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Presentation on theme: "TAKSONOMI TANAH."— Presentation transcript:


2 TAKSONOMI TANAH Tujuan Taksonomi Tanah:
1. Organize knowledge about soils 2. Understand relationships among different soils 3. Establish groups or classes for practical purposes. a. Memprediksi perilaku tanah b. Identifikasi penggunaan tanah yang sesuai c. Estimasi produktivitas tanah d. Menyebar-luaskan hasil-hasil penelitian Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

3 Soil Taxonomy: 12 Ordo Tanah
Soils are classified into into six categories based on diagnostic characteristics The last (largest) category will place the soils into one of the 12 Soil Orders (Ordo Tanah).

4 Soil Taxonomy Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls
(This is the name of a specific soil in Soil Taxonomy) Orders (12) Suborders (54) Great Groups (211) Subgroups (1,100+) Family (7,000+) Series (a lot!) This is the name of one Of the 12 large categories Mollisol oll Oder root of order

5 Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls
Orders = Ordo Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Highest and most general of the soil classification system (similar to the phylum in plant taxonomy) Based on conditions under which the soil developed Order oll = Mollisols

6 Suborders = Sub-Ordo Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Sub Order Grouped by similarities in soil formation such as wetter/dryer soil, colder/warmer soil, etc. Ud = Udic Moisture

7 Based on differences between soil horizons
Great Groups Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Sub Order Order Great Group Based on differences between soil horizons Argi = Akumulasi Liat

8 Sub Groups (not required to know)
Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Sub Order Sub Group Describes a profile characteristic, wetness, sand, tonguing of E, etc. Order Great Group Aquic = wet soil

9 Family (not required to know)
Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Sub Order Sub Group Family Texture, clay minerals, CEC, temp, Order Great Group Based on soil properties that affect management and root penetration, such as texture, temperature, and depth

10 Seri Tanah – this is where the soils of the week names are from – misalnya: Lester, Clarion, Nashwauk etc. Fine-loamy mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls Sub Order Sub Group Family Order Great Group Named from the town or landscape feature near where the soil was first recognized (Lester = Lester Prairie, MN. Other examples = Clarion, Nashwauk, Milaca, Port Byron, Zimmerman.)

11 Horizon Penciri - Used to place soils into one of the 12 Soil Orders
Permukaan (Epipedon) Mollic Umbric Histic Ochric Bawah-permukaan Argillic Natric Spodic Oxic Cambic None

12 Soil Taxonomy- Diagnostic Surface Epipedons
Epipedon Molik: Lapisan permukaan yang tebal, gelap, lunak. Characteristics Thick - greater than 10 inches; High base saturation> 50%; Tanah Mineral Tanah-tanah terbentuk pada kondisi vegetasi prairie

13 Other Epipedons Umbric - like mollic, but low base saturation
Histic - Organic Soil - saturated with water, > -% organic matter Ochric - thin, light colored - surface layers that do not fit any of the above Base Saturation = relative amount of bases (Ca, Mg, K) in the soil, Low %= few, high% = many

14 Pembandingan Epipedon
Okhrik Histik Molik Umbrik thinner lighter color more organic matter low base saturation

15 Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons
Argillic - illuvial horizon of clay accumulation - Bt Natric - same as argillic but with > 15% exchangeable sodium (Na) - Btn

16 Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons
Spodic - illuvial accumulation of oxides of Al and Fe (sesquioxides) and OM, red or dark red color - only found in acid sandy soils, with high rainfall- generally found below E horizon. Contains a Bhs or Bs horizon or Bhsm Oi E Bhs Bs C

17 subsurface horizons (cont.)
Oxic - very weathered layer of only Fe and Al oxides and 1:1 clay minerals, low pH and not very fertile (found in tropical soils) Bo Cambic - slightly altered layer - not weathered enough to be argillic, Bw horizon designation or development of color and or structure NONE - no diagnostic subsurface horizon present

18 Comparison of Subsurface Diagnostic Horizons
Spodic Cambic less developed more Al and Fe Argillic very weathered more sodium Oxic Natric

19 12 Soil Orders - Each Order has a diagnostic epipedon and subsurface horizons – which could be “none”. WEB SITE for soil orders = Entisol Inceptisol Andisols Spodosols Mollisols Alfisols Ultisols Oxisols Aridisols Vertisols Histosols Gelisols

20 Entisol - ent Recent soils - minimal development, little horizonation, young soils. 12.5% of world, Ochric + none Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

21 Entisol - Idaho A R Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

22 Vertisol - ert Mollic or Ochric + none
Inverted - soils with high clay content, Large shrink swell potential gradually invert on themselves, 2.1% of the world, Mollic or Ochric + none Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

23 Vertisol = Bss at slickenslide
soil cracks Slickenslide Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

24 Inceptisol - ept Inception - soil shows the beginning of horizon development, little or no illuviation, 15.8% of world, Ochric or Umbric + cambic. Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

25 Inceptisol Soil Formed in colluvial material in mountains of Idaho.
Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

26 Aridisols - id Arid regions of the world (19%), < 10 in of rainfall, usually contain carbonates, Ochric + cambic or argillic or other diagnostic feature. A Bw Bk C Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

27 Aridisol in Idaho A Bt Bk Bkqm R
Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

28 Az Bz C1 C2 Aridisol - Nevada
NaCl Salt accumulates on the surface and in the subsurface. Az Bz C1 C2 Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

29 Mollisols - oll soils with thick, dark, soft surface
mollic + cambic, natric, argillic or none base saturation soils of the prairie 9% of the world Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

30 Mollisol This mollisol formed in a new parent material (loess) that buried the original soil -the Btb (b = buried). Mollisol from Kansas that is developed in Limestone bedrock. A1 A2 Bw BC R Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2014

31 Spodosols- od acid sandy soils with thick E and red Bhs ochric and spodic - 5.4 % of the world infertile soils. Oi E Bhs Bs C Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

32 Alfisol -- alf fertile forested soils with ochric and argillic - high base saturation (> 35%) forested soils 7% of the world. Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

33 Ultisols - ult soils more weathered than Alfisols - ochric and argillic - low base saturation < 35% - redder and more acid than Alfisols 8.5% of the world - less fertile than Alfisols A E Bt1 Bt2 BC Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

34 Alfisol & Ultisol Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

35 Histosols - ist Tanah-tanah Gambut - organic material - histic
0.8% of the world Epipedon Histik. Oe1 Oe2 Oe3 Oe4 Oa 2C Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013 Photo USDA

36 Andisols - and soils from volcanic ash very light - low bulk density – 1% or the world A Bw 2BC 2C A Bw Ab Bwb Ab’ Andisol from Idaho Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

37 Oxisols - ox Soils with Oxic horizon - very weathered - soils of the tropics. low pH - acid soils - high in 1:1 clay minerals 9.2% of world Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

38 Oxisol Ap1 Ap2 Bo1 Bo2 Bo3 Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

39 Gelisol - el New Order as of soils with permafrost (formerly Cryochrepts - or frozen Inceptisols) Horison Cf Diunduh dari: …. 9/2/2013

40 Soil Suborders of Minnesota
Mollisol - Udoll - Boroll - Aquoll - Ustoll Alfisol - Udalf - Boralf - Aqualf Dropped in 1998 Entisol - Orthent - Psamment – Aquent - Fluvent Inceptisol - Udept - Aquept Spodosol - Orthod Vertisol - Aquert Histosol - Fibrist - Hemist - Saprist

41 Suborder definitions Ud - Udic moisture = moist -southern Mn type climate & Us = Ustic = Dry Bor - Boreas = northern Mn. Climate (Frigid Temperature regime) Aqu - Aquic moisture = saturated soil - high water table - Gleyed conditions Orth - true or simple - regular Entisols & Spodosols Psamm - sand - sandy Entisols Fluv - floodplain –irregular Organic matter

42 Udoll - Ustoll - Aquoll Ustoll

43 Udalf - Boralf - Aqualf

44 Orthent - Psamment – Aquent - Fluvent
Bw C Not Cambic due to being too sandy

45 FLUVENT Fluvent – Soils of the floodplains.
Lots of layers that are deposited when the river floods

46 Orthod Minnesota Orthod Wisconsin Orthod A E Bhs Bs C

47 Udept - Aquept EUTRUDEPTS

48 Aquert

49 Fibrist - Hemist - Saprist

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