Extension unit – Ancient Medicine Hippocrates Galen Extension unit – surgery since 1350 Paré Lister Simpson
What do you need to know about each individual? Which period were they in? What did they do/discover? WHY WAS IT SIGNIFIANT IN MECICINE? Think – how did their discoveries develop medicine? How did they impact on other people?
What did he discover/do? Theory of the Four humours Hippocratic Oath (still used today) Careful observation – observe – diagnose - treat Why is it important? 4H – instead of blaming illness on gods, it was a natural explanation for illness. Looking at natural causes means doctors an really help their patients with natural treatments (rather than praying to gods) 4H affected how doctors treated people for next 2000 years
What did he do/discover? Developed Hippocrates 4H into Theory of opposites. Use opposites to balance humours. Proved brain controls speech and parts of body (before people thought was heart) Perfect design – said every organ in the body has a special role to play… it’s as if god designed them all to fit together perfectly. Said Jaw was made of 2 bones Said Liver created blood.
How important were his ideas? Extremely important… had taken best of Hippocrates and combined with his own work Wrote 60 books of medicine For next 1500 years – medical treatment was based on his ideas/methods from his book Nobody dared disagree with them… when Christianity became main religion in Europe… Church supported his ideas…. Fitted in well with belief God created all human beings
What did he do/discover? Specialist in anatomy Proved Jaw bone was made of one bone, not two Created book of anatomy – Fabric of the Human body Importance – challenged Galen Before, doctors believed that the books of Galen were completely accurate… he showed some ideas were wrong. Showed it was vital for doctors to dissect human bodies Doctors needed to test Galen’s ideas instead of accepting them without question.
What did he do/discover? Wrote an ‘Anatomical Account of the Motion of the Heart’ Showed blood flowed around the body and that it was carried away from the heart in arteries and returns in veins Proved that blood is not burnt up and replaced with new blood and that the heart pumps blood around the body Why is he significant? Challenged Galen! – Galen said blood was constantly made in the liver to replace blood that was burnt up in the body
What did he do/discover? Discovered that wounds healed more quickly if oil was not used. Used his own ointment. He stopped using hot irons to seal wounds Instead he used silk threads to tie ends of the blood vessels Why is it significant? Before Pare – wounds were treated by pouring boiling oil on them/stopped bleeding with hot irons However problem with ligatures – still don’t know germs cause diseases
What did he discover/do? Observed people (milkmaids) who got cowpox did not get small pox Experimented on 23 people…. 1798 – Called his new method of preventing Smallpox ‘vaccination’ Why was his work important? Extremely important – he did not know exactly how it worked but he had used careful observation to achieve it (show he had learnt from Vesalius, Pare and Harvey) Lots of people getting protected from smallpox as a result of his discovery 1852 – 50 years after his discovery, vaccination was made compulsory
How did people react to Jenner’s ideas? Some did not like anything new and thought they were odd… preferred traditional remedies Some did not accept his evidence – said it was unbelievable that a cow could protect humans. Doctors who made money out of inoculations did not want to lose income Vaccinations were seen as dangerous – some mixed up vaccines, others used infected needles
What did he do/discover? 1834 – Wrote report for Gov on living conditions and health of poor in towns/countryside Convinced was a link between filth and disease Gov didn’t take recommendations in report seriously Why is it significant? Made governments worry about Public Health Led to the First Public Health Act 1848 (although not compulsory) 20 years later – 1875 – Second Public Health Act – which forced all local councils to provide clean water, sewers and to have a Medical officer of health
What did he do? Discovered Germs and scientifically proved their existence 1861 Influenced by Jenner – found out why Jenner’s ideas worked…. Chicken Cholera vaccination – discovered by chance. Why was it so important? Led to massive developments in Medicine Competition with Koch led to many more vaccinations eg tuberculosis, Cholera
What did he discover? Problem of infection in surgery – influenced by Pasteur’s Germ theory… discovered CARBOLIC SPRAY to kill bacteria Antiseptic surgery Why was his work so important? S/T – More patients survived – deaths dropped from 46% to 15% His ideas spread and were used by other doctors (though many did not believe it at first) L/T – doctors built on his ideas. Led to Aseptic surgery Longer and more complicated operations possible as infection was reduced
What did he do/discover? Discovered in 1847 Chloroform could be used as anaesthetic (pain relief for surgery) Why was it so important? Surgeons could take more time/care in operations Pain relief for child birth (religious objections) Took 10 years to be recognised – Queen Victoria 1857 used it
Were some problems; Some surgeons used too much and patients died Others got carried away and cut too many blood vessels Patients still died of infection or bled to death More complicated ops – infection deeper in body
What did she do/discover? Greatest discovery (noticed skin was burnt by material they were handling)…. Discovery of radium…. To be used in radiography to diagnose cancers and in radiotherapy to remove cancerous growths Why was it so important? Her work was the beginning of modern treatments of cancer and is still the basis of treatments used today Awarded 2 nobel prizes (only woman) Died of Leukaemia from handling radioactive materials
What did he do/discover? Discovered Penicillin (drug that cures infections) by chance in 1928 Why was it so important? We now have hundreds of antibiotics – Penicillin was the first
Important Fleming only discovered it… was tested and mass produced by Florey and Chain They grew the Penicillin, tested it on animals, then tested it on humans…… Dec 1941 – USA join WW2 – big casualties – gov gave $80 mill to mass produce
Other individuals… Florence Nightingale Crick and Watson Snow Koch
What role did Chadwick play in bringing about changes in public health? Explain your answer (8) 10 minutes – go!
Use your own knowledge What role did Edwin Chadwick play in bringing about changes in public health? Explain your answer (8 marks) Target – Analysis of the significance of an individual Level 1 – Simple statement, eg he published a report on the living conditions of the poor, wanted reforms (0-3) Level 2 – Developed statement supported by relevant information eg a description of Chadwick’s work or recommendations; identifies role in pressurising government. (4-6) Level 3 – analysis supported by appropriately selected information; eg detailed account of Chadwick’s work showing its significance; recognises that opposition prevented the implementation of many ideas and therefore the impact of his work was limited; explores his work in context of other developments (7-8)
8 Mark – perfect answer – Why is it perfect? What role did Chadwick play in bringing about changes in public health? Level 3 – analysis supported by appropriately selected information; eg detailed account of Chadwick’s work showing its significance; recognises that opposition prevented the implementation of many ideas and therefore the impact of his work was limited; explores his work in context of other developments In the 1830s Edwin Chadwick was employed by the Poor Law Commission to report on the living conditions and the health of the poor in both town and country areas. Chadwick’s report concluded that much poverty was due to ill health caused by the foul conditions in which people lived and that the best way of reducing the cost to the rate payer of looking after the poor was to improve their health. Chadwick’s recommendations posed a problem for the government who knew they should put them into action but such matters were usually handled by local ratepayers. The government knew that any attempt to force local councils to follow recommendations would be unacceptable. Following Chadwick’s report the government at first did nothing then after a second epidemic of Cholera in 1848 they approved the First Public Health Act which encouraged but did not force local authorities to make improvements if they wanted to. Chadwick played a large role in alerting the government to what was needed with regards to public health but following his report little was done to any affect due to local rate payers not wanting to invest in public health. The impact of Chadwick’s work was limited. It took Pasteur’s discovery of germs in 1861 to propel the government to action Chadwick’s recommendations in their Second Public Health reform of 1875.
Significance – how could this be applied to other questions? Who made a more significant contribution to medicine, Harvey or Marie Curie? In what ways did the discoveries of the Renaissance period lead to improvements in medical knowledge in the 16th and 17th centuries? Explain your answer.
Why did Jenner’s discovery of vaccination against smallpox have so little impact on the treatment of other infectious diseases in the nineteenth century? Use the source and your own knowledge to explain your answer. How important was Lister’s development of antiseptics for progress in surgery in the nineteenth century? Explain your answer. What part did Louis Pasteur play in the development of vaccines? Explain your answer.