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TAKSONOMI TANAH. Tujuan Taksonomi Tanah: 1. Organize knowledge about soils 2. Understand relationships among different soils 3. Establish groups or classes.

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Presentation on theme: "TAKSONOMI TANAH. Tujuan Taksonomi Tanah: 1. Organize knowledge about soils 2. Understand relationships among different soils 3. Establish groups or classes."— Presentation transcript:

1 TAKSONOMI TANAH

2 Tujuan Taksonomi Tanah: 1. Organize knowledge about soils 2. Understand relationships among different soils 3. Establish groups or classes for practical purposes.  a. Memprediksi perilaku tanah  b. Identifikasi penggunaan tanah yang sesuai  c. Estimasi produktivitas tanah  d. Menyebar-luaskan hasil-hasil penelitian Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

3 Soil Taxonomy: 12 Ordo Tanah Soils are classified into into six categories based on diagnostic characteristics The last (largest) category will place the soils into one of the 12 Soil Orders (Ordo Tanah).

4 Soil Taxonomy 1) Orders (12) 2) Suborders (54) 3) Great Groups (211) 4) Subgroups (1,100+) 5) Family (7,000+) 6) Series (a lot!) Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls (This is the name of a specific soil in Soil Taxonomy) This is the name of one Of the 12 large categories Mollisol - oll Oder - root of order

5 Orders = Ordo Highest and most general of the soil classification system (similar to the phylum in plant taxonomy) Based on conditions under which the soil developed Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Order oll = Mollisols

6 Suborders = Sub-Ordo Grouped by similarities in soil formation such as wetter/dryer soil, colder/warmer soil, etc. Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Sub Order Ud = Udic Moisture

7 Great Groups Based on differences between soil horizons Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Great Group Sub Order Argi = Akumulasi Liat

8 Sub Groups (not required to know) Describes a profile characteristic, wetness, sand, tonguing of E, etc. Great Group Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Sub Group Sub Order Aquic = wet soil

9 Family (not required to know) Based on soil properties that affect management and root penetration, such as texture, temperature, and depth Great Group Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Family Sub Group Sub Order Texture, clay minerals, CEC, temp,

10 Seri Tanah – this is where the soils of the week names are from – misalnya: Lester, Clarion, Nashwauk etc. Named from the town or landscape feature near where the soil was first recognized (Lester = Lester Prairie, MN. Other examples = Clarion, Nashwauk, Milaca, Port Byron, Zimmerman.) Great Group Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Family Sub Group Sub Order

11 Horizon Penciri - Used to place soils into one of the 12 Soil Orders Permukaan (Epipedon) Mollic Umbric Histic Ochric Bawah- permukaan Argillic Natric Spodic Oxic Cambic None

12 Soil Taxonomy- Diagnostic Surface Epipedons Epipedon Molik: Lapisan permukaan yang tebal, gelap, lunak. ` Characteristics ` Thick - greater than 10 inches; High base saturation> 50%; ` Tanah Mineral ` Tanah-tanah terbentuk pada kondisi vegetasi prairie

13 Other Epipedons Umbric - like mollic, but low base saturation Histic - Organic Soil - saturated with water, > -% organic matter Ochric - thin, light colored - surface layers that do not fit any of the above Base Saturation = relative amount of bases (Ca, Mg, K) in the soil, Low %= few, high% = many

14 Pembandingan Epipedon OkhrikHistik Molik Umbrik thinner lighter color more organic matter low base saturation

15 Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons Argillic - illuvial horizon of clay accumulation - Bt Natric - same as argillic but with > 15% exchangeable sodium (Na) - Btn

16 Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons Spodic - illuvial accumulation of oxides of Al and Fe (sesquioxides) and OM, red or dark red color - only found in acid sandy soils, with high rainfall- generally found below E horizon. Contains a Bhs or Bs horizon or Bhsm Oi E Bhs Bs C

17 subsurface horizons (cont.) Oxic - very weathered layer of only Fe and Al oxides and 1:1 clay minerals, low pH and not very fertile (found in tropical soils) Bo Cambic - slightly altered layer - not weathered enough to be argillic, Bw horizon designation or development of color and or structure NONE - no diagnostic subsurface horizon present

18 Comparison of Subsurface Diagnostic Horizons Oxic very weathered SpodicCambic Argillic Natric more Al and Fe less developed more sodium

19 12 Soil Orders - Each Order has a diagnostic epipedon and subsurface horizons – which could be “none”. WEB SITE for soil orders = 1. Entisol 2. Inceptisol 3. Andisols 4. Spodosols 5. Mollisols 6. Alfisols 1. Ultisols 2. Oxisols 3. Aridisols 4. Vertisols 5. Histosols 6. Gelisols

20 Entisol - ent Recent soils - minimal development, little horizonation, young soils. 12.5% of world, Ochric + none Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

21 Entisol - Idaho ARAR Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

22 Vertisol - ert Inverted - soils with high clay content, Large shrink swell potential - gradually invert on themselves, 2.1% of the world, Mollic or Ochric + none Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

23 Vertisol = Bss at slickenslide Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

24 Inceptisol - ept Inception - soil shows the beginning of horizon development, little or no illuviation, 15.8% of world, Ochric or Umbric + cambic. Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

25 Inceptisol Soil Formed in colluvial material in mountains of Idaho. Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

26 Aridisols - id Arid regions of the world (19%), < 10 in. of rainfall, usually contain carbonates, Ochric + cambic or argillic or other diagnostic feature. A Bw Bk C Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

27 Aridisol in Idaho A Bt Bk Bkqm R Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

28 Aridisol - Nevada Az Bz C1 C2 NaCl Salt accumulates on the surface and in the subsurface. Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

29 Mollisols - oll soils with thick, dark, soft surface mollic + cambic, natric, argillic or none base saturation soils of the prairie 9% of the world Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

30 Mollisol This mollisol formed in a new parent material (loess) that buried the original soil -the Btb (b = buried). Mollisol from Kansas that is developed in Limestone bedrock. A1 A2 Bw BC R Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2014www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

31 Spodosols- od acid sandy soils with thick E and red Bhs - ochric and spodic % of the world - infertile soils. Oi E Bhs Bs C Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

32 Alfisol -- alf fertile forested soils with ochric and argillic - high base saturation (> 35%) - forested soils 7% of the world. Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

33 Ultisols - ult soils more weathered than Alfisols - ochric and argillic - low base saturation < 35% - redder and more acid than Alfisols 8.5% of the world - less fertile than Alfisols A E Bt1 Bt2 BC Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

34 Alfisol & Ultisol Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

35 Histosols - ist Tanah-tanah Gambut - organic material - histic 0.8% of the world Epipedon Histik. Oe1 Oe2 Oe3 Oe4 Oa 2C Photo USDA Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

36 Andisols - and soils from volcanic ash - very light - low bulk density – 1% or the world Andisol from Idaho A Bw 2BC 2C A Bw Ab Bwb Ab’ Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

37 Oxisols - ox Soils with Oxic horizon - very weathered - soils of the tropics. low pH - acid soils - high in 1:1 clay minerals 9.2% of world Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

38 Oxisol Ap1 Ap2 Bo1 Bo2 Bo3 Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

39 Gelisol - el New Order as of soils with permafrost (formerly Cryochrepts - or frozen Inceptisols) Horison Cf Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013www.swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/lecture%20pp/l05a.ppt

40 Soil Suborders of Minnesota Mollisol- Udoll - Boroll - Aquoll - Ustoll Alfisol -Udalf - Boralf - Aqualf Dropped in 1998 Entisol -Orthent - Psamment – Aquent - Fluvent Inceptisol - Udept - Aquept Spodosol - Orthod Vertisol - Aquert Histosol - Fibrist - Hemist - Saprist

41 Suborder definitions Ud - Udic moisture = moist -southern Mn type climate & Us = Ustic = Dry Bor - Boreas = northern Mn. Climate (Frigid Temperature regime) Aqu - Aquic moisture = saturated soil - high water table - Gleyed conditions Orth - true or simple - regular Entisols & Spodosols Psamm - sand - sandy Entisols Fluv - floodplain –irregular Organic matter

42 Udoll - Ustoll - Aquoll Ustoll

43 Udalf - Boralf - Aqualf

44 Orthent - Psamment – Aquent - Fluvent A Bw C Orthent Not Cambic due to being too sandy

45 Fluvent – Soils of the floodplains. Lots of layers that are deposited when the river floods FLUVENT

46 Orthod Wisconsin Orthod A E Bhs Bs C Minnesota Orthod

47 Udept - Aquept EUTRUDEPTS

48 Aquert

49 Fibrist - Hemist - Saprist


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