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Development of Steam & Gas Turbines P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department Basic Elements of Industrial Revolution……

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Presentation on theme: "Development of Steam & Gas Turbines P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department Basic Elements of Industrial Revolution……"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Development of Steam & Gas Turbines P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department Basic Elements of Industrial Revolution……

3 Steam Vs Gas Turbines Steam Turbine Gas Turbine External CombustionInternal Combustion Works at the mercy of Heat TransferNo impact of Heat Transfer Heavy infrastructureLight infrastructure Working fluid is recycledWorking fluid is refreshed Working fluid behaves cleverly and suitably changes its phase Remains gaseous. Very low internal consumption of work.Huge internal consumption of work. Relative more efficientRelatively pure efficiency. Best suited for Stationary Power PacksBest suited for Mobile Stations

4 Historical Debate : Steam Turbine Vs Gas Turbine Experience gained from a large number of exhaust-gas turbines for diesel engines, a temp. of 538°C was considered absolutely safe for uncooled heat resisting steel turbine blades. This would result in obtainable outputs of KW with compressor turbine efficiencies of 73-75%, and an overall cycle efficiency of 17-18%. First Gas turbine electro locomotive 2500 HP ordered from BBC by Swiss Federal Railways The advent of high pressure and temperature steam turbine with regenerative heating of the condensate and air pre- heating, resulted in coupling efficiencies of approx. 25%.

5 The gas turbine having been considered competitive with steam turbine plant of 18% which was considered not quite satisfactory. The Gas turbine was unable to compete with “modern” base load steam turbines of 25% efficiency. There was a continuous development in steam power plant which led to increase of Power Generation Efficiencies of 35% + This hard reality required consideration of a different application for the gas turbine.

6 First turbojet-powered aircraft – Ohain’s engine on He 178 The world’s first aircraft to fly purely on turbojet power, the Heinkel He 178. Its first true flight was on 27 August, 1939.

7 Rankine Cycle for Nuclear Power Plant

8 Rankine Cycle for Geothermal Power Plant

9 Ranking Cycle for Solar Thermal Power Plant

10 Ranking Cycle for Biomass Thermal Power Plant

11 How to select the Principle of Torque Creation ? Impact of Cycle Thermodynamics …..

12 Constant Pressure Steam Generation Process W J M Rankine ~ 1860 Constant Pressure Steam Generation: =0 Theory of flowing Steam Generation

13 Knowledge for Use & Design Constant Pressure Steam Generation: Practical way of understanding the utilization of fuel energy: Is it possible to get high temperature with same amount of burnt fuel? What decides the maximum possible increase for same amount of burnt fuel?

14 Knowledge for Conservation Creation of Temperature at constant pressure :

15 Steam Generation : Expenditure Vs Wastage h s Liquid Liquid +Vapour Vapour

16 Variable Pressure Steam Gneration s h

17 Increase in Specific Specific PressureEnthalpyEntropyTempVolume MPakJ/kgkJ/kg/KCm3/kg Analysis of Steam Generation at Various Pressures

18 More Availability of Energy Specific TempPressureVolumeEnthalpyEntropy CMPam3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg/K

19 Behavior of Vapour At Increasing Pressures All these show that the sensitivity of the fluid increases with increasing pressure.

20 Creation/Reduction of Wastage

21 Less Fuel for Creation of Same Temperature

22 Availability of Steam for Condenser Temperature of 45 0 C Turbine Inlet : 3500 kJ/kgTurbine Exit Specific Available PressureEntropyTempVolumeEnthalpyQualityWork MPakJ/kg/KCm3/kgkJ/kg

23 Progress in Rankine Cycle Year MW p,MPa T h o C T r o C FHW Pc,kPa ,% --~

24 Steam Path in Modern Turbines

25 Steam Conditions : Recent Installations of The World

26 Advanced 700 8C Pulverised Coal-fired Power Plant Project


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