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Stress levels in 1st year medical students Porto, April 2008 Class 21.

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1 Stress levels in 1st year medical students Porto, April 2008 Class 21

2 In our project we have determined two main objectives: Assess the stress levels of first year medical students in a Portuguese medical school. Identify some factors that might be related to academic stress, namely:

3  Being away from his normal residency  Attending for the first time to an undergraduate course  Having extracurricular activities  Having a partner  Being a part-time student  Amount of study hours  Smoking status  Living alone  Sleeping hours  Gender

4 Methods Target population and sampling methods  As target population it has been selected all first year medical students using a non-randomised method, specifically a convenience sampling method.  We used as a inclusion criteria the fact of being a first year medical student and since we wanted every student to be included we didn’t use any exclusion criteria.

5 Sample description  All 280 first year medical students were selected to be the sample, being 65,7% female (n=184) and 34,3% male (n=96)

6 Study Design  Our study was developed as a cross-section study since it will focus on a particular moment. Data Collection  In order to collect data, we will use the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12).  This version of the test is validated (12) and scored.  The translation was made separately by two translators and than compared with each other and with another translation used in another study The translation was made separately by two translators and than compared with each other and with another translation used in another study (11) Elizabete Maria Ferraz Loureiro. Estudo da relação entre o stress e os estilos de vida nos estudantes de Medicina. Universidade do Minho. Instituto de Educação e Psicologia. (12) Goldberg DP, Gater R, Sartorius N, Ustun TB, Piccinelli M, Gureje O, Rutter C. The validity of two versions of the GHQ in the WHO study of mental illness in general health care. Psychol Med Jan;27(1):191-7.

7  Before the application of the questionnaire to the sample, we developed a pilot-application of the questionnaire. On to this we inquired 10 individuals that are not part of the sample.  We added to the questionnaire the general questions related to the variables in study.  Regarding the score of the questionnaire, we used a Likert scale where the answers of every question are scored from 0 to 3. The sum of the score of the answers would give us the stress level.

8 Application of the questionnaire  The application of the questionnaire was engaged in the first two weeks of March.  In order to do this we asked for the collaboration of Introdução à Medicina teachers to deliver the questionnaires in the first three minutes of the lesson

9 QUESTIONÁRIO Somos um grupo do 1º ano do curso de Medicina da FMUP que está a realizar um estudo sobre stress em alunos do 1º ano de medicina. O questionário que se segue é anónimo e ocupará apenas 3 minutos do seu tempo. Agradecemos desde já a sua colaboração. A - Perguntas de carácter geral 1. Sexo: Masculino □ Feminino □ SimNão 2. É a primeira vez que frequenta um curso do ensino superior? □□ 3.Est á deslocado do seu local normal de residência? □□ 4.Vive sozinho? □□ 5.Pratica alguma actividade extracurricular regularmente (desporto, m ú sica, etc) ? □□ 6.Tem namorado\a? □□ 7. É trabalhador-estudante? □□ 8.Fuma? □□

10 9.Quantas horas, em média, estuda por dia (fora da época de exames)? Menos que 2 □ Entre 2 e 5 □ Entre 5 e 8 □ Mais que 8 □ 10.Quantas horas, em média, dorme por dia? Menos que 4 □ Entre 4 e 6 □ Entre 6 e 8 □ Mais que 8 □ 11.Qual é o seu signo? Carneiro □ Capricórnio □ Escorpião □ Virgem □ Caranguejo □ Touro □ Aquário □ Sagitário □ Balança □ Leão □ Gémeos □ Peixes □

11 B - Questionário geral de saúde Queremos saber como tem estado a sua saúde durante as últimas duas semanas. Por favor leia o questionário abaixo apresentado e escolha uma das quatro hipóteses possíveis. Assinale a resposta que melhor se aplica à sua situação. Por favor responda a todas as perguntas. Obrigado. Recentemente (nas duas últimas semanas): Mais do que o habitual (+) O mesmo que o habitual (=) Menos que o habitual (-) Muito menos que o habitual (--) 1. Tem sido capaz de se concentrar no que est á a fazer? □□□□ 2. Tem sentido que desempenhou um papel importante no dia-a- dia? □□□□ 3. Tem-se sentido capaz de tomar decisões? □□□□ 4. Tem sentido que consegue ultrapassar as suas dificuldades? □□□□ 5. Tem sido capaz de desfrutar as actividades do dia-a-dia? □□□□ 6. Tem sido capaz de enfrentar os seus problemas? □□□□ 7. De uma forma geral, tem-se sentido razoavelmente satisfeito? □□□□

12  After the construction of the data base we built an histogram to evaluate if data followed a normal distribution Statistical Analysis  The statistical analysis and the development of the data base was performed using a statistical analysis tool, namely SPSS for Windows

13  The histogram as unclear so we performed a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to test if the stress levels followed a normal distribution One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Níveis de Stress N 234 Normal Parameters a Mean 12,49 Std. Deviation 5,164 Most Extreme DifferencesAbsolute,128 Positive,128 Negative -,063 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z 1,964 Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed),001 Table 1 a. Test distribution is Normal.  The K-S test lead us to reject H 0 (H 0 : the variable follows a Normal distribution), because the value of p (significance level) is lesser than 0,05 (p=0,001)

14  Consequently, we had to consider the variable as a categorical one, which was divided into three categories: Low stress levels- That include scores from 0 to 10 Normal stress levels- That include scores from 11 to 15 High or very high stress levels- That include scores from 15 to 36  This way, we analysed the results through crosstabs and a chi- square.

15 Statistical analysis of the results of the questionnaire  In the development of our questionnaire we have obtained 236 answers that represent 84,3% of the population in study. Stress Categories  38,6%(N=91) of the students have low levels of stress  37,3%(N=88) have normal levels  23,3%(N=55) have high or very high levels of stress

16 Analyzed variables Sex sexo FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Validmasculino 8435,6 feminino 15264,4 100,0 Total ,0  The Frequency table shows that 64.4% of the students are female (N=152) and that 35.6% are male (N=84).

17 categorias de stress * sexo Crosstabulation sexo masculinofemininoTotal categorias de stressNível Baixo de stressCount Expected Count 32,758,391,0 % within categorias de stress 36,3%63,7%100,0% % within sexo 39,3%38,7%38,9% % of Total 14,1%24,8%38,9% Níveis normais de StressCount Expected Count 31,656,488,0 % within categorias de stress 36,4%63,6%100,0% % within sexo 38,1%37,3%37,6% % of Total 13,7%23,9%37,6% Níveis altos ou muito altos de StressCount Expected Count 19,735,355,0 % within categorias de stress 34,5%65,5%100,0% % within sexo 22,6%24,0%23,5% % of Total 8,1%15,4%23,5% TotalCount Expected Count 84,0150,0234,0 % within categorias de stress 35,9%64,1%100,0% % within sexo 100,0% % of Total 35,9%64,1%100,0%

18 Chi-Square Tests Valuedf Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square,057 a 2,972 Likelihood Ratio,0582,972 Linear-by-Linear Association,0361,850 N of Valid Cases 234  The chi-square test showed that there is no significative relation between the sex of an individual and the levels of stress, since p>0,05 (p=0,972).  Therefore we accept the H 0 : Levels of stress on male are equal to levels of stress on female.

19 Attending for the first time to an undergraduate course 1ª vez na faculdade FrequencyPercentValid Percent Cumulative Percent ValidSim 20486,4 Não 3213,6 100,0 Total236100,0  The frequencies table shows that 86.4% of the students are attending a undergraduate course for the first time (N=204) and 13.6% are not (N=32).

20 categorias de stress * 1ª vez na faculdade Crosstabulation 1ª vez na faculdade SimNãoTotal categorias de stressNível Baixo de stressCount Expected Count 78,912,191,0 % within categorias de stress 84,6%15,4%100,0% % within 1ª vez na faculdade 37,9%45,2%38,9% % of Total 32,9%6,0%38,9% Níveis normais de StressCount Expected Count 76,311,788,0 % within categorias de stress 89,8%10,2%100,0% % within 1ª vez na faculdade 38,9%29,0%37,6% % of Total 33,8%3,8%37,6% Níveis altos ou muito altos de StressCount Expected Count 47,77,355,0 % within categorias de stress 85,5%14,5%100,0% % within 1ª vez na faculdade 23,2%25,8%23,5% % of Total 20,1%3,4%23,5% TotalCount Expected Count 203,031,0234,0 % within categorias de stress 86,8%13,2%100,0% % within 1ª vez na faculdade 100,0% % of Total 86,8%13,2%100,0%

21 Chi-Square Tests ValuedfAsymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 1,141 a 2,565 Likelihood Ratio 1,1742,556 Linear-by-Linear Association,0931,760 N of Valid Cases 234  The chi-square test (table 8) shows that there aren’t significative differences, since p>0,05 (p=0,565).  We accept H 0 : Stress levels on students that are attending an undergraduate course or not for the first time to are equal.

22 Being away from home deslocado FrequencyPercentValid Percent Cumulative Percent ValidSim 12151,3 Não 11548,7 100,0 Total ,0  Related to the variable being away from home, the frequencies table shows that 51,3% of the students are away from home (N=121) and 48,7% are not (N=115).

23 categorias de stress * deslocado Crosstabulation deslocado SimNãoTotal categorias de stressNível Baixo de stressCount Expected Count 46,744,391,0 % within categorias de stress 48,4%51,6%100,0% % within deslocado 36,7%41,2%38,9% % of Total 18,8%20,1%38,9% Níveis normais de StressCount Expected Count 45,142,988,0 % within categorias de stress 50,0% 100,0% % within deslocado 36,7%38,6%37,6% % of Total 18,8% 37,6% Níveis altos ou muito altos de StressCount Expected Count 28,226,855,0 % within categorias de stress 58,2%41,8%100,0% % within deslocado 26,7%20,2%23,5% % of Total 13,7%9,8%23,5% TotalCount Expected Count 120,0114,0234,0 % within categorias de stress 51,3%48,7%100,0% % within deslocado 100,0% % of Total 51,3%48,7%100,0%

24 Chi-Square Tests ValuedfAsymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 1,419 a 2,492 Likelihood Ratio 1,4242,491 Linear-by-Linear Association 1,1851,276 N of Valid Cases 234  However, the chi-square test allowed us to verify that this differences aren’t statistically significative, since p>0,05 (p=0,492).  Therefore, we accept H 0 : Levels of stress on students that are away from home or not are equal.

25 Living alone  In what concerns to this variable, the frequencies table showed that 10.6% of the students live alone (N=25), while 89.4% don’t (N=211). viver sozinho Frequenc yPercentValid Percent Cumulative Percent ValidSim 2510,6 Não 21189,4 100,0 Total ,0

26 categorias de stress * viver sozinho Crosstabulation viver sozinho SimNãoTotal categorias de stressNível Baixo de stressCount Expected Count 9,781,391,0 % within categorias de stress 8,8%91,2%100,0% % within viver sozinho 32,0%39,7%38,9% % of Total 3,4%35,5%38,9% Níveis normais de StressCount Expected Count 9,478,688,0 % within categorias de stress 10,2%89,8%100,0% % within viver sozinho 36,0%37,8%37,6% % of Total 3,8%33,8%37,6% Níveis altos ou muito altos de StressCount Expected Count 5,949,155,0 % within categorias de stress 14,5%85,5%100,0% % within viver sozinho 32,0%22,5%23,5% % of Total 3,4%20,1%23,5% TotalCount Expected Count 25,0209,0234,0 % within categorias de stress 10,7%89,3%100,0% % within viver sozinho 100,0% % of Total 10,7%89,3%100,0%

27 Chi-Square Tests Valuedf Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 1,220 a 2,543 Likelihood Ratio 1,1632,559 Linear-by-Linear Association 1,0991,294 N of Valid Cases 234  The chi-square test shows that those differences are not statistically significant, because p>0.05 (p=0.543).  Being that so, we accept H 0 : the levels of stress on students who live alone are equal to the levels of those who don’t.

28 Having an extracurricular activity actividade extracurricular FrequencyPercentValid Percent Cumulative Percent ValidSim 14059,3 Não 9640,7 100,0 Total ,0  The frequencies table shows that 59,3% of the students practice an extracurricular activity(N=140), while 40,7% don’t (N=96).

29 categorias de stress * actividade extracurricular Crosstabulation actividade extracurricular SimNãoTotal categorias de stressNível Baixo de stressCount Expected Count 54,136,991,0 % within categorias de stress 59,3%40,7%100,0% % within actividade extracurricular 38,8%38,9% % of Total 23,1%15,8%38,9% Níveis normais de StressCount Expected Count 52,335,788,0 % within categorias de stress 59,1%40,9%100,0% % within actividade extracurricular 37,4%37,9%37,6% % of Total 22,2%15,4%37,6% Níveis altos ou muito altos de StressCount Expected Count 32,722,355,0 % within categorias de stress 60,0%40,0%100,0% % within actividade extracurricular 23,7%23,2%23,5% % of Total 14,1%9,4%23,5% TotalCount Expected Count 139,095,0234,0 % within categorias de stress 59,4%40,6%100,0% % within actividade extracurricular 100,0% % of Total 59,4%40,6%100,0%

30 Chi-Square Tests Valuedf Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square,012 a 2,994 Likelihood Ratio,0122,994 Linear-by-Linear Association,0041,947 N of Valid Cases 234  The chi-square test showed that there is no significative relation between this variable and the levels of stress, since p>0,05 (p=0,994).  Therefore we accept the H0: Levels of stress on students who have an extracurricular activity and on those who don’t are equal.

31 Girlfriend/Boyfriend  Related with the present variable, the frequencies table shows that 38.6% of the students have a boyfriend/girlfriend (N=91) and that 61.4% have not (N=145). namorado/a FrequencyPercentValid Percent Cumulative Percent ValidSim 9138,6 Não 14561,4 100,0 Total ,0

32 categorias de stress * namorado/a Crosstabulation namorado/a SimNãoTotal categorias de stressNível Baixo de stressCount Expected Count 35,455,691,0 % within categorias de stress 37,4%62,6%100,0% % within namorado/a 37,4%39,9%38,9% % of Total 14,5%24,4%38,9% Níveis normais de StressCount Expected Count 34,253,888,0 % within categorias de stress 42,0%58,0%100,0% % within namorado/a 40,7%35,7%37,6% % of Total 15,8%21,8%37,6% Níveis altos ou muito altos de StressCount Expected Count 21,433,655,0 % within categorias de stress 36,4%63,6%100,0% % within namorado/a 22,0%24,5%23,5% % of Total 8,5%15,0%23,5% TotalCount Expected Count 91,0143,0234,0 % within categorias de stress 38,9%61,1%100,0% % within namorado/a 100,0% % of Total 38,9%61,1%100,0%

33 Chi-Square Tests ValuedfAsymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square,606 a 2,739 Likelihood Ratio,6042,739 Linear-by-Linear Association,00011,000 N of Valid Cases 234  The chi-square test shows that there is no significative differences, since p>0,05 (p=0,739).  Therefore, we accept H 0 : Levels of stress on students that have a partner or not are equal.

34 Part-time student trabalhador-estudante FrequencyPercentValid Percent Cumulative Percent ValidSim 73,0 Não 22997,0 100,0 Total ,0  The frequencies table shows that 3,0% of the students are part- time students (N=7) and that 97,0% aren’t (N=229).

35 categorias de stress * trabalhador-estudante Crosstabulation trabalhador-estudante SimNãoTotal categorias de stressNível Baixo de stressCount Expected Count 2,788,391,0 % within categorias de stress 2,2%97,8%100,0% % within trabalhador-estudante 28,6%39,2%38,9% % of Total,9%38,0%38,9% Níveis normais de StressCount Expected Count 2,685,488,0 % within categorias de stress 2,3%97,7%100,0% % within trabalhador-estudante 28,6%37,9%37,6% % of Total,9%36,8%37,6% Níveis altos ou muito altos de Stress Count Expected Count 1,653,455,0 % within categorias de stress 5,5%94,5%100,0% % within trabalhador-estudante 42,9%22,9%23,5% % of Total 1,3%22,2%23,5% TotalCount Expected Count 7,0227,0234,0 % within categorias de stress 3,0%97,0%100,0% % within trabalhador-estudante 100,0% % of Total 3,0%97,0%100,0%

36 Chi-Square Tests ValuedfAsymp. Sig. (2-sided)Exact Sig. (2-sided)Exact Sig. (1-sided)Point Probability Pearson Chi-Square 1,504 a 2,471,543 Likelihood Ratio 1,3172,518,543 Fisher's Exact Test 1,522,543 Linear-by-Linear Association 1,054 b 1,305,333,218,115 N of Valid Cases 234 a. 3 cells (50,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1,65. b. The standardized statistic is -1,027.  The chi-square test showed that there is no significative relation between being a part-time student and the levels of stress, since p>0,05 (p=0,471).  But, since 50% of the cells expected count less than 5, we chose to do an exact test. The result was p=0,543 (p>0,05).  Therefore we accept the H 0 : Levels of stress on part-time students are equal to levels of stress on non part-time students.

37 Smoking fumar FrequencyPercentValid Percent Cumulative Percent ValidSim 198,1 Não 21791,9 100,0 Total ,0  The frequencies table showed that 8,1% of the students are smokers (N=19) and that 91,9% aren’t (N=217).

38 categorias de stress * fumar Crosstabulation fumar SimNãoTotal categorias de stressNível Baixo de stressCount Expected Count 7,483,691,0 % within categorias de stress 6,6%93,4%100,0% % within fumar 31,6%39,5%38,9% % of Total 2,6%36,3%38,9% Níveis normais de StressCount Expected Count 7,180,988,0 % within categorias de stress 8,0%92,0%100,0% % within fumar 36,8%37,7%37,6% % of Total 3,0%34,6%37,6% Níveis altos ou muito altos de StressCount Expected Count 4,550,555,0 % within categorias de stress 10,9%89,1%100,0% % within fumar 31,6%22,8%23,5% % of Total 2,6%20,9%23,5% TotalCount Expected Count 19,0215,0234,0 % within categorias de stress 8,1%91,9%100,0% % within fumar 100,0% % of Total 8,1%91,9%100,0%

39 Chi-Square Tests ValuedfAsymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square,861 a 2,650 Likelihood Ratio,8282,661 Linear-by-Linear Association,8121,368 N of Valid Cases 234 a. 1 cells (16,7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 4,47.  The chi-square test shows us that those differences are not statistically significant, because p>0.05 (p=0.650).  So, we accept H 0 : the levels of stress on students who smoke are equal to the levels of those who don’t.

40 Hours of study horas de estudo/dia Frequenc yPercent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Menos que ,0 Entre 2 e ,9 97,9 Entre 5 e 8 52,1 100,0 Total ,0  The crosstab shows that 50% of the students study less than 2 hours (N=118), 47,9% between 2 and 5 hours(N=113), 2,1% between 5 and 8 hours(N=5).

41 categorias de stress * horas de estudo/dia Crosstabulation horas de estudo/dia Menos que 2Entre 2 e 5Entre 5 e 8Total categorias de stressNível Baixo de stressCount Expected Count 45,543,61,991,0 % within categorias de stress 49,5% 1,1%100,0% % within horas de estudo/dia 38,5%40,2%20,0%38,9% % of Total 19,2%,4%38,9% Níveis normais de StressCount Expected Count 44,042,11,988,0 % within categorias de stress 50,0%48,9%1,1%100,0% % within horas de estudo/dia 37,6%38,4%20,0%37,6% % of Total 18,8%18,4%,4%37,6% Níveis altos ou muito altos de Stress Count Expected Count 27,526,31,255,0 % within categorias de stress 50,9%43,6%5,5%100,0% % within horas de estudo/dia 23,9%21,4%60,0%23,5% % of Total 12,0%10,3%1,3%23,5% TotalCount Expected Count 117,0112,05,0234,0 % within categorias de stress 50,0%47,9%2,1%100,0% % within horas de estudo/dia 100,0% % of Total 50,0%47,9%2,1%100,0%

42 Chi-Square Tests Valuedf Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Exact Sig. (2- sided) Exact Sig. (1- sided)Point Probability Pearson Chi-Square 3,990 a 4,407,437 Likelihood Ratio 3,3224,505,582 Fisher's Exact Test 3,296,513 Linear-by-Linear Association,076 b 1,783,816,421,060 N of Valid Cases 234 a. 3 cells (33,3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1,18. b. The standardized statistic is,276.  The chi-square test shows that there are no statistically significant differences, because p>0.05 (p=0.407).  But, since 33,3% of the cells expected count less than 5, we performed an exact test. The result was p=0,513 (p>0,05).  Therefore we accept the H 0 : levels of stress of the students who study less than 2 hours are equal to those of the students who study between 2 and 5 and equal to the levels of the students who study between 5 and 8 hours.

43 Hours of sleep horas de sono/dia Frequenc yPercent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent ValidMenos que 4 73,0 Entre 4 e ,956,259,1 Entre 6 e ,729,888,9 Mais que ,011,1100,0 Total 23599,6100,0 Missing Não respondeu 1,4 Total ,0  The frequencies table shows that 3% of students sleep less than four hours (N=7), 55,8% sleep between four and six (N=130), 30% sleep between six and eight (N=70) and 11,2% sleep more than eight hours (N=26).

44 categorias de stress * horas de sono/dia Crosstabulation horas de sono/dia Menos que 4Entre 4 e 6Entre 6 e 8Mais que 8Total categorias de stressNível Baixo de stressCount Expected Count 2,750,227,010,090,0 % within categorias de stress 4,4%57,8%25,6%12,2%100,0% % within horas de sono/dia 57,1%40,0%32,9%42,3%38,6% % of Total 1,7%22,3%9,9%4,7%38,6% Níveis normais de StressCount Expected Count 2,649,126,49,888,0 % within categorias de stress 1,1%50,0%38,6%10,2%100,0% % within horas de sono/dia 14,3%33,8%48,6%34,6%37,8% % of Total,4%18,9%14,6%3,9%37,8% Níveis altos ou muito altos de Stress Count Expected Count 1,730,716,56,155,0 % within categorias de stress 3,6%61,8%23,6%10,9%100,0% % within horas de sono/dia 28,6%26,2%18,6%23,1%23,6% % of Total,9%14,6%5,6%2,6%23,6% TotalCount Expected Count 7,0130,070,026,0233,0 % within categorias de stress 3,0%55,8%30,0%11,2%100,0% % within horas de sono/dia 100,0% % of Total 3,0%55,8%30,0%11,2%100,0%

45 Chi-Square Tests Valuedf Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Exact Sig. (2- sided) Exact Sig. (1- sided)Point Probability Pearson Chi-Square 6,348 a 6,385,391 Likelihood Ratio 6,5006,370,418 Fisher's Exact Test 6,315,379 Linear-by-Linear Association,007 b 1,933,954,490,046 N of Valid Cases 233 a. 3 cells (25,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1,65. b. The standardized statistic is -,084.  The chi-square test shows that p=0,385 so, p>0,05. But, since 25,0% of the cells expected count less than 5, we did an exact test.  According to this test, p=0,379.  Therefore, we accept H 0 : Levels of stress on students that sleep less than 4 hours, sleep between 4 and 6 hours, sleep between 6 and 8 hours and sleep more than 8 hours are equal.

46 Zodiac Sign signo Frequen cyPercent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent ValidCarneiro 177,2 Carangue jo 229,3 16,5 Balança 187,6 24,2 Capricórn io 2410,2 34,3 Touro 2811,9 46,2 Leão 3715,7 61,9 Escorpiã o 73,0 64,8 Aquário 93,8 68,6 Gémeos 198,1 76,7 Virgem 187,6 84,3 Sagitário 177,2 91,5 Peixes 208,5 100,0 Total ,0  The frequencies table shows that: o 6,8% are Aries (N=16); o 9,3% are Cancer (N=22); o 7,6% are Libra (N=18); o 10,2% are Capricorn (N=24); o 11,9% are Taurus (N=28); o 15,7% are Leo (N=37); o 3,0% are Scorpio (N=7); o 3,8% are Aquarius (N=9); o 8,1% are Gemini (N=19); o 7,6% are Virgo (N=18); o 7,2% are Sagittarius (N=16) o 8,5% are Pisces (N=20).

47 categorias de stress * signo Crosstabulation signo CarneiroCaranguejoBalançaCapricórnioTouroLeãoEscorpiãoAquárioGémeosVirgemSagitárioPeixesTotal categorias de stressNível Baixo de stressCount Expected Count 6,28,67,09,310,914,42,73,57,47,06,27,891,0 % within categorias de stress 12,1% 4,4%7,7%8,8%15,4%1,1%3,3%9,9%7,7%6,6%11,0%100,0% % within signo 68,8%50,0%22,2%29,2%28,6%37,8%14,3%33,3%47,4%38,9%37,5%50,0%38,9% % of Total 4,7% 1,7%3,0%3,4%6,0%,4%1,3%3,8%3,0%2,6%4,3%38,9% Níveis normais de StressCount Expected Count 6,08,36,89,010,513,92,63,47,16,86,07,588,0 % within categorias de stress 2,3%8,0%11,4%12,5%15,9%17,0%2,3%3,4%9,1%6,8% 4,5%100,0% % within signo 12,5%31,8%55,6%45,8%50,0%40,5%28,6%33,3%42,1%33,3%37,5%20,0%37,6% % of Total,9%3,0%4,3%4,7%6,0%6,4%,9%1,3%3,4%2,6% 1,7%37,6% Níveis altos ou muito altos de StressCount Expected Count 3,85,24,25,66,68,71,62,14,54,23,84,755,0 % within categorias de stress 5,5%7,3% 10,9% 14,5%7,3%5,5%3,6%9,1%7,3%10,9%100,0% % within signo 18,8%18,2%22,2%25,0%21,4%21,6%57,1%33,3%10,5%27,8%25,0%30,0%23,5% % of Total 1,3%1,7% 2,6% 3,4%1,7%1,3%,9%2,1%1,7%2,6%23,5% TotalCount Expected Count 16,022,018,024,028,037,07,09,019,018,016,020,0234,0 % within categorias de stress 6,8%9,4%7,7%10,3%12,0%15,8%3,0%3,8%8,1%7,7%6,8%8,5%100,0% % within signo 100,0% % of Total 6,8%9,4%7,7%10,3%12,0%15,8%3,0%3,8%8,1%7,7%6,8%8,5%100,0%

48 Chi-Square Tests ValuedfAsymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 23,459 a 22,376 Likelihood Ratio 23,68122,364 Linear-by-Linear Association,2661,606 N of Valid Cases 234 a. 12 cells (33,3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1,65.  The chi-square showed that that is no significative relation between the zodiac signs and the stress levels, since p>0,05 (p=0,376).  Therefore we accepted H 0 (H 0 : the levels of stress of the students are equal in all signs).

49 Ana Filipa Marques Ana Rita Soares Carlos Filipe Neves Emanuel Brilhante Joana Tavares João Pedro Freitas Mafalda Correia Mariana Gomes Pedro Tavares Vítor Silva


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