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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم.

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Presentation on theme: "بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم."— Presentation transcript:

1 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

2 Definition Dr. Doaa Abdel Wahab Degree of burn MEDICOLEGAL ASPECTS
M.L. aspects of thermal injuries Degree of burn Definition Types of thermal injuries MEDICOLEGAL ASPECTS OF THERMAL INJURIES Old classification Recent classification A thermal injury is a tissue injury resulting from the application of heat in any form to the external or internal surface of the body. First degree burn Epidermal degree 1st & 2nd degree Dry or simple burn. Scald or moist burn. Chemical or corrosive burn. Electric burn. Radiation burn. Second degree burn By Third degree burn Dermo - epidermal burn 3rd & 4th degree Fourth degree burn Dr. Doaa Abdel Wahab Lecturer of Forensic Medicine & Clinical Toxicology Fifth degree burn Deep burn 5th & 6th degree Sixth degree burn

3 Eaten Singed Wet Wet With mineral acid Present Absent
M.L. aspects of thermal injuries Dry burn Scald Corrosive Degree Any degree 1st, 3rd, 4th 1st, 2nd & 3rd Air passage Contains soot No soot No soot Eaten Hair Singed Wet Blood Thick, viscid & contains COHb Skin Dry & charred Sodden & bleached Stained & corroded Flame or heated body Cause Steam or hot liquid Corrosive acid or alkali Much disfigurement Thick with disfigurement Less disfigurement Scar Eaten Clothes Burnt Wet From below upward From above downward At & below site of contact Site & spread With mineral acid Charring Present Absent At circumference of burnt area Over burnt area Vesicles Rarely found

4 M.L. aspects of thermal injuries Factors affecting degree of burn
A) Extent of burnt area: is determined by rule of nine of Wallace. B) Depth of burn: The 3rd degree burn is the most serious one. C) Site of burn. Neck, abdominal wall or genitalia are more dangerous than those of the extremities. D) Age E) Sex F) General health.

5 II) Rapid death "within 6-48 hours”:
M.L. aspects of thermal injuries Causes of death from burn IV) Death after one week: II) Rapid death "within 6-48 hours”: III) Death within 2-7 days: Immediate causes "within 6 hours“ Neurogenic shock. Associated accidental serious injuries to vital organs. Asphyxia (suffocation). Traumatic asphyxia. Secondary oligaemic shock. Secondary toxaemic shock. Acute oedema of glottis (in the neck). Pulmonary fat embolism (burn in a fatty area.( Supra-renal haemorrhage. Bronchopneumonia. Inflammation of serous membranes. Septicemia. - Tetanus, gangrene and erysipelas.: - Rupture of an acute duodenal ulcer (at 12th day) (curling's ulcer) (stress ulcer): may be due to hypovolaemia causing devitalization of mucous membrane in addition to the absorbed burn toxins which are excreted by the liver into the duodenum. -Liver, kidney or heart damage: cell degeneration and necrosis of these organs due to the effect of burn toxins metabolism.

6 M.L. aspects of thermal injuries
Burn vitality Age of Burn Antemortem burn Postmortem burn Appears immediately Erythema 36 hs 48 hs Line of hyperemia Present Absent Appears 2-3hs Vesicles 1 w 2 ws Presence of COHb Vesicles Albuminous fluid rich in chloride Present Absent absent poor in albumin and chloride Sepsis 2 – 3 days 36 hs Vital reaction Infl., pus healing Nil Superficial slough 1 w Nothing But burn Other causes Cause of death Deep slough 3 ws Soot in URT Present Absent Red Coppery Scar 6 m 2 m

7 M.L. aspects of thermal injuries Postmortem Picture of Burn
Complications of Burn - Particles of soot are present in the air passage. Subcutaneous or subserous peticheal hge may be present . Haemoconcentration of blood due to loss of plasma and cherry red colour of the skin. - Skull may show thermal fracture "fissure fracture“. - The body shows evidence of antemortem burns of various degrees. The body presents a peculiar attitude; attitude of defence, boxing or "Pugilistic attitude". Crimson red colour of hypostasis. Generalized visceral congestion and Hge in the internal organs. Sepsis Deformities Keloid formation

8 Postmortem signs of burn Other postmortem signs of death
M.L. aspects of thermal injuries Points of differentiation () thermal & traumatic fracture Traumatic Fracture Thermal Fracture The fracture is displaced Postmortem signs of burn The fracture is not displaced The brain is edematous Other postmortem signs of death & associated with contused wound in scalp The brain is shrunken Extradural haematoma fill the space Extradural haematoma doesn’t fill the space

9 Electric burn Physical Physiological Resistance of body tissue Voltage
M.L. aspects of thermal injuries Electric burn Factors influencing the effect of electric current Physical Physiological Resistance of body tissue Voltage Humidity Nature of current Pathway of current Anticipation of shock Duration of contact General health

10 M.L. aspects of thermal injuries Ventricular fibrillation
Causes of Death Ventricular fibrillation Central Respiratory failure Peripheral Cardiac arrest Cerebral anoxia Electric burn Hyperthermic effect

11 Rapid onset of rigor mortis Compression of the stratum corni which
M.L. aspects of thermal injuries Current Marks P.M. Picture of Electric Burn N / E appearance Microscopic appearance Rapid onset of rigor mortis Compression of the stratum corni which stains deeply with superficial carbonization. Separation of the cells in the form of slits (electric channels). - Elongation of both cells and nuclei. It is of the same size and shape as the conductor. Grayish-white painless areas of aseptic necrosis. - They vary from superficial circumscribed lesions to severe burns with full thickness tissue necrosis. Marked hypostasis Presence of current mark Internal signs of asphyxia

12 M.L. aspects of thermal injuries
Lightining Lightning syndrome Definition The electric current is DC not AC. About amperes. About million volts. - A single flash lasts 1/1000th of a second. Characterized by: Loss of consciousness. Skin burn (similar to 1st degree burn. Conductive deafness. It is the discharge of the atmosphere potential () clouds, or () clouds and Earth.


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