stations convert n_____ energy into e______ energy. uclear lectrical In a nuclear power station the fuel is not burnt; instead it undergoes a fission reaction in the nuclear reactor, which releases heat. Like in a coal fired power station the heat is used to make high pressure steam. What are the energy transfers in a nuclear power station? Reactor Turbine Generator nuclear heat kinetic electrical

19 Start-up times Power stations cannot just be turned on at the flick of a switch. They need to be started up – this process can take days! The graph below shows the typical start-up times for different types of power station

20 Processes in a power station

21 Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels
Contents Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels Electricity from fuels Comparing fuels Summary activities

22 Burning fossil fuels heat energy burn in oxygen ash carbon dioxide
What is produced when fossil fuels are burnt? heat energy burn in oxygen ash carbon dioxide sulfur dioxide Fossil fuels are cheap and the heat energy is useful. However, there are problems with burning fossil fuels: ash is a waste product that needs to be disposed; carbon dioxide causes the greenhouse effect; sulfur dioxide causes acid rain.

23 The greenhouse effect

24 Global warming C_____ d_____ is a greenhouse gas – it lets the Sun’s heat energy into the Earth’s a_________ but it will not let it escape. arbon ioxide tmosphere This results in the Earth getting w_____. This effect is called the g e G w results in the icecaps melting, which could lead to flooding and changing weather patterns. armer reenhouse ffect lobal arming

25 Carbon dioxide from fuels
Some fossil fuels release less carbon dioxide when burnt than others. The graph below shows the relative amounts of carbon dioxide released per unit of electricity produced:

26 corrodes buildings and statues
Acid rain Burning fossil fuels containing sulfur causes sulfur dioxide to be formed. This gas is released by power stations and mixes with water in the atmosphere to form acid rain. sulfur in coal sulfur dioxide acid rain combustion mixed with water What does acid rain do to the environment? kills trees corrodes buildings and statues kills water life acidifies soil

27 Reducing acid rain Acid rain is mostly caused by sulfur dioxide (which forms sulfuric acid), but carbon dioxide also contributes (by forming carbonic acid). How can acid rain be reduced? Burn fewer fossil fuels – generate electricity in other ways. Remove sulfur from oil and natural gas before it is burnt. Scrub waste gases to remove sulfur dioxide. Use expensive coal that contains little sulfur.

28 Pros and cons of fossil fuels
Although there are problems burning fossil fuels in power stations there are also advantages: Advantages Disadvantages readily available non-renewable easily transported acid rain low fuel cost greenhouse effect low building costs inefficient short start-up times

29 Pros and cons of nuclear power
Although there are problems in the use of nuclear power, there are also advantages: Advantages Disadvantages Cheap to run Expensive to build Conserves fossil fuels Expensive to decommission No sulfur dioxide emissions Radioactive waste No carbon dioxide emissions Links with cancer Safe under normal conditions Non-renewable Little fuel used means less transport needed Risk of disaster

30 Fuel reserves Fuel Time until reserves run out (years) natural gas oil
coal nuclear 25-30 about 75 about 300 thousands Even though nuclear fuel will last thousands of year it will still run out eventually. natural gas oil coal nuclear

31 Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels
Contents Energy Resources Types of energy resources Non-renewable fuels Electricity from fuels Comparing fuels Summary activities

32 non-renewable – An energy source that cannot be used again.
Glossary acid rain – Rainwater that is more acidic than normal because acidic gases have dissolved in it. fossil fuel – A fuel made from the remains of decayed plants or animals. generator – A device that transforms kinetic energy into electrical energy. global warming – The increase in the temperature of the Earth, which some scientists think is causing climate change. greenhouse effect – The trapping of heat from the Sun by certain gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. non-renewable – An energy source that cannot be used again. renewable – An energy source that can be regenerated. turbine – A device that turns heat energy into kinetic energy.

33 Anagrams

34 Energy resources

35 Multiple-choice quiz


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