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Cultural Resource Management Preservation and Protection Identification and Management MitigationRepatriation.

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Presentation on theme: "Cultural Resource Management Preservation and Protection Identification and Management MitigationRepatriation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cultural Resource Management Preservation and Protection Identification and Management MitigationRepatriation

2 Preservation and Protection Antiquities Act 1906 Antiquities Act 1906 Archaeological Resources Protection Act 1979 Archaeological Resources Protection Act 1979

3 Antiquities Act of 1906 Allows President of the US to declare historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other significant objects to be national monuments. Allows President of the US to declare historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other significant objects to be national monuments. Secretary of Interior can make rules and regulations for this act. Secretary of Interior can make rules and regulations for this act.

4 Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) 1979 Provides for permitting process to excavate sites. Provides for permitting process to excavate sites. Prohibits: Prohibits: Unauthorized excavation, removal, damage, alteration, or defacement of archaeological resources. Unauthorized excavation, removal, damage, alteration, or defacement of archaeological resources. Trafficking in archaeological resources the excavation or removal of which was wrongful under Federal law. Trafficking in archaeological resources the excavation or removal of which was wrongful under Federal law. Trafficking in interstate or foreign commerce in archaeological resources the excavation, removal, sale, purchase, exchange, transportation or receipt of which was wrongful under State or local law. Trafficking in interstate or foreign commerce in archaeological resources the excavation, removal, sale, purchase, exchange, transportation or receipt of which was wrongful under State or local law.

5 ARPA Penalties Any person who knowingly violates, or counsels, procures, solicits, or employs any other person to violate, any prohibition contained in law will, upon conviction, be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both: Any person who knowingly violates, or counsels, procures, solicits, or employs any other person to violate, any prohibition contained in law will, upon conviction, be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both: Provided, however, that if the commercial or archaeological value of the archaeological resources involved and the cost of restoration and repair of such resources exceeds the sum of $500, such person shall be fined not more than $20,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. Provided, however, that if the commercial or archaeological value of the archaeological resources involved and the cost of restoration and repair of such resources exceeds the sum of $500, such person shall be fined not more than $20,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. In the case of a second or subsequent such violation upon conviction such person shall be fined not more than $100,000, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. In the case of a second or subsequent such violation upon conviction such person shall be fined not more than $100,000, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

6 ARPA Violations Plastic protects the evidence of looting at Vicksburg National Military Park, where Civil War relic hunters excavated numerous holes causing wide spread damage to sensitive archeological sites.

7 GE ® Case On July 9, 1992, Deborah J. Daniels, U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of Indiana, announced the sentencing of four men in connection with the looting of a Hopewell burial mound located on General Electric (GE) property near Mount Vernon, Indiana. On July 9, 1992, Deborah J. Daniels, U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of Indiana, announced the sentencing of four men in connection with the looting of a Hopewell burial mound located on General Electric (GE) property near Mount Vernon, Indiana. On July 8, 1992, U.S. District Judge Gene F. Brooks sentenced Arthur J. Gerber to one year in prison, a fine of $5,000, and forfeiture of the further sum of $4750 in lieu of his motor vehicles, which were used in looting the site. He also will be placed on supervised release for 3 years following his prison tem. During this supervised release, Gerber will not be permitted to attend or promote archeological exhibitions at which artifacts are bought or sold, nor can he engage in artifact transactions. On July 8, 1992, U.S. District Judge Gene F. Brooks sentenced Arthur J. Gerber to one year in prison, a fine of $5,000, and forfeiture of the further sum of $4750 in lieu of his motor vehicles, which were used in looting the site. He also will be placed on supervised release for 3 years following his prison tem. During this supervised release, Gerber will not be permitted to attend or promote archeological exhibitions at which artifacts are bought or sold, nor can he engage in artifact transactions.

8 Mound Destruction The mound is an 1,800-year-old burial and ceremonial site of the Hopewell culture, which contained literally thou sands of artifacts made of silver, copper, wood, leather, flint, obsidian, mica, pearl, shell, bone, and drilled and inlaid bear teeth. The mound is an 1,800-year-old burial and ceremonial site of the Hopewell culture, which contained literally thou sands of artifacts made of silver, copper, wood, leather, flint, obsidian, mica, pearl, shell, bone, and drilled and inlaid bear teeth. This particular mound also contained burnt and un-burnt human bones of at least three individuals, two of whom had apparently been buried there. This particular mound also contained burnt and un-burnt human bones of at least three individuals, two of whom had apparently been buried there. One of the principal deposits was first exposed by Way while operating his bulldozer in connection with a nearby Federally sponsored highway construction project. Rather than notify authorities, as was required by law, Way removed hundreds of artifacts and transported them to his home in Illinois. One of the principal deposits was first exposed by Way while operating his bulldozer in connection with a nearby Federally sponsored highway construction project. Rather than notify authorities, as was required by law, Way removed hundreds of artifacts and transported them to his home in Illinois. Shortly thereafter, Way sold these artifacts to Gerber for $6, in cash, and in addition agreed to lead Gerber back to the site. Upon locating the site, Gerber hired Glover and Towery to help him further loot the site while he took photographs and kept track of artifacts being removed. Shortly thereafter, Way sold these artifacts to Gerber for $6, in cash, and in addition agreed to lead Gerber back to the site. Upon locating the site, Gerber hired Glover and Towery to help him further loot the site while he took photographs and kept track of artifacts being removed. Some of the artifacts that were removed by these three men were later sold at the August, 1988, Owensboro, Kentucky, "Show of Shows." To date, the FBI has recovered nearly 3,000 artifacts looted from the burial mound, including copper and silver ear spools, silver "panpipe" musical in-struments, copper axe-heads, or "celts," pearls, beads and blades made of obsidian, flint, and clear quartz. Some of the artifacts that were removed by these three men were later sold at the August, 1988, Owensboro, Kentucky, "Show of Shows." To date, the FBI has recovered nearly 3,000 artifacts looted from the burial mound, including copper and silver ear spools, silver "panpipe" musical in-struments, copper axe-heads, or "celts," pearls, beads and blades made of obsidian, flint, and clear quartz.

9 Identification and Management Historic Sites Act 1935 Historic Sites Act 1935 National Historic Preservation Act 1966 National Historic Preservation Act 1966

10 Historic Sites Act of 1935 This Act declares it a federal policy to preserve historic and prehistoric areas of national significance and establishes the National Historic Landmarks program. This Act declares it a federal policy to preserve historic and prehistoric areas of national significance and establishes the National Historic Landmarks program. It also empowers the Secretary of the Interior to "secure, collate, and preserve drawings, plans, photographs, and other data of historic and archeological sites, buildings, and objects." It also empowers the Secretary of the Interior to "secure, collate, and preserve drawings, plans, photographs, and other data of historic and archeological sites, buildings, and objects." The passage of the Historic Sites Act also formalizes National Park Service programs involved in salvage archeology, programs that were designed to put many people to work during the Great Depression (Childs and Corcoran 2000). The passage of the Historic Sites Act also formalizes National Park Service programs involved in salvage archeology, programs that were designed to put many people to work during the Great Depression (Childs and Corcoran 2000).

11 A cow examines an archeological excavation undertaken at Appomatox Court House National Historic Park prior to park improvements.

12 National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), 1966 Creates National Register of Historic Resource: Creates National Register of Historic Resource: Districts, sites, buildings, structures and other significant objects. Districts, sites, buildings, structures and other significant objects. Established State Historic Preservation offices. Established State Historic Preservation offices. Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act requires Federal agencies to take into account the effects of their undertakings on historic properties and afford the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation a reasonable opportunity to comment on such undertakings. Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act requires Federal agencies to take into account the effects of their undertakings on historic properties and afford the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation a reasonable opportunity to comment on such undertakings. Significance is determined when Significance is determined when Association with historic events Association with historic events Important persons Important persons Distinctive design of physical characteristics Distinctive design of physical characteristics Potential to provide important information about history or prehistory Potential to provide important information about history or prehistory

13 How do you know it is Significant? Is an isolated projectile point significant? Is an isolated projectile point significant? Is every house where “so and so slept here” significant? Is every house where “so and so slept here” significant? Ezekial Jones slept here Who’s that?

14 Mitigation Reservoir Salvage Act 1960 Reservoir Salvage Act 1960 Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act 1974 Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act 1974 Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987

15 Reservoir Salvage Act, 1960 For the preservation of historic and archaeological data which could be lost due to dam construction. For the preservation of historic and archaeological data which could be lost due to dam construction. Prior to construction, Secretary of Interior must be notified of dam site, survey for archaeological and historic materials must be conducted. Prior to construction, Secretary of Interior must be notified of dam site, survey for archaeological and historic materials must be conducted. If data exists, has significance and should be preserved, and feasible to collect the archaeological excavation. If data exists, has significance and should be preserved, and feasible to collect the archaeological excavation.

16 Salvage archeology being conducted 1930s during dam construction.

17 Archaeological & Historic Preservation Act (AHPA), 1974 Updates Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960, to preservation archaeological and historic data that would otherwise be lost through all federal construction or other federally licensed or assisted activities. Updates Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960, to preservation archaeological and historic data that would otherwise be lost through all federal construction or other federally licensed or assisted activities. Federal agencies must notify Secretary of Interior if activities will affect resources, the agency must then mitigate the impact. Federal agencies must notify Secretary of Interior if activities will affect resources, the agency must then mitigate the impact. Funding is provided either by the agency or with Interior funds as long as it does not exceed 1% of the funds available for the purpose, also provides for preservation as well as excavation. Funding is provided either by the agency or with Interior funds as long as it does not exceed 1% of the funds available for the purpose, also provides for preservation as well as excavation. i.e. a 100,000,000 dollar highway project could spend 1,000,000 on archaeology! i.e. a 100,000,000 dollar highway project could spend 1,000,000 on archaeology!

18 Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 Under the Abandoned Shipwreck Act, the U.S. Government asserted title to three categories of abandoned shipwrecks: abandoned shipwrecks embedded in a State's submerged lands; abandoned shipwrecks embedded in coralline formations protected by a State on its submerged lands; and abandoned shipwrecks located on a State's submerged lands and included in or determined eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. Under the Abandoned Shipwreck Act, the U.S. Government asserted title to three categories of abandoned shipwrecks: abandoned shipwrecks embedded in a State's submerged lands; abandoned shipwrecks embedded in coralline formations protected by a State on its submerged lands; and abandoned shipwrecks located on a State's submerged lands and included in or determined eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. The Act directed the National Park Service to prepare guidelines to assist States and Federal agencies in developing legislation and regulations to carry out their responsibilities under the Act. In accordance with the Act, the guidelines are intended to maximize the enhancement of cultural resources; foster a partnership among sport divers, fishermen, archeologists, salvors, and other interests to manage shipwreck resources of the States and the United States; facilitate access and utilization by recreational interests; and recognize the interests of individuals and groups engaged in shipwreck discovery and salvage. The Act directed the National Park Service to prepare guidelines to assist States and Federal agencies in developing legislation and regulations to carry out their responsibilities under the Act. In accordance with the Act, the guidelines are intended to maximize the enhancement of cultural resources; foster a partnership among sport divers, fishermen, archeologists, salvors, and other interests to manage shipwreck resources of the States and the United States; facilitate access and utilization by recreational interests; and recognize the interests of individuals and groups engaged in shipwreck discovery and salvage.

19 Artifact submerged in the waters of Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida.

20 Repatriation/Native Issues Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act 1990 Sacred Lands Act 2002 Sacred Lands Act 2002

21 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 1990 Defines and directs the protection of Native American graves that could be impacted due to construction, and provides for reburial of previously excavated remains. Defines and directs the protection of Native American graves that could be impacted due to construction, and provides for reburial of previously excavated remains. Definitions: Definitions: cultural affiliation-relationship of shared group identity which can be reasonably traced. cultural affiliation-relationship of shared group identity which can be reasonably traced. associated funerary objects-objects placed with remains during death rites. associated funerary objects-objects placed with remains during death rites. sacred objects-objects important to religious practice. sacred objects-objects important to religious practice. tribal patrimony-objects associated with Native American groups, not belonging to individual. tribal patrimony-objects associated with Native American groups, not belonging to individual. Right or possession-possession assigned to closely related cultural group, unless group ties cannot be proven. Right or possession-possession assigned to closely related cultural group, unless group ties cannot be proven.

22 Ownership Lineal descendants of the Native American Lineal descendants of the Native American Owners of associated tribal land Owners of associated tribal land Aboriginal tribe of associated federal land Aboriginal tribe of associated federal land Tribe of strongest demonstrated relationship Tribe of strongest demonstrated relationship

23 What do we do with Kennewick Man? Should he be returned to Native Americans? Should he be returned to Native Americans? If so, what group? If so, what group? Should scientists have the opportunity to study Kennewick Man? Should scientists have the opportunity to study Kennewick Man? What should archaeologist do about future finds of this age? What should archaeologist do about future finds of this age?

24 Native American Sacred Lands Act of 2002 A bill to protect sacred Native American Federal lands from significant damage. Introduced in the U.S. House on July 18, 2002 by Rep. Nick Rahall, D-W.Va., and Rep. Dale Kildee, D-Mich Bill is currently in the House Resources Committee, awaiting executive comment from the Department of the Interior.

25 Provisions Federal lands shall be designated unsuitable for any or certain types of undertakings if the head of the department or agency with administrative jurisdiction over that Federal land decides, in accordance with this section, that by a preponderance of the evidence the undertaking is likely to cause significant damage to Indian sacred lands. Federal lands shall be designated unsuitable for any or certain types of undertakings if the head of the department or agency with administrative jurisdiction over that Federal land decides, in accordance with this section, that by a preponderance of the evidence the undertaking is likely to cause significant damage to Indian sacred lands. Each department or agency of the United States with administrative jurisdiction over the management of Federal lands shall -- Each department or agency of the United States with administrative jurisdiction over the management of Federal lands shall -- (1) accommodate access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred lands by Indian religious practitioners; (1) accommodate access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred lands by Indian religious practitioners; (2) avoid significant damage to Indian sacred lands; and (2) avoid significant damage to Indian sacred lands; and (3) consult with Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations prior to taking significant actions or developing policies affecting Native American sacred lands. (3) consult with Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations prior to taking significant actions or developing policies affecting Native American sacred lands.


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