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The Every River Has Its People Project is in support of OKACOM and aims to build bridges between local stakeholders and OKACOM Implemented by: Kalahari.

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Presentation on theme: "The Every River Has Its People Project is in support of OKACOM and aims to build bridges between local stakeholders and OKACOM Implemented by: Kalahari."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Every River Has Its People Project is in support of OKACOM and aims to build bridges between local stakeholders and OKACOM Implemented by: Kalahari Conservation Society Felix Moggae Chief Executive Officer P O Box 859 Gaborone, Botswana Tel: +267 374557 Fax: +267 314259 e-mail: Regionally and for Botswana In Namibia Namibia Nature Foundation Nils Odendaal Project Co-ordinator PO Box 245 Windhoek, Namibia Tel: + 264 61 248345 Fax: + 264 61 248344 e-mail:

3 Namibia continued: IRDNC Integrated Rural Development and Nature Conservation Dr. Margret Jacobsohn Co-director PO Box 24050 Windhoek, Namibia Tel: +264 61 228506 Fax: +264 61 228530 E-mail: Desert Research Foundation of Namibia Bertus Kruger Deputy Director PO Box 20232 Windhoek, Namibia Tel: +264 61 229855 Fax: +264 61 230172 E-mail: Len Le Roux Director Private Bag 13214 Windhoek, Namibia Tel: +264 61 211721 Fax: +264 61 211273 E-mail: Rössing Foundation Supported by:

4 The Project Area Extensive Socio-Ecological Surveys were undertaken by project staff in partnership with local communities, regional and local authorities, line ministries and NGOs. In Namibia the surveys were held from July to September 2001. In Botswana the surveys were held in November and December 2000. No field work has been done in Angola, due to the security situation on the ground

5 Map of the Okavango basin, showing all contributing drainage systems

6 Goal Promote the sustainable management of natural resources in the Okavango River Basin for the benefit of basin residents and states, through promoting and facilitating the effective participation of basin stakeholders in natural resource decision-making and management, particularly related to water resources.

7 The OBJECTIVES of the project are two-fold: 1.To increase the capacity of communities and other local stakeholders to participate effectively in decision making about the natural resources of the Okavango River Basin, particularly those related to water resources, at local, national and regional (basin-wide) levels. 2.To develop mechanisms to promote and facilitate the participation of communities and other local stakeholders in natural resource management and decision making, particularly those related to water resources, at local, national and basin-wide levels.

8 MOHEMBO SHAKAWE SEPOPA ETSHA GUMARE TSAU SEHITWA TOTENG MAUN SHOROBE SERONGA BAFFALO FENCE Selindo Spillway Nqohha Maunachira Khwai Mborog a Mogogelo Gomoli Chief’s Island Jao Kiri Boro Santantad ibe Sandvelt Tongue Malsibe Xudum Xwaapa Thooge Ngami Kunyere Thamalakan e Nhabe Boteti Lake N Xakao Ngarange Xamas ere Gudigwa Beetsha Gunitsoga Ikoga Nokaneng Map of the Okavango Detla showing the Survey Areas N Survey Areas in Red Motlopi Chanoga Ditshiping Adapted from SMEC, 1987 Location Map for the Okavango Delta Socio – Ecological Surveys: Botswana Areas surveyed shown in red Emphasis of survey on gathering of quantitative data Building partnerships Understanding issues, problems, solutions and options Improved understanding of the Okavango as a system.

9 Map of the Kavango, showing surveyed areas Gciriku area Mbukushu area Central area Kwangali Area  Emphasis on qualitative and quantitative data collection  Building partnerships, trust and consensus  Understanding the role of natural resources in peoples’ livelihoods  Understanding issues, problems, possible solutions and options, including traditional management systems  Identification of key local institutions  Improved understanding of the Okavango as a system and peoples’ place therein. Socio-ecological Survey: Namibia

10 Socio-Ecological Survey * Methodology developed and well tested in Namibia  Holistic, rapid social and natural resource appraisals Introduction to project Develop shared understanding of resource issues, social setting, problems, ideas, etc. Common vision in what should be done Gather priority information (traditional management, resources etc.) Identify gaps in understanding and assess capacity-building needs Identify local institutions, functions and capacity Agree on roles, responsibilities; etc.

11 The three main categories of the Socio-Ecological Survey are: 1.Information giving 2.Information gathering 3.Consensus building and planning The survey included:  Community meetings  Focused group discussions  One-on-one discussions  Feed back to Regional and Traditional Authorities Household surveys Village resource mapping Resource inventories Open discussions

12 Problem: Declining River Health Causes:  Silting, erosion and dirty water (turbidity)  Pollution – Urban, Local and Chemical  Decline in water volume  Channels becoming blocked and in some cases drying up Suggested Solutions: Protect riverbanks and riparian forests Avoid cultivation too close to the riverbanks Avoid cultivation on dunes facing the river Protect flood plains and reed banks lining the river Dredge the river and sell the sand to builders Re-open channels blocked by vegetation by protecting hippo populations

13 Problem: Declining fish stock and size Causes:  Too many people fishing  Too many people using inappropriate fishing methods e.g. mosquito nets.  No protected areas for fish breeding  No local control over outsiders  Local fishermen have insufficient management and control of the fish resources  High-powered boats disturb breeding areas  Previous wetland areas are now dry Suggested Solutions: Appropriate and traditional fishing methods Monitoring system and adaptive management Local control Enforcement of fishing regulations Need protected areas for fish breeding stock Protect floodplains for fish breeding River needs to be zoned for different uses Guidelines and regulations for boat and river use

14 Suggested Solutions: Improve veld / rangeland management so as to improve water infiltration Improve supply of water (pipe and borehole), linked to water and rangeland management strategies for sustainable use. Increase local capacity by providing training Introduce appropriate financing mechanisms Improve co-operation between government departments, NGOs and other service providers for sustainable community development. Problem: Insufficient water for people living away from the river Causes:  Groundwater levels dropping (Borehole drying up)  Insufficient boreholes (Water supply)  Not enough provision and maintenance of water infrastructure (pumps)  Insufficient capacity to maintain water pumps and boreholes

15 Suggested Solutions: Sustainable management and harvesting methods which include community based approaches, and devolution of rights over resource management (i.e rights over resources) Benefits from wildlife to appropriate level so as to offset the cost of living with wildlife Rapid response strategy for problem animals that empower people to respond. Strategy to reduce problem animal conflicts Monitoring and adaptive management Problem: Declining wildlife and lack of benefits Causes:  Problem animals causing human, livestock and crop losses  Loss of wildlife through poaching, habitat loss, fencing etc.  Park and neighbours conflict  Insufficient benefits from wildlife and neighbouring parks  Insufficient local control over management and use

16 Causes:  Loss of riparian vegetation (riverine forests)  Loss of reeds and other aquatic plants e.g. water lilies  Too frequent and uncontrolled fires  Overgrazing  Local farmers have insufficient control over management of rangeland  Deforestation  Loss of fruit trees Suggested Solutions: Protect riparian vegetation along the river banks Sustainable management and use of natural resources through community based approaches and devolution of rights (i.e. rights over resources) Enforcing of existing traditional and legal mechanisms, rules and regulations Improved recruitment, cultivation and propagation of fruit trees Empowerment of traditional authorities, developing awareness and capacity with appropriate skills Problem: Declining productivity of rangeland and plants

17 Causes:  Conflict between different land uses  Poor relations between inland and river residents  Angolan refugees exerting pressure on land, natural resources and social infrastructure  Resources over-utilised without permission (outsiders)  Settlement encroachment  Community not committed to help itself  Alcohol problems in the community – apathy, disinterest  Sales hampered by unfair prices, lack of markets & transport  Lack of education, knowledge & expertise  Lack of information on traditional laws  Legal restrictions on access to resources Suggested Solutions: Community based approach to manage and control access to resources Develop guidelines for harvesting of natural resources Develop incentives and opportunities for marketing Promote co-operation between inland & river residents Empower traditional authorities Safari operators and support agencies to train communities and /or employ local people Community involvement in formation of laws and local strategies on natural resources and management practices Facilitate sustainable use and conservation Problem: Social Concerns


19 A Preliminary Profile of the Kavango Region in Namibia A Preliminary Profile of the Kavango Region has been produced to provide background material for the "Every River Has its People Project". The bulk of the report consists of maps and graphs derived largely from analyses of recent surveys, censuses and mapping projects. Brief comments are offered to help users interpret the analyses and to highlight major issues and processes in the region, especially those relating to natural resources. The report has been organised into four chapters, with one chapter providing information on the Okavango River in its entirety. Thereafter, almost all information concentrates on the Kavango Region within Namibia.

20 Total annual rainfall at Rundu and Andara over the past 60 years (left) and the years during which different amounts of rain fell (right) Total volume of water carried per year by the Okavango at Rundu and Mukwe. Average volume of water carried monthly by the Okavango at Rundu and Dirico.

21 This map shows the 11 different vegetation types of the Kavango region This map shows the extent of vegetation cover in the Kavango region

22 Monthly average daily maximum, mean and minimum temperatures at Rundu. Percentage of area burnt. This map shows how the demarcated area has progressively been more extensively burnt.  1996 – 45% of area burnt  1997 – 53% of area burnt  1998 – 51% of area burnt  1999 – 65% of area burnt

23 These maps (left of the figure) show the percentage of land cleared (red) for agricultural purposes between 1972 and 1996. The smaller map on the right shows the percentage of cleared land for different regions of Kavango in 1972 (black) and 1996 (red). This map indicates the six main land use activities and the areas in which they occur.

24 This map shows areas within 5 kilometers of health facilities compared with the density of people. This map shows the distribution and size of schools offering primary grades and secondary grades, and combined schools that offer both primary and secondary grades.

25 This graph shows the growth of the population in the Kavango region between 1951 and 1999 and indicates a projected growth of the population up to the year 2020. This graph shows the number of male and female learners in Grades 1 – 12 in 1999.

26 Pressure on natural resources Human population Livestock densities Cultivation Fishing pressure Clearing of riparian vegetation

27 Basin-wide Stakeholder Meeting Held in Maun in October 2001 Brought together community representatives from Botswana and Namibia Compared survey results – commonalities and differences Further developed shared understanding of resources in the basin Shared understanding of issues, aspirations and problems Mapped first steps for the way ahead  action planning Institutional arrangements  Basin-wide Committee

28 The Future * Capacity –building Local level DELEGATES (Botswana & Namibia) chosen for basin-wide forum Information on OKACOM and issues Mechanisms for two-way communication with OKACOM Institutional management and consensus building Communication and accountability to constituents (communities) LINKS between different layers of decision-making Local levels, within country at district / regional level National and basin-wide Across sectors of stakeholders, farmers, fisher people, craft, tourism, government, private sector etc. Roles and responsibilities

29 * Information Feedback to communities Exchanges between local residents and scientists on key issues Understanding of river basin functioning as an ecosystem Policy environment Development of income generating options * Pilot initiatives in testing a few key solutions and community initiatives * Basin-wide Profile as a baseline planning tool * Basin-wide Natural Resource Accounts as a planning and options tool

30 For more information please visit our web site

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