Presentation on theme: "The Every River Has Its People Project is in support of OKACOM and aims to build bridges between local stakeholders and OKACOM Implemented by: Regionally."— Presentation transcript:
2The Every River Has Its People Project is in support of OKACOM and aims to build bridges between local stakeholders and OKACOMImplemented by:Regionally and for Botswana In NamibiaKalahari Conservation SocietyFelix MoggaeChief Executive OfficerP O Box 859Gaborone, BotswanaTel:Fax:Namibia NatureFoundationNils Odendaal Project Co-ordinator PO Box 245Windhoek, Namibia Tel: Fax:
3IRDNC Namibia continued: Integrated Rural Development and Nature ConservationDr. Margret JacobsohnCo-directorPO Box 24050Windhoek, NamibiaTel:Fax:RössingFoundationDesert Research Foundation of NamibiaBertus KrugerDeputy DirectorPO Box 20232Windhoek, NamibiaTel:Fax:Len Le RouxDirectorPrivate Bag 13214Windhoek, NamibiaTel:Fax:Supported by:
4The Project AreaExtensive Socio-Ecological Surveys were undertaken by project staff in partnership with local communities, regional and local authorities, line ministries and NGOs.No field work has been done in Angola, due to the security situation on the groundIn Namibia the surveys were held from July to September 2001.In Botswana the surveys were held in November and December 2000.
5Map of the Okavango basin, showing all contributing drainage systems
6GoalPromote the sustainable management of natural resources in the Okavango River Basin for the benefit of basin residents and states, through promoting and facilitating the effective participation of basin stakeholders in natural resource decision-making and management, particularly related to water resources.
7The OBJECTIVES of the project are two-fold: To increase the capacity of communities and other local stakeholders to participate effectively in decision making about the natural resources of the Okavango River Basin, particularly those related to water resources, at local, national and regional (basin-wide) levels.2. To develop mechanisms to promote and facilitate the participation of communities and other local stakeholders in natural resource management and decision making, particularly those related to water resources, at local, national and basin-wide levels.
8Socio – Ecological Surveys: Botswana MOHEMBOSHAKAWESEPOPAETSHAGUMARETSAUSEHITWATOTENGMAUNSHOROBESERONGABAFFALO FENCESelindo SpillwayNqohhaMaunachiraKhwaiMborogaMogogeloGomoliChief’s IslandJaoKiriBoroSantantadibeSandvelt TongueMalsibeXudumXwaapaThoogeNgamiKunyereThamalakaneNhabeBotetiLakeNXakaoNgarangeXamasereGudigwaBeetshaGunitsogaIkogaNokanengMap of the Okavango Detla showing the Survey AreasSurvey Areas in RedMotlopiChanogaDitshipingAdapted from SMEC, 1987Location Map for the Okavango DeltaSocio – Ecological Surveys: BotswanaAreas surveyed shown in redEmphasis of survey on gathering of quantitative dataBuilding partnershipsUnderstanding issues, problems, solutions and optionsImproved understanding of the Okavango as a system.
9Socio-ecological Survey: Namibia Map of the Kavango, showing surveyed areasCentral areaMbukushu areaKwangaliAreaGciriku areaSocio-ecological Survey: NamibiaEmphasis on qualitative and quantitative data collectionBuilding partnerships, trust and consensusUnderstanding the role of natural resources in peoples’ livelihoodsUnderstanding issues, problems, possible solutions and options, including traditional management systemsIdentification of key local institutionsImproved understanding of the Okavango as a system and peoples’ place therein.
10Socio-Ecological Survey * Methodology developed and well tested in Namibia Holistic, rapid social and natural resource appraisalsIntroduction to projectDevelop shared understanding of resource issues, social setting, problems, ideas, etc.Common vision in what should be doneGather priority information (traditional management, resources etc.)Identify gaps in understanding and assess capacity-building needsIdentify local institutions, functions and capacityAgree on roles, responsibilities; etc.
11The three main categories of the Socio-Ecological Survey are: Information givingInformation gatheringConsensus building and planningThe survey included:Community meetingsFocused group discussionsOne-on-one discussionsFeed back to Regional and Traditional AuthoritiesHousehold surveysVillage resource mappingResource inventoriesOpen discussions
12Declining River Health Problem:Declining River HealthCauses:Silting, erosion and dirty water (turbidity)Pollution – Urban, Local and ChemicalDecline in water volumeChannels becoming blocked and in some cases drying upSuggested Solutions:Protect riverbanks and riparian forestsAvoid cultivation too close to the riverbanksAvoid cultivation on dunes facing the riverProtect flood plains and reed banks lining the riverDredge the river and sell the sand to buildersRe-open channels blocked by vegetation by protecting hippo populations
13Declining fish stock and size Problem:Declining fish stock and sizeCauses:Too many people fishingToo many people using inappropriate fishing methods e.g. mosquito nets.No protected areas for fish breedingNo local control over outsidersLocal fishermen have insufficient management and control of the fish resourcesHigh-powered boats disturb breeding areasPrevious wetland areas are now drySuggested Solutions:Appropriate and traditional fishing methodsMonitoring system and adaptive managementLocal controlEnforcement of fishing regulationsNeed protected areas for fish breeding stockProtect floodplains for fish breedingRiver needs to be zoned for different usesGuidelines and regulations for boat and river use
14Insufficient water for people living away from the river Problem:Insufficient water for people living away from the riverCauses:Groundwater levels dropping (Borehole drying up)Insufficient boreholes (Water supply)Not enough provision and maintenance of water infrastructure (pumps)Insufficient capacity to maintain water pumps and boreholesSuggested Solutions:Improve veld / rangeland management so as to improve water infiltrationImprove supply of water (pipe and borehole), linked to water and rangeland management strategies for sustainable use.Increase local capacity by providing trainingIntroduce appropriate financing mechanismsImprove co-operation between government departments, NGOs and other service providers for sustainable community development.
15Declining wildlife and lack of benefits Problem:Declining wildlife and lack of benefitsCauses:Problem animals causing human, livestock and crop lossesLoss of wildlife through poaching, habitat loss, fencing etc.Park and neighbours conflictInsufficient benefits from wildlife and neighbouring parksInsufficient local control over management and useSuggested Solutions:Sustainable management and harvesting methods which include community based approaches, and devolution of rights over resource management (i.e rights over resources)Benefits from wildlife to appropriate level so as to offset the cost of living with wildlifeRapid response strategy for problem animals that empower people to respond.Strategy to reduce problem animal conflictsMonitoring and adaptive management
16Declining productivity of rangeland and plants Problem:Declining productivity of rangeland and plantsCauses:Loss of riparian vegetation (riverine forests)Loss of reeds and other aquatic plants e.g. water liliesToo frequent and uncontrolled firesOvergrazingLocal farmers have insufficient control over management of rangelandDeforestationLoss of fruit treesSuggested Solutions:Protect riparian vegetation along the river banksSustainable management and use of natural resources through community based approaches and devolution of rights (i.e. rights over resources)Enforcing of existing traditional and legal mechanisms, rules and regulationsImproved recruitment, cultivation and propagation of fruit treesEmpowerment of traditional authorities, developing awareness and capacity with appropriate skills
17Problem: Social Concerns Causes: Conflict between different land uses Poor relations between inland and river residentsAngolan refugees exerting pressure on land, natural resources and social infrastructureResources over-utilised without permission (outsiders)Settlement encroachmentCommunity not committed to help itselfAlcohol problems in the community – apathy, disinterestSales hampered by unfair prices, lack of markets & transportLack of education, knowledge & expertiseLack of information on traditional lawsLegal restrictions on access to resourcesProblem:Social ConcernsSuggested Solutions:Community based approach to manage and control access to resourcesDevelop guidelines for harvesting of natural resourcesDevelop incentives and opportunities for marketingPromote co-operation between inland & river residentsEmpower traditional authoritiesSafari operators and support agencies to train communities and /or employ local peopleCommunity involvement in formation of laws and local strategies on natural resources and management practicesFacilitate sustainable use and conservation
19A Preliminary Profile of the Kavango Region in Namibia A Preliminary Profile of the Kavango Region has been produced to provide background material for the "Every River Has its People Project". The bulk of the report consists of maps and graphs derived largely from analyses of recent surveys, censuses and mapping projects. Brief comments are offered to help users interpret the analyses and to highlight major issues and processes in the region, especially those relating to natural resources.The report has been organised into four chapters, with one chapter providing information on the Okavango River in its entirety. Thereafter, almost all information concentrates on the Kavango Region within Namibia.
20Total annual rainfall at Rundu and Andara over the past 60 years (left) and the years during which different amounts of rain fell (right)Total volume of water carried per year by the Okavango at Rundu and Mukwe.Average volume of water carried monthly by the Okavango at Rundu and Dirico.
21This map shows the 11 different vegetation types of the Kavango region This map shows the extent of vegetation cover in the Kavango region
22Monthly average daily maximum, mean and minimum temperatures at Rundu. Percentage of area burnt. This map shows how the demarcated area has progressively been more extensively burnt.1996 – 45% of area burnt1997 – 53% of area burnt1998 – 51% of area burnt1999 – 65% of area burnt
23These maps (left of the figure) show the percentage of land cleared (red) for agricultural purposes between 1972 and 1996.The smaller map on the right shows the percentage of cleared land for different regions of Kavango in 1972 (black) and 1996 (red).This map indicates the six main land use activities and the areas in which they occur.
24This map shows areas within 5 kilometers of health facilities compared with the density of people. This map shows the distribution and size of schools offering primary grades and secondary grades, and combined schools that offer both primary and secondary grades.
25This graph shows the growth of the population in the Kavango region between and 1999 and indicates a projected growth of the population up to the year 2020.This graph shows the number of male and female learners in Grades 1 – 12 in 1999.
26Pressure on natural resources Human populationLivestock densitiesCultivationFishing pressureClearing of riparian vegetation
27Basin-wide Stakeholder Meeting Held in Maun in October 2001Brought together community representatives from Botswana and NamibiaCompared survey results – commonalities and differencesFurther developed shared understanding of resources in the basinShared understanding of issues, aspirations and problemsMapped first steps for the way ahead action planningInstitutional arrangements Basin-wide Committee
28The Future * Capacity –building Local levelDELEGATES (Botswana & Namibia) chosen for basin-wide forumInformation on OKACOM and issuesMechanisms for two-way communication with OKACOMInstitutional management and consensus buildingCommunication and accountability to constituents (communities)LINKS between different layers of decision-makingLocal levels, within country at district / regional levelNational and basin-wideAcross sectors of stakeholders, farmers, fisher people, craft, tourism, government, private sector etc.Roles and responsibilities
29* Basin-wide Profile as a baseline planning tool * InformationFeedback to communitiesExchanges between local residents and scientists on key issuesUnderstanding of river basin functioning as an ecosystemPolicy environmentDevelopment of income generating options* Pilot initiatives in testing a few key solutions and community initiatives* Basin-wide Profile as a baseline planning tool* Basin-wide Natural Resource Accounts as a planning and options tool