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MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY PALESTINE UNIVERSITY Second semester Dr. Ali I. Tayeh.

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Presentation on theme: "MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY PALESTINE UNIVERSITY Second semester Dr. Ali I. Tayeh."— Presentation transcript:

1 MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY PALESTINE UNIVERSITY Second semester Dr. Ali I. Tayeh

2 Lectures Outline: ًً DateTopic 1 st Week Introduction. General principles of properties of materials. 2 nd WeekConcrete. Cement, water. 3 rd WeekAggregates, Reinforcing steel and tests. 4 th WeekStone works. Classifications and testing 5 th WeekBlock works 6 th WeekLime 7 th WeekReview and Midterm Exam. 8 th WeekCarpentry. Timer. Classifications and Defects 9 th Week Metal work Steel Structures. Classifications and properties. 10 th Week Tiling and Marble Works Classifications and properties of tiles. Marble works and testing. 11 th Week Painting, General Requirements. Painting on wood and metal works. External and Eternal paints. Testing. 12 th WeekGlass, Plastics and Bitumen. 13 th WeekReview 14 th WeekFinal Exam

3 MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY PALESTINE UNIVERSITY Chapter No. 1 Concrete

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5 Concrete General CONCRETE Concrete is a construction material obtained by mixing a cement aggregate and water in a certain properties. CEMENT Cement is a very important binding material, used in the construction industry. It may be natural cement or artificial cement Natural cement is manufactured by burning and then crushing the natural cement stones. Natural cement stones are such stones which contain 20 to 40% of argillaceous matter i.e. clay,

6 Concrete General CONCRETE Concrete is a construction material obtained by mixing a cement aggregate and water in a certain properties. CEMENT Cement is a very important binding material, used in the construction industry. It may be natural cement or artificial cement Natural cement is manufactured by burning and then crushing the natural cement stones. Natural cement stones are such stones which contain 20 to 40% of argillaceous matter i.e. clay,

7 Concrete General and remaining content mainly calcareous matter which is either calcium carbonate alone or mixture of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. Natural cement resembles very closely eminent hydraulic lime. The main substances of cement is silica dioxide (SiO 2 ),aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 2 ) and iron oxide Cement is a manufactured fine powder consisting mainly of calcium and aluminum silicates and usually gray in color when mixing with water it forms a paste as a result of some chemical interactions. (Fe 2 O 3 ) (Fe 2 O 3 ) Artificial cement is manufactures by burning appropriately proportioned mixture of calcareous and argillaceous materials at a very high temperature and then grinding the resulting burnt mixture to a fine powder. The burnt mixture of calcareous and argillaceous matter is known as clinker.

8 Concrete General CEMENT MANUFACTURE METHODS: wet process : the raw material mixed with water as a ratio (35-50%) then it burnt by The Rolary Klin.

9 The Rolary Klin : A large metal cylinder its diameter near to 5m with total length 150m. rotate around its inclined axes under a temperature degree ( )OC. All the involved materials are first of all broken in crushers in size of about 2.5 cm. separately. The crushed materials are then dried with a special drought. Concrete

10 Dry Process Dry Process At this method material crushed and dried then put in a rotating plate A little amount of water added to the mixture to made a hard spheres 15mm diameter These spheres heated then be interred the Rolary Klin. All remain steps completed as the wet method Disadvantage of wet method Disadvantage of wet method Dry process of cement manufacturing is not advocated as this process is slow, more costly and -above all, the quality of cement produced is of inferior and non- uniform quality So the dry method is more common than the wet method. Concrete

11 TYPES OF CEMENTS Most commonly used cement in structures is the ordinary Portland cement. But for use under specific conditions, number of special types of cements have been developed. Following are some of the cements in most common us i, under ordinary, as well as specific conditions. Ordinary Portland cement. Ordinary Portland cement. Air Entraining Ordinary Portland cement. Air Entraining Ordinary Portland cement. White and colored cement White and colored cement Water repellent cement. Water repellent cement. Light cement Light cement Concrete TYPES OF CEMENTS

12 Sulphate Resistant Portland cement. Sulphate Resistant Portland cement. Air Entraining Sulphate Resistant Portland cement. Air Entraining Sulphate Resistant Portland cement. High early strength Portland cement High early strength Portland cement Air High early strength Portland cement Air High early strength Portland cement Bacteria Resistant cement Bacteria Resistant cement White and colored cement White and colored cement Water repellent cement. Water repellent cement. Light cement Light cement Concrete TYPES OF CEMENTS

13 Water repellent cement. Water repellent cement. Quick setting cement. Quick setting cement. Rapid hardening cement. Rapid hardening cement. Low heat cement. Low heat cement. Blast furnace slag cement. Blast furnace slag cement. High alumina cement. High alumina cement. Pozzuolanic cement. Pozzuolanic cement. Oil well cement. Oil well cement. Expansive cement. Expansive cement. Water proofing cement. Water proofing cement. Concrete

14 LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT The quality of cement is verified by conducting various exhaustive tests. Following are the standard tests for cement. Chemical composition test. Chemical composition test. For this, detailed chemical analysis of cement is conducted. Chemical composition requirements of an ordinary and low heat Portland cements have been given earlier in this chapter, under heading chemical composition. Concrete L L L LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT

15 Fineness test. Fineness test. The high fineness means more strength,more workability,and more interaction The exceeded fineness cause Increases in surface area and more released reaction heat Increases in surface area and more released reaction heat More cost of KLinker More cost of KLinker Increase the cement volume decrees. Increase the cement volume decrees. Fineness test. This test is done to verify the standard of grinding of cement. We know that rate of hydration and hydrolysis of cement, depend, upon its fineness and thus testing of the fineness of the cement is an essential feature. Fineness of cements can be determined either by sieve test or by air permeability test. Concrete L L L LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT

16 Initial Setting time test Initial Setting time test It is the time from the moment of mixing water with cement to consolidate the mixture the vicat's needle The interval between the addition of water to cement and the stage, when needle ceases to penetrate 5 mm layer of paste measured from the bottom, is known as initial setting time. of the cement. Initial setting time. of the cement. Consider as 45 minutes. Concrete L L L LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT

17 Concrete L L L LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT

18 Final setting time. Final setting time. The time interval between the moment water was added to cement and the moment, the stage is reached, when needle makes impression, but collar fails, is known was final setting time of the cement. This time is about 10 hours for ordinary cement. Both initial and final setting time tests are used to detect the deterioration of cement due to storage. Concrete L L L LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT

19 Compressive strength test: Compressive strength test: This test is carried out to determine the compressive strength of the cement. For this test, cement and standard sand are taken in ratio of 1:3 and a paste is prepared by adding water at the rate P/ Here P is the percentage of water required to produce a paste of standard consistency. The paste so prepared is filled in 76 mm. cube mould and vibrated on vibrating machine for 2 minutes. Twelve such cubes are molded. The freshly molded cubes are first keep in a damp cabin for 24 hrs. Concrete L L L LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT

20 Compressive strength test: Compressive strength test: and then shifted to water bath for curing. The cubes are then tested under a compression testing machine after 1, 3, 7 and 28 days of immersion. At each period interval three cubes should be tested and average compressive strength of the three should be taken as the compressive strength. The average compressive strength for ordinary, rapid hardening and low heat cements should be as given under physical properties. Concrete L L L LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT

21 Concrete L L L LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT

22 Tensile strength test. Tensile strength test. Tensile strength test. This test is carried out as follows Prepare a test cement mortar by taking cement and standard sand in ratio of 1:3 and then mixing water. The percentage of water to be mixed is determined by formula P/ , where P is the percentage of water required to produce a paste of standard consistency. Take a standard briquette and clean its internal surface properly. Small amount of grease or oil may also be applied to facilitate extrusion of the molded sample. Concrete L L L LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT

23 Concrete LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT Concrete LABORATORY TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT The mould is placed on a non- porous plate and filled with previously prepared mortar. After filling the mould some additional mortar is heaped on the mould and beaten with standard spatula, until it acquires the level of the mould and also water appears on the surface.

24 WATER WATER Water used in mixing concrete must be clean and free of organic materials and similar materials which may react in an undesirable manner with cement or reinforcement bars as Oil,Sault, alkaline, acids, and organic materials. On these bases, sea-water is not recommended for reinforced concrete construction. The water cement ratio is the most important single factor that affects the properties of concrete mix. Low W/C ratio results in higher strength but drier and hence less workable mix. Thus, the W\C ratio should be as low as permitted by the required workability and the available conveying and compaction means. Water used in mixing concrete must be clean and free of organic materials and similar materials which may react in an undesirable manner with cement or reinforcement bars as Oil,Sault, alkaline, acids, and organic materials. On these bases, sea-water is not recommended for reinforced concrete construction. The water cement ratio is the most important single factor that affects the properties of concrete mix. Low W/C ratio results in higher strength but drier and hence less workable mix. Thus, the W\C ratio should be as low as permitted by the required workability and the available conveying and compaction means. Concrete W W W WATER

25 WATER WATER Values of W\C ratio in the range of 0.5 to 0.65 are in common use. Maximum permitted concentrations of various harmful elements as suggested by I.S.I. are given below. To neutralize 200 ml of water sample it should not require more than 2 ml of 0.1 normal NaOH. To neutralize 200 ml sample, it should not require more than 10 ml of 0.1 normal HC1. Concrete W W W WATER

26 WATER WATER Percentage of solids should not exceed the following percentages. Organic solids 0.02% Inorganic solids0.30% Sulphate 0.05% Alkali chlorides0.10% In case of any doubt, the engineer in charge may actually conduct compressive strength test on concrete. Compressive strength exhibited by concrete should not be less than 90% of the strength expected from a concrete made with the distilled water. Concrete W W W WATER

27 Aggregates generally occupy about 70% to 80% of the volume of concrete and can therefore be expected to have an important influence on its properties; aggregates provide concrete with better stability and wear resistance. Aggregate may be classified as course or fine the characteristics of course affect the mechanical properties of the concrete by affecting the mechanical bond. According to ACI code the nominal maximum size of course aggregate should not exceed 20% of the smallest dimension if the member, 33% of the thickness of the slab or 75% of the net spacing between bars. The shape and texture of the fine aggregate affects only workability. Aggregates generally occupy about 70% to 80% of the volume of concrete and can therefore be expected to have an important influence on its properties; aggregates provide concrete with better stability and wear resistance. Aggregate may be classified as course or fine the characteristics of course affect the mechanical properties of the concrete by affecting the mechanical bond. According to ACI code the nominal maximum size of course aggregate should not exceed 20% of the smallest dimension if the member, 33% of the thickness of the slab or 75% of the net spacing between bars. The shape and texture of the fine aggregate affects only workability. Concrete A A A Aggregates

28 condition to be used for or the row material of cement. aggregate, crushed or un crushed, are derived from natural sources such as river terraces and river beds, glacial deposits, rocks, boulders and gravels, for use in the production of concrete for structural purposes and mass concrete work. Aggregate surface texture are ( soft or rough, porous). The best texture is the soft texture Aggregate grade are (large,medium, small, fine) Concrete A A A Aggregates

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30 Categories of aggregate used in concrete are two types: Fine aggregate: Fine aggregate is the aggregate most of which passes 4.75mm IS sieve and contains no more coarse material than permitted. Natural sand is the fine aggregate which may results from natural disintegration of rock or deposited by rivers or glaciers, and there are another two types of aggregate named crushed stone sand and crushed gravel sand. Concrete A A A Aggregates

31 Coarse aggregate: Coarse aggregate is the aggregate most of which retained on 4.75mm IS sieve and contains no more finer material than permitted. Uncrushed gravel is the coarse aggregate which results from natural disintegration of rock, and there are other types of coarse aggregate such as crushed gravel. Because aggregate occupy 70 to 80 % of the volume of concrete and can there for be expected to have an important influence on its properties. Concrete A A A Aggregates

32 Coarse aggregate: Coarse aggregate is the aggregate most of which retained on 4.75mm IS sieve and contains no more finer material than permitted. Uncrushed gravel is the coarse aggregate which results from natural disintegration of rock, and there are other types of coarse aggregate such as crushed gravel. Because aggregate occupy 70 to 80 % of the volume of concrete and can there for be expected to have an important influence on its properties. Concrete A A A Aggregates

33 TESTING OF AGGREGATE Every times there are samples must be taken at various stages as : Sample at start of factory manufacture Sample at start of factory manufacture Sample when the sources change Sample when the sources change Sample when aggregate properties change. Sample when aggregate properties change. After the samples be taken there are some tests carried out as : Unit weight Unit weight Voids in Agg. Voids in Agg. Resistance to degradation of coarse Agg. Resistance to degradation of coarse Agg. Concrete TESTING OF Aggregates

34 MANUFACURE OF CONCRETE: MANUFACURE OF CONCRETE: After testing all raw material that concrete consist and be approved,concrete mixture designed Design of concrete mixture mean to estimate the amount of all concrete parts (water, cement, aggregate, additives ). Concrete MANUFACURE OF CONCRETE

35 Workability Workability This test is conducted to find out the workability of the concrete. It is performed with the help of a vessel, shaped in form of a frustum of a cone open at both the ends. Diameter. of top end is 10 cm, while it is 20 cm at the bottom end. Height of the vessel is 30 cm. 16 mm diameter and 60 cm long steel rod having pointed end is used for temping purpose. Concrete PROPARITES OF FRESH CONCRETE

36 Concrete PROPARITES OF FRESH CONCRETE Concrete PROPARITES OF FRESH CONCRETE workability workability This test is conducted to find out the workability of the concrete. It is performed with the help of a vessel, shaped in form of a frustum of a cone open at both the ends. Diameter. of top end is 10 cm, while it is 20 cm at the bottom end. Height of the vessel is 30 cm. 16 mm diameter and 60 cm long steel rod having pointed end is used for temping purpose.

37 End Concrete


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