Presentation on theme: "Thermochemistry of fuel air mixtures"— Presentation transcript:
1Thermochemistry of fuel air mixtures Dr. Primal FernandoPh: (081)
2Combustion processThermodynamic aspects of particular type process involving chemical reactions, is called combustionUsually occurs between fuel and an oxygen carrier (air)Energy stored in the bonds between constituent atoms of fuel and air (form of internal energy) and in the combustion process it will transformed to new molecules of lower energy level combustion products plus release heat (exothermic reaction)
3Combustion process Controls the engine power Efficiency Controls the emissionsDifferent for SI and CI engines
4FlamesA flame is a combustion reaction propagate subsonically through space; motion of gas relative to unburn gas is important.The existence of flame motion implies that the reaction is confined to a zone which is small in thickness compared to the engine combustion chamber.The reaction zone is usually called the flame frontFlames can be categorized as premixed and diffusion flame (mixed together at same place where the reaction takes place)Flames also categorized as laminar (mixing and transport done by molecular process) and turbulent (enhanced by eddies and lumps)Flames also categorized by whether the flow is steady or unsteady
5Fuel - fossil fuels mainly consists of H and C By massBy massBy volume
6Chemical equation and conservation of mass Consider a simple equationNote: all gasses occupy equal volume for kmol when they are at same pressure and temperature (exactly true for perfect gases, but for other gasses substantially true). Volume occupied by liquid and solids are negligibly small compared to gasses.
7Chemical equation and conservation of mass If insufficient O2 presents
8Necessary Oxygen is mainly obtained by mixing fuel with are Note: Molar mass of N2 is 28 kg/kmol (28.16), and that for air 29 kg/kmol (28.962)
9ExampleDetermine the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio for a petrol approximating to hexane C6H14. Hence deduce the chemical equation if the petrol is burnt in 20 percent excess air, and the wet volumetric analysis of the productsIf all the water vapor is presentIf products are cooled to an atmospheric pressure and temperature of 1 bar and 15 °C.Determine also the dry volumetric analysis.Estimate the chemical equation if only 80% of the air required for stoichiometric combustion is providedThe partial pressure of saturated water vapor at 15 °C is bar
11Solution Wet volumetric analysis of the Products including N2 Amount-of-substance in the product
12Solution Amount-of-substance in the product The wet volumetric analysis
13Volume fraction=Mole fraction=partial pressure/total pressure SolutionIf products are cooled to an atmospheric pressure and temperature of 1 bar and 15 °C.Part of water will be condensed, if new amount of water is y, total substance is = yVolume fraction=Mole fraction=partial pressure/total pressureAbove volumetric analysis repeats base on the total volume of 51.67
14Solution Determine also the dry volumetric analysis Analysis is done by assuming no water present, then the amount of substance becomes = 50.79Above volumetric analysis repeat base on total volume of 50.79
15Solution Chemical reaction with insufficient air (80%) When insufficient O2 is given there will be unburned C and H2. H2, However, has a greater affinity for O2. If mixture is not too rich in fuel, it is reasonable to assume that all the H2 will be burnt. Some of C will be burnt to CO and other to CO2.