2A New AmericaThe American Revolution took three forms: a struggle for national independence, a phase in a long-term worldwide contest among European empires, and a conflict over what kind of nation the new America would become.
3Democratizing Freedom The Dream of EqualityAmerica had the potential to become very democratic.wide property distributionthe absence of a legally established hereditary aristocracyweak established churchesBecause of its wide property distribution, the absence of a legally established hereditary aristocracy, and its weak established churches, colonial America had the potential to become very democratic. The Revolution released this potential, allowing space for political and social struggles to expand ideas of freedom and challenge traditional power structures and hierarchies. Though the Revolution’s leaders were almost all from the American elite, and though the lower classes did not seize power, the idea of liberty animated attacks on both British and domestic American institutions. So did the notion of equality, enshrined in the Declaration of Independence, which caused many in the social order who were deemed inferior—women, slaves and free blacks, servants and apprentices—to question the authority of their superiors.
4Questioning LibertyThe idea of liberty caused people to questions both British and domestic American institutions.So did the notion of equality now enshrined in the Declaration of Independence.This caused many in the social order deemed inferior—women, slaves and free blacks, servants and apprentices—to question the authority of their superiors.
5Democratizing Freedom Expanding the Political NationFor free white men the revolution had very democratic effectsLessened limitation of political participation to property owners.“democracy” - came to mean a form of government that served the interests of all people not the EliteBy the Revolution’s end, the authority of male heads of households over women and children, and slaveowners over slaves, was intact. For free men, however, the revolution had very democratic effects, especially in challenging the traditional limitation of political participation to property owners.“Democracy” at this time meant many things, including direct rule by the population, considered mob rule, or the mixed constitution of England. But during the revolution it came to mean a form of government that served the interests of the people, rather than an elite.In the colonies that became states, members of all classes debated universal male suffrage, religious toleration, and even the abolition of slavery. Demands by disenfranchised militiamen for the right to elect their officers and vote in political elections established a precedent for enfranchising veterans.
6EqualityIn the colonies that became states, members of all classes debated universal male suffrage, religious toleration, and even the abolition of slavery. Demands by disenfranchised militiamen for the right to elect their officers and vote in political elections established a precedent for enfranchising veterans.
7New State Constitutions Every state adopted a new constitution during or after the Revolution.Almost all Americans agreed that their state government should be republican—meaning that authority should rest on the consent of the governedBut Americans disagreed about the form republican governments should take to best promote the public good.
8New State Constitutions Many, like John Adams, argued that the new constitutions should establish governments that reflect the division of the society between the wealthy, to be represented in the legislature’s upper house, and the ordinary, the lower house.A powerful governor and judiciary would act as a check on the power of one class to infringe on the rights of the other class.
9New State Constitutions Every state except Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Georgia established two-house legislatures, but only Massachusetts gave its governor the power to veto laws passed by the legislature.Americans preferred a strong legislative branch.
10Democratizing Freedom The Revolution in PennsylvaniaThe Revolution’s radicalism was most evident in Pennsylvania, where almost all the colonial elite opposed independenceTheir opposition opened space for pro-independence forces, mainly lower class to organize into militias led by men of modest means.Example: Thomas Paine and Benjamin RushThese men criticized property qualifications for voting and office-holding.The Revolution’s radicalism was most evident in Pennsylvania, where almost all the colonial elite opposed independence, fearing that it would cause the “rabble” to rule and attack property. Their opposition opened space for pro-independence forces, mainly artisans and the lower class, to organize in extra-legal groups and militias led by men of modest means, such as Thomas Paine and Benjamin Rush, a physician. These men criticized property qualifications for voting and office-holding. Shortly after independence, the state adopted a new constitution, abolishing the governor’s office, ending property qualifications for officeholding, and concentrating power in one-house legislature elected annually by all men over the age of 21 who paid taxes. It also established public schools and guaranteed free speech.Every state adopted a new constitution during or after the Revolution. Almost all Americans agreed that their state government should be republican—meaning that their authority should rest on the consent of the governed and that no king or hereditary aristocracy would be established. But Americans disagreed about the form republican governments should take to best promote the public good. John Adams and others criticized Pennsylvania’s one-house legislature as too radical, and they argued that the new constitutions should establish governments that reflect the division of the society between the wealthy, to be represented in the legislature’s upper house, and the ordinary, the lower house. A powerful governor and judiciary would act as a check on the power of one class to infringe on the rights of the other class. Every state except Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Georgia established two-house legislatures, but only Massachusetts gave its governor the power to veto laws passed by the legislature. Americans preferred a strong legislative branch.
11Democratizing Freedom The Right to VoteFar more controversial were limits on voting and office-holding.While conservatives tried to restrict these rights to property owners, arguing that men without property were too dependent on others to have their own judgment, radicals such as Thomas Paine wanted to eliminate traditional social ranks.While conservatives tried to restrict these rights to property owners, arguing that men without property were too dependent on others to have their own judgment, radicals such as Thomas Paine wanted to eliminate traditional social ranks. The new state constitutions reflected the balance of power between conservatives and radicals. Southern states such as Virginia and South Carolina were least democratic, allowing the landed gentry to control politics by retaining property qualifications for voting and allowing the legislature to elect the governor. The more democratic constitutions moved toward making voting an entitlement, rather than a privilege, but they did not establish universal male suffrage. Only Vermont did not require voters to own property or pay taxes.For women and non-whites, getting the vote would be a much longer process. By the end of the Revolution, freedom and the right to vote and participate in politics had come to mean the same thing.
12Democratizing Freedom Democratizing GovernmentThe new state constitutions reflected the balance of power between conservatives and radicals.Southern states such as Virginia and South Carolina were least democraticland holding elites control politicsmust own property for votingthe legislature elected the governor.
13Democratizing Freedom Con’t Democratizing GovernmentThe more democratic constitutions moved toward making voting an entitlement, rather than a privilege, but they did not establish universal male suffrage. Only Vermont did not require voters to own property or pay taxes
14Democratizing Freedom Con’t Ultimately the Revolution greatly expanded voting rights.By the 1780s, except in Virginia, Maryland, and New York, a large majority of adult white men met voting requirements.New Jersey (alone) in its constitution allowed all inhabitants with property to vote. This allowed women to vote in that state until the vote was restricted to men there in 1808.
15Toward Religious Toleration The Revolution also expanded religious freedoms.Catholic AmericansThe deep anti-Catholicism of colonial America was weakened by the Revolution.Once the Congress formed an alliance with the Catholic nation of France in 1778, and after France proved essential to American victory, Catholics were seen as having a role in the new nation.The Revolution also expanded religious freedoms. Although a few colonies, such as Rhode Island and Pennsylvania, tolerated different religious groups and sects before the revolution, freedom to worship elsewhere flowed from the reality of religious pluralism. Before the Revolution, most colonies supported religious institutions with public funds and discriminated in office holding against Catholics, Jews, and even dissenting Protestants.The deep anti-Catholicism of colonial America was weakened by the Revolution. In approving a plan to invade Canada, the Second Continental Congress invited the Catholic inhabitants of Quebec to join Protestant American revolutionaries. Once the Congress formed an alliance with the Catholic nation of France in 1778, and after France proved essential to American victory, Catholics were seen as having a role in the new nation.
16Toward Religious Toleration The Founders and ReligionRevolutionary leaders like Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton wanted to avoid the religious-driven political conflict that had engulfed Europe for centuries.Remember that they were also skeptics and rationalists steeped in Enlightenment philosophyThe end of British rule led many to challenge the privileges of the established Anglican church in several colonies. Revolutionary leaders such as Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton wanted to avoid the kind of religious-driven political conflict that had engulfed Europe for centuries. While viewing religion as a necessary basis for public morality, they were also skeptics and rationalists steeped in Enlightenment philosophy and believed in a benevolent creator, not in divine intervention in human affairs.The push to separate church and state united Deists like Thomas Jefferson and evangelical Protestants who sought to protect religion from the corruptions of government. Throughout the new United States, states deprived the established churches of their public funding and special legal privileges, and several state constitutions guaranteed the “free exercise of religion.” Yet religious toleration was far from universal. Every state except New York retained laws barring Jews from voting and holding office, and seven states limited office-holding to Protestants. Massachusetts retained its Congregational establishment well into the nineteenth century. Catholics, however, gained the right to worship freely throughout the former colonies.
17Toward Religious Toleration Separating Church and StateThe push to separate church and state united Deists like Thomas Jefferson and evangelical Protestants who sought to protect religion from the corruptions of government. Throughout the new United States, states deprived the established churches of their public funding and special legal privileges, and several state constitutions guaranteed the “free exercise of religion.”
18Toward Religious Toleration Jefferson and Religious LibertyIn 1779, he wrote a “Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom” for the Virginia legislature. It was adopted in 1786, only after much controversy.Thomas Jefferson was an important figure in the advancement of religious liberty. In 1779, he wrote a “Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom” for the Virginia legislature. It was adopted in 1786, only after much controversy. Jefferson saw established churches as tyrannies that constrained free thought, and the bill eliminated religious requirements for voting and office-holding government financial support for churches. Religious liberty became the model for the revolutionary generation’s definition of rights as private matters to be protected from government. In a very Christian but not very pious United States, the separation of church and state drew a line between public authority and a private sphere in which rights existed as a limitation on government power.
19“Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly, That no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in nowise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities.”– Thomas Jefferson
20Toward Religious Toleration The Revolution and the ChurchesWhile the Revolution expanded religious freedom, its emphasis on individual rights also challenged religious institutions and authority. How?Yet, by allowing for the growth of different denominations, the separation of church and state actually expanded religion’s influence in American society.While the Revolution expanded religious freedom, its emphasis on individual rights also challenged religious institutions and authority. In some churches, such as the Moravians who migrated to American from Germany, younger members of the community insisted that they had the liberty to conduct their own affairs, including arranging their own marriages. Yet, by allowing for the growth of different denominations, the separation of church and state actually expanded religion’s influence in American society. Anglicans, Presbyterians, and Congregationalists faced growing dissent from sects such as the Baptists and the Universalists.Though they separated church and state, the revolution’s leaders were not anti-religious. Most were devout Christians, and even Deists who opposed organized churches thought that religious values were the foundation of a republic’s morality. Some states continued to bar non-Christians from political office and prosecute people for blasphemy or violating the Sabbath. Revolutionary leaders worried about the character of citizens, especially their virtue— their ability to sacrifice self-interest for the public good. Some promoted free public schools as a way to prepare citizens for a civic life of participation in government required of a free people.
21A Virtuous CitizenryThough they separated church and state, the revolution’s leaders were not anti-religious.Even Deists who opposed organized churches thought that religious values were the foundation of a republic’s morality.Revolutionary leaders worried about the character of citizens, especially their virtue— their ability to sacrifice self-interest for the public good
22Defining Economic Freedom Toward Free LaborAs wage labor became more common, and as republican citizenship seemed not to go with the restraints of apprenticeship and indentured servitude, more white men insisted on economic freedom.a distinction had hardened between freedom and slavery AND a northern economy based on “free labor” and Southern Slavery based economy.The Revolution also redefined and reshaped economic freedom. Slavery was only one of many kinds of unfree labor in colonial America, but after the revolution the decline of indentured servitude and apprenticeship, and the transformation of paid domestic service into a job for black and white women, made unfree labor for white men increasingly rare. As wage labor became more common, and as republican citizenship seemed more and more incompatible with the restraints of apprenticeship and indentured servitude, more white men insisted on economic freedom. By 1800, when indentured servitude had virtually ceased to exist in America, a distinction had hardened between freedom and slavery and a northern economy based on “free labor” (working for a wage or owning a farm or shop) and a southern economy based on slave labor.The question of what constituted the social conditions of freedom greatly interested Americans in the revolutionary period. Many believed a republic could not survive with a large number of dependent citizens who, being subject to the power and influence of superior and independent men, would be corrupted.
23Defining Economic Freedom The Soul of a RepublicMen such as Thomas Jefferson saw land ownership for all white men as the key to ensuring a republican future for the nation. Many Americans thought the abundance of land, much of it occupied by Indians, would ensure republican liberty and social equality.
24The Limits of Liberty The Indians’ Revolution Indians particularly faced the Revolution as a loss of freedom. After the American Revolution, Americans continued to move westward and claim Indian lands east of the Mississippi.The Indians particularly faced the Revolution as a loss of freedom. Between the Proclamation of 1763 and the American Revolution, colonists continued to move westward and claim Indian lands east of the Mississippi. Many leaders in the Revolution, including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, were deeply involved in western land speculation, and British efforts to restrain land speculation was a major grievance of the Virginians supporting independence. Different Indian tribes backed the British or the Americans in the conflict, and some tribes like the Iroquois split internally over the war, and fought each other. Both the Americans and their Indian enemies inflicted atrocities on each other and civilians.Independence created state governments that were democratically accountable to voters who wanted Indian lands. Many, including Thomas Jefferson, saw the war as an opportunity to secure more land and “liberty” for white Americans by expelling or conquering the Indians. The Treaty of Paris marked the end of a process whereby power in eastern North America moved from Indians to white Americans. Limiting the British in eastern North America to Canada, the agreement led the British to abandon their Indian allies and recognized American sovereignty over the entire region east of the Mississippi river, disregarding the natives who lived there. For Indians, on other hand, freedom meant independence and possession of their own land, and they used Americans’ language of liberty to defend themselves.
25Indian Land and White Freedom White Freedom, Indian FreedomIndependence created state governments that were democratically accountable to voters who wanted Indian lands.Many, including Thomas Jefferson, saw the war as an opportunity to secure more land and “liberty” for white Americans by expelling or conquering the Indians.
26Slavery and the Revolution The Language of Slavery and FreedomThe war presented an opportunity for freedom. In 1776 about 500,000 people were slaves.Slavery was central to the language of the revolution. Other than “liberty,” it was the word most often used in this era’s legal and political writings.Even slave owners fighting the British expressed that they were “enslaved” by their enemies.For African-Americans, the Revolution’s ideals and the war presented an opportunity for freedom. In 1776, one-fifth of the new nation’s inhabitants, about 500,000 people, were slaves. Slavery was central to the language of the revolution. Other than “liberty,” it was the word most often used in this era’s legal and political writings. Slavery, often defined as the opposite of liberty, was primarily political in its meaning, and signified the denial of an individual’s personal and political rights by arbitrary government. Even slave owners resisting or fighting the British expressed that they were “enslaved” by their enemies.By the Revolution, slavery was entrenched in every American colony. Nearly every founding father, north and south, owned slaves at some point. When writing of man’s unalienable right to liberty in the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson owned more than 100 slaves, all of whom made possible his pursuit of leisure and arts and sciences. Some patriots argued that slavery for blacks allowed freedom for whites, by removing the dependent poor from the political nation and giving white men economic independence. John Locke’s vision of the political community as a group of individuals who contracted together to protect their natural rights was also used to defend slavery. The rights of self-government and the protection of property from government interference, some argued, prevented the government from interfering with their human property. Government intervention with their slave property, these whites complained, would make slaves of them.
27Slavery and the Revolution Obstacles to AbolitionSlavery was entrenched in every American StateWhile writing the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson owned more than 100 slaves.The rights of self-government and the protection of property from government control, some argued, prevented the government from interfering with their human property.Government intervention with their slave property, these whites complained, would make slaves of them.
28Slavery and the Revolution The Cause of General LibertyOnly with the Revolution, however, did slavery emerge as a subject of public debate and controversy.Petitions for FreedomAfrican-Americans were the most persistent advocates of freedom as a universal entitlement,In the early 1770s, enslaved blacks in New England presented petitions to courts and legislatures asking to end the tyranny which Americans exercised over their slaves.By making liberty an absolute value and defining freedom as a universal entitlement, rather than a set of rights limited to a particular place or people, the Revolution inevitably led to questions about slavery and its status in the new nation. Before independence, slavery was rarely discussed in public, even though enlightened opinion had come to see the institution as immoral, inefficient, and a relic of ancient barbarism. Quakers in the late 1600s had protested slavery, and by the American Revolution many Pennsylvania Quakers had come to oppose slavery. Only with the Revolution, however, did slavery emerge as a subject of public debate and controversy.Many slaves realized that the revolutionaries’ definition of liberty as a universal right opened the door for them to use this language to challenge their bondage. African-Americans were the most persistent advocates of freedom as a universal entitlement, and they pressed revolutionary whites to follow their own principles. In the early 1770s, enslaved blacks in New England presented petitions to courts and legislatures asking Americans fighting English tyranny to end the tyranny which Americans exercised over their slaves. The war offered opportunities for escape, the incidence of which seemed to increase during the conflict.
29Slavery and the Revolution British Emancipators100,000 Escape to fight for BritishOf those 20, 000 face being returned to their owners like George Washington, who insisted that they be returnedVoluntary EmancipationsIn the 1780s, a significant number of slaveholders, especially in Virginia and Maryland, emancipated their slaves. This happened only very rarely in the other southern states.Although 5,000 slaves fought for American independence, by which some gained their freedom, many more slaves obtained their liberty by siding with the British. Several proclamations by British generals offered freedom to slaves who enlisted in the British military. Nearly 100,000 slaves, including many in Georgia and South Carolina, escaped and fled to British lines. Although by the end of the war many had been recaptured, nearly 20,000 former slaves faced being returned to their owners, like George Washington, who insisted that they rejoin their owners. But the British refused, and many emigrated to England or other British colonies.The Revolution momentarily seemed to threaten the perpetuation of slavery. During the war, most states banned or discouraged the further importation of African slaves, and the conflict devastated many southern plantations. In the 1780s, a significant number of slaveholders, especially in Virginia and Maryland, emancipated their slaves. This happened only very rarely in the other southern states.
30Slavery and the Revolution Abolition in the NorthBetween 1777, when Vermont’s new constitution prohibited slavery, and 1804, when New Jersey banned slavery, every state north of Maryland moved towards emancipation.This was the first time in history that legislatures had acted to end slavery. However, most northern laws allowed for gradual emancipation. Children were Freed.Between 1777, when Vermont’s new constitution prohibited slavery, and 1804, when New Jersey banned slavery, every state north of Maryland moved towards emancipation. This was the first time in history that legislatures had acted to end slavery. But even in the North, slaves’ importance as property shaped the way emancipation unfolded. Most northern laws allowed for gradual emancipation. Living slaves were not freed; only the children of slave mothers would become free after serving the master until adulthood, to compensate for the loss of property. Many northern slave owners were just as reluctant as southerners to emancipate their slaves after the war.The Revolution had a contradictory impact on American slavery and American freedom. Emancipation in the North, however gradual, came to distinguish free from slave states, and northern abolition, voluntary emancipation in the south, and slave escapees created large free black communities for the first time in American history. Free black communities had their own leaders and established their own independent churches and schools. In all new states except Maryland, South Carolina, and Georgia, free black men who met taxpaying or property requirements could vote.Nevertheless, slavery survived the revolutionary war and thrived in its aftermath. By 1790, there were 700,000 slaves in the United States—200,000 more than had existed in 1776.
31Slavery and the Revolution Free Black CommunitiesEmancipation in the North, however gradual, came to distinguish free from slave states, and northern abolition, voluntary emancipation in the south, and slave escapees created large free black communities for the first time in American history.
32Daughters of Liberty Revolutionary Women At least one woman disguised herself as a man, enlisted in the Continental army, and fought in several battles.ProtestedRaised FundsThey became more politicalGender and PoliticsNevertheless, gender remained an important boundary of freedom in America.Women contributed to the struggle for national independence. At least one woman disguised herself as a man, enlisted in the Continental army, and fought in several battles. Other patriot women protested merchants charging high prices, made homespun goods for the army, or passed information about the British to the rebel army. Other women formed Ladies Associations to raise funds for American soldiers. The conflict pulled women into private and sometimes public political discussion. Most famously, Abigail Adams admonished her husband John Adams to “remember the ladies” when establishing government and rights in the new nation.Nevertheless, gender remained an important boundary of freedom in America. Independence did not change the family law inherited from Britain. Husbands still held legal authority over the body, property, and choices of their wives. While political freedom for men meant the right to self-government and consent over the political arrangements that ruled over them, for women the marriage contract was more important than the social contract. Women’s relationship to the society was mediated through her relationship to her husband. Women lacked the essential basis of political participation—autonomy founded on property ownership or control over one’s own person. Most men considered women naturally submissive and irrational, and therefore unfit for citizenship. Public debate in the revolutionary era saw men’s rights as natural entitlements. Women’s role was viewed in terms of duty and obligations, and their rights flowed from their roles as wives and mothers. By definition, the republican citizen was male.
33Daughters of Liberty Republican Motherhood Yet the Revolution did improve the status of many women. The ideology of “republican motherhood” produced by the revolution gave women the responsibility to train future citizensRevolutionary leaders believed that the nation’s morality would be developed by women within the householdThe Arduous Struggle for LibertyYet the Revolution did improve the status of many women. The ideology of “republican motherhood” produced by the revolution gave women the responsibility to train future citizens. Revolutionary leaders believed that the nation’s morality would be developed by women within the household and family. While it ruled out women’s direct participation in politics, republican motherhood did encourage the expansion of women’s educational opportunities. It also strengthened the emerging ideal of “companionate marriage,” in which marriages were cemented by affection and mutual dependency, rather than male authority. The Revolution also changed family structure. While slaves, as dependents on the male head of household, remained part of the owners’ “family,” in the North hired wage workers replacing indentured servants and apprentices who had once been considered family members were not seen as part of the household.The Revolution changed the lives of all Americans. On the one hand, the right to vote expanded for white men. Bound labor among whites declined, religious groups had greater freedoms, and blacks challenged slavery. On the other hand, Indians, Loyalists, and slaves experienced the Revolution as a loss of freedom.Many Americans saw the revolution as a struggle for freedom with worldwide significance. The revolution inspired other fights for national independence and social equality, from the French Revolution to the Haitian revolution and the Latin American wars for independence. But the struggle over the meaning of freedom within the United States continued long after independence had been won.
34George WashingtonGives up his command in Surrenders power as Commander.Washington’s greatest legacy may be civilian control of the military. He took direction from Congress, even when he believed they were wrong. Frustrated by the inadequate support of Congress, he nevertheless never broke away from them.
35Washington’s Resignation When he assumed power during the war Washington had said, “I shall constantly bear in mind that as the sword was the last resort for the preservation of our liberties, so it ought to be the first to be laid aside when those liberties are firmly established” Now he followed through with that promise by immediately relinquishing power.
38Character of the American Revolution A Conservative Revolution? The American Revolution is often characterized as an intellectual eventThe leaders of the American Revolution were uniquely sober men, not revolutionaries in the classic sense.The American Revolution did not lead to chaos, a “reign of terror,” or the imposition of a dictator The American Revolutionaries did not devour their own. They also did not redistribute property and, arguably, never abandoned the rule of law
39But was it Conservative in Its Effects? Many historians argue, however, that a profound social revolution was both cause and consequence of the American Revolution.
40Consequences of the Revolution The Revolution branded slavery as at least a suspect institution. If “all men were created equal,” then how was slavery justified?It is estimated that 100,000 blacks escaped during the American Revolution.More slaves escaped during the American Revolution than in any other time before the Civil War.Want to CanadaWent to Great BritainLived on Indian Lands
41Creation of American Identity and Nationhood The American Revolution brought many Americans together for the first time.It began the process of creating a nation from states. Many Americans fought in the Revolution as it came through their state.Congressmen supported the war effort when it came through their state.
42The American Revolution and American Exceptionalism Many Americans define the significance of the United States in terms of the Revolution that created it.Our sense of national purpose, our sense of nationhood, and our belief that we are an exceptional nation (one blessed by God with exceptional liberty and that our values and form of government are superior to others) come out of the American Revolution.
43Discussion of American Exceptionalism Thomas Paine – “the cause of America is in a great measure the cause of all mankind.”Paine explaining British defeat: You “cannot conquer an idea with an army.”The American Revolution was an intensely religious war at least in the sense that many Americans came to think that God had made them different for a reason and had great plans for them.
44The American Revolution as the Beginning to the End of Colonialism Finally, the American Revolution is the first battle in what would become the most sustained source of conflict in the 19th and 20th centuries: battles by colonial dependencies to gain independence.
46What is the Northwest Territory? Northwest Territory- a designated area of land that includes the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, and parts of Minnesota.
47The Revolutionary War and Land Great Britain has ceded (or given up) all lands extending to the Mississippi River.The new government (Articles of Confederation) need to figure out what to do.The states began making claims in the newly won territory extending to the Mississippi River.
48A SolutionThomas Jefferson wants to see the land become new, separate states (where slavery will not exist after 1800).Congress meets and passes the Land Ordinance of a law that established the Northwest Territory and formed a political system for the region; land would be sold at public auction.
49What Was Solved?Since Congress could NOT tax the citizens, selling land at a public auction would help to benefit the new U.S. government and solve the greatest problem…Debt
50Land For ServiceThe United States government was unable to pay most veterans of the American Revolution.The value of Continental bank notes had dropped substantially.To repay the veterans, Congress offered them land in the Northwest Territory.
51The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Northwest Ordinance of a law that established the Northwest Territory and formed a political system for the region.When the territory reaches 5,000 free, adult males they can elect a state legislature.When the territory reaches 60,000 they can draft a state constitution and apply to Congress to become a state.
52How it was DividedThe Northwest Territory lands were to be surveyed and divided up intoTownships- the largest division of land that was typically 36 square miles and divided into 36 one-square mile sections.Each 1-mile section was 640 acres. To put it in perspective…
54Land GrabbingBecause of the vast amount of land available, the Confederation Congress prepared the surveyed townships for public auctions.31 of the 36 sections in each township would be made available to the general public in a land auction.Land was available for $1 per acre!All money raised from the initial auctions to the public would be given to Congress to help the new U.S. government get its footing.
55The Catch…In this situation, the public auctions were ONLY available to citizens who could purchase an entire section of 640 acres initially.Therefore, all bidding BEGAN at $640 ($1 per acre).Land speculators who made a bid and won a section could sell individual, smaller portions of it AFTER the initial auction and make a profit.
56Off Limits LandVeterans of the war were reserved four sections in each township for payment.Section 16 of the township was reserved for a school. Why do you think schools would be important in this new territory?
57So what is the main purpose the Ordinance? Provided the basis for temporary governance as a territory and eventual entry into the United States as states.It set some precedents that influenced how the United States would be governed in later years.New states were to be admitted “into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original States.” …meaning there would be no colonization of the lands as there had been under Great Britain.“Schools and the means of education” were to be encouraged.
58Was the Northwest Territory empty? Who lived there?
59Revolution and LandWhile Americans considered this area empty, it was inhabited by 100,000 Indians.Congress and the WestWhen Congress declared independence from Britain, it argued that Indians had forfeited their rights to the land when they sided with the BritishSettlers and the WestThe war’s end caused a huge number of Americans to migrate westward . They believed their right to take western lands was essential to American freedom.The national government established rules for settling the enormous new national domain in the west. While Americans considered it empty, it was inhabited by 100,000 Indians. When Congress declared independence from Britain, it argued that Indians had forfeited their rights to the land when they sided with the British, despite the fact that only certain tribes had done so. The government secured from the Indians much of the land north of the Ohio River, but in the south left small parts of lands there to be held permanently by the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chickasaw tribes. Though many national leaders believed that the nation’s prosperity depended on farmers gaining western lands, others saw government land sales as a source of revenue, and some worried that it would cause perennial conflict with the Indians. Private land companies hoped to buy up the land and sell it to settlers at a huge profit.The war’s end caused a huge number of Americans to migrate westward into upstate New York and what became Kentucky and Tennessee. They believed their right to take western lands was essential to American freedom. They ignored Indian land titles, demanded the government sell or give away the land, and often settled land to which they had no legal title. Many national leaders worried that these settlers were unruly and disorderly and would incite war with Indians, and they sought to regulate western settlement.
62George Washington’s Presidency April 30, 1789 Washington (Virginia) is inaugurated (sworn in) as President.John Adams (Mass.) becomes the Vice-President.
63George Washington’s Presidency Washington establishes many governmental precedents.PRECEDENT: an example that would become a standard practice.
64Establishment of the Court System Federal Judiciary Act of 1789: passed by Congress.Created an independent federal court system with the Supreme Court and lower level courts.
65The U.S. Supreme Court is to have a Chief Justice and five associate justices. Washington appoints John Jay as Chief Justice.
66Establishment of the Presidential Cabinet The Constitution allows Congress to create departments to help the President – the Cabinet.The first Presidential Cabinet had four departments:
67The First Presidential Cabinet Secretary of War (Henry Knox) oversee the nation’s defenses.
68The First Presidential Cabinet Secretary of State (Thomas Jefferson) oversee the relations between the U.S. and other countries.
69The First Presidential Cabinet Secretary of the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton) to manage the government’s money.
70The First Presidential Cabinet Attorney General (Edmond Randolph) to advise the government on legal matters.
71Whiskey RebellionTo help pay off the war debt, Washington started to tax whiskeyWhat does this remind you of?Whiskey is an alcoholic beverage or Spirit as it was often calledThe farmers who grew the grain to make the whiskey were angry.
72Why whiskey?Farmers had a hard time getting their grain to market, so they turned their grain into whiskey, which was easier to transport.They got more money for the whiskey anyway.Farmers traded the whiskey for salt, sugar, and other goods.Farmers used whiskey as money to get whatever supplies they needed.Farmers did not have the money to pay for the tax.
73The RebellionIn the summer of 1794, a group of farmers in Western Pennsylvania rebelled against the whiskey tax and staged the Whiskey Rebellion.One group beat up a tax collector and coated him with tar and feathers.Remind you of anything?
74Why do you think tax collectors were tarred and feathered?
75The Government Responds Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, wanted the government to look strong. He encouraged President Washington to stop the revolt.Federal troops, led by Washington, marched to Western Pennsylvania and put down the revolt.Washington had proved that the government would deal with people not obeying the law.
76Why do you think Washington chose to lead the troops himself?
77The Growth of the Two-Party System Federalists vs The Growth of the Two-Party System Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans
78Political PartiesDespite Washington’s wishes and warnings, political parties began to form.The first two political parties were the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. (Anti-Federalist).The Federalists wanted a strong national government. The Democratic-Republicans thought a strong national government would lead to tyranny.
79Hamilton versus Jefferson Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists.Thomas Jefferson led the Democratic-Republicans.Northern merchants and manufacturers became Federalists.Southern farmers and workers became Democratic-Republicans
80Divisions Develop Immediately Strong centralized GovernmentGovernment as the engine of the economyFederal power over state powerLimited power in the central governmentAmerican people as the engine of the economyState power over federal power
81Alexander Hamilton Background Served as Washington’s aid during the warFavored national sovereignty and a strong, active national government
82Hamilton and Financial Plans Report on Public CreditThe report analyzed the financial standing of the United States of America advocated for First Bank of the United StatesReport on ManufacturesA Report to congress on how to stimulate the economy.Excise TaxesPlace an excise tax, meaning a tax on a specific product, on distilled spirits (alcohol)Whiskey Rebellion
83Opposition to Hamilton’s Plan Report on Public CreditWho would benefit? Who would lose?First Bank of the United StatesWas this a constitutional action?Report on ManufacturesWhat is the vision for the United States?Excise TaxesAre you replacing an old tyranny with a new one?
84Democratic Republicans FederalistsWealthy, commercial interestsCities, New EnglandAnglophilesDemocratic RepublicansPoor to middle-class, agricultureFarmlands, SouthFrancophiles
86Washington’s Farewell Address Before he retired, Washington gave a farewell address (speech). In it he:Warned against political parties - he thought they caused arguments, go tin the way.Urged the nation to remain neutral and not become involved in foreign alliances/wars.Warned against a powerful military.Urged Americans to maintain and value a sense of national unity.
88John Adams Becomes 2nd President After Washington retired, his Vice-President, John Adams became the second president.Thomas Jefferson came in second. He became Vice-President.
89XYZ AffairThe U.S. was having problems with France. They were seizing American ships so they couldn’t trade with England.Adams sent men to France to work out the problems.lbridge Gerry, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, and John MarshallThey met with French negotiators, who later became known as X,Y,Z after Adams changed their names when releasing the negotiations to the public.
90X,YZ, demanded that talks would occur only if the Americans agreed to loan France $10 million and to pay the minister a bribe of $250,000.Meanwhile, Americans refused and began to fight back.U.S. Navy began to fight the French in the CaribbeanThe French ultimately realized their mistakes and called for peace with America.The incident became known as the XYZ Affair.
91Alien and Sedition Acts President Adams was criticized for the XYZ affair by Democratic-Republican newspapers.He blamed the papers and new immigrants for his problems.To silence his critics, the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed.These acts targeted aliens —immigrants who were not yet citizens.
92One act increased the waiting period for becoming a U. S One act increased the waiting period for becoming a U.S. citizen from 5 to 14 years.Other acts gave the president the power to arrest disloyal aliens or order them out of the country during wartime.A fourth act outlawed sedition. Saying or writing anything false or harmful about the government became illegal. Newspaper editors were arrested.Many people thought the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the First Amendment.
94President Thomas Jefferson March 4, 1801Thomas Jefferson is the first President inaugurated in the new capital city of Washington D.C.He delivers his first inaugural address. This address outlines what he feels are the essential principles of government.
95First Inaugural Address Essential Principles of Government“equal and exact justice to all men”“peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations”“the support of state governments”“the preservation of general government”punishment for those who choose to revoltcompliance with the decisions of the majority
96First Inaugural Address Essential Principles of Government Cont…“a well disciplined militia”honest payment of debtsmaintaining a sound economyproper distribution of informationfreedom of religionfreedom of the press
97Louisiana Purchase April 30, 1803 Robert Livingston & James Monroe signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in ParisThe United States paid $15 million for the land, roughly 4 cents per acreThe purchase added 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi to the United StatesJuly 4 the Louisiana Purchase is publicly announced
99Lewis and Clark Expedition January 18, 1803Jefferson asks Congress forfunds to explore the land west of the MississippiHis goal is to find a water route to the PacificMay 1804Meriwether Lewis and William Clark depart on the expedition
100Lewis and Clark Expedition January 18, 1803Jefferson sends a secret message to congress regarding the Lewis and Clark ExpeditionIn this message Jefferson asks for permission to establish trading with the Indians
101Second Inaugural Address Delivered on March 4, 1805Stresses the importance of American neutrality in matters of foreign affairsOutlines the Louisiana Purchase and the processes by which the original inhabitants of the land will become citizens of the United StatesStresses the importance of harmony amongst all inhabitants of America
102Embargo Act of 1807Renewal of the Napoleonic Wars between France and Great BritainAmerica was once again trapped between the two nationsJefferson wanting to stay neutral proposed an embargo on all foreign tradeThis was highly unsuccessful and devastated the American EconomyThe Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 was put in place to repeal the unsuccessful Embargo Act
103Chapter 8 Securing the Republic, 1790–1815 When George Washington became the first president of the United States in April 1789, in New York City, the nation’s temporary capital, America’s political leaders believed the republican experiment’s success depended on political harmony. They wanted to avoid organized political parties, which were seen as divisive and disruptive. Yet parties quickly formed, first in Congress, and then spread throughout the nation. The 1790s was a decade of intense partisanship, an “age of passion” in which the survival of the republic, the revolution’s legacy, and American liberty seemed at stake.
104Politics in an Age of Passion Hamilton’s ProgramTo establish the government’s creditworthiness, Hamilton proposed that it pay off at full face value all national and state debts from the Revolution. He wanted to create a new national debt, issued as interest-bearing bonds to government creditors, that would tie wealthy investors to the national government.President Washington embodied national unity and the virtue of republican self-sacrifice, having retired from public life after the war. His vice-president, John Adams, was an important political leader of the Revolution. His cabinet included Thomas Jefferson as secretary of state and Alexander Hamilton as head of the Treasury Department. He formed a Supreme Court, with John Jay as its chief justice.But a financial plan proposed by Hamilton frayed national unity. Taking Great Britain as his model, Hamilton wanted to stabilize the nation’s finances, garner the support of powerful financiers, and foster economic development. He hoped to make the United States a world military and commercial power.To establish the government’s creditworthiness, Hamilton proposed that it pay off at full face value all national and state debts from the Revolution. He wanted to create a new national debt, issued as interest-bearing bonds to government creditors, that would tie wealthy investors to the national government. He wanted to establish a Bank of the United States, modeled on the Bank of England, that would act as the nation’s financial agent—a private corporation that would hold government funds, make loans to the government, and make profits for stockholders. To raise revenue, he proposed a tax on whiskey. And in a Report on Manufactures, Hamilton called for a tariff and government subsidies to develop factories that would produce in the U.S. goods then imported from abroad.
105Politics in an Age of Passion The Jefferson-Hamilton BargainA compromise secured Hamilton’s fiscal program, minus subsidies for factories, in exchange for locating the nation’s capital between Virginia and Maryland. This became Washington, D.C.Though American financiers, manufacturers, and merchants supported Hamilton’s vision of the nation as a powerful commercial republic, many had a different vision. His plans for close ties with Britain alarmed James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, who looked not to Europe but westward expansion as assuring a prosperous, republican future. They disliked urban growth and manufacturing and did not want economic policy that catered to bankers and business leaders. They hoped America would be a republic of independent farmers who sold their goods to the world through free trade. Jefferson and Madison feared that a powerful central government, if allied with a growing class of commercial capitalists, would endanger American freedom.Initial opposition to Hamilton’s program came from the South, which lacked investors and owners of government bonds, where support for manufacturing and a diversified economy was weak, and whose states had paid off much of their war debt. Hamilton argued that the Constitution’s clause giving Congress the power to enact laws for the “general welfare” authorized his plans, but opponents, known as “strict constructionists,” argued that the federal government could only use powers that were explicitly in the Constitution—which, they charged, did not authorize a national bank. A compromise secured Hamilton’s fiscal program, minus subsidies for factories, in exchange for locating the nation’s capital between Virginia and Maryland. This became Washington, D.C.
106Politics in an Age of Passion An Expanding Public SphereThe partisanship of the 1790s expanded the public sphere and the democratic content of American freedom. It increased the number of citizens who attended political events and read newspapers. Ordinary men never before active in politics wrote pamphlets and organized political meetings.The partisanship of the 1790s expanded the public sphere and the democratic content of American freedom. It increased the number of citizens who attended political events and read newspapers. Ordinary men never before active in politics wrote pamphlets and organized political meetings.These men included members of the Democratic-Republican societies, inspired by the Jacobin clubs of Paris. They openly supported the French Revolution and praised American and French liberty. Federalists viewed them as illegitimately usurping the representative authority of the government; Washington dismissed them as “self-created societies.” They justified their existence by claiming that the people had a right to debate political questions and organize to influence government policy. They believed political liberty involved more than just voting, and included popular organizing and pressure tactics, too. Although the societies soon disappeared, they were absorbed by the emerging Republican party, which also found support among radical British immigrants who defended the French Revolution, such as Thomas Paine.
107Politics in an Age of Passion The Rights of WomenWomen were still not part of the body politic. Although women were counted in determining representation in Congress and nothing in the Constitution explicitly limited rights to men, the document and almost all Americans assumed that politics was an exclusively male sphere.The democratic spirit of the 1790s also invigorated discussion of women’s rights. In England in 1792, Mary Wollstonecraft published A Vindication of the Rights of Women, in which she argued that rights should be extended to women. While not challenging traditional gender roles, she argued that women should have greater access to education and a role and representation in government. The expanding public sphere of the 1790s offered opportunities for American women to participate in politics, and a small but growing number of women published political and literary writings in American newspapers. One of these, Judith Sargent Murray, insisted that women should have equal access to education. If women seemed intellectually inferior to men, she argued, it was because they were denied an opportunity to learn.Women were still not part of the body politic. Although women were counted in determining representation in Congress and nothing in the Constitution explicitly limited rights to men, the document and almost all Americans assumed that politics was an exclusively male sphere.
108The Adams Presidency The Haitian Revolution Jeffersonians who celebrated the French Revolution as an advance for liberty were horrified by the slave revolt in 1791 in St. Domingue, France’s most treasured colonial possession, an island of sugar plantations . The slaves defeated British and French forces sent to suppress the rebellion, and they declared an independent nation in 1804.The revolt affirmed the universal appeal of freedom in this age of revolutions, and fostered hopes of freedom among America’s slaves.The Haitian Revolution demonstrated how slavery shaped and warped American freedom. Jeffersonians who celebrated the French Revolution as an advance for liberty were horrified by the slave revolt in 1791 in St.. Domingue, France’s most treasured colonial possession, an island of sugar plantations in the Caribbean. The slaves defeated British and French forces sent to suppress the rebellion, and they declared an independent nation in 1804.The revolt affirmed the universal appeal of freedom in this age of revolutions, and fostered hopes of freedom among America’s slaves. Whites were generally terrified by the specter of armed slave insurrection, and they interpreted the turmoil in Haiti as a sign that blacks could not govern themselves. Jefferson’s administration hoped to isolate and destroy the hemisphere’s second independent republic.1800 also saw a slave revolt in America, led by Gabriel Prosser, a Virginia slave. Plotting to kill whites on the way to Richmond, where they would hold government officials hostage and demand the abolition of slavery, the slave rebels were discovered, arrested, and many of them executed. They were inspired by the language and symbols of the American Revolution, invoked their right to liberty, and compared themselves to George Washington. In response, Virginia passed laws that tightened control over the state’s blacks, made it more difficult for owners to free their slaves, and forced freed slaves to leave the state or return to slavery.
109Jefferson in Power Judicial Review The Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall, a Federalist and Adams appointee, increased its power during Jefferson’s administration. In Marbury v. Madison (1803), the Marshall Court established the right of the Supreme Count to determine whether an act of Congress violates the Constitution—the power known as “judicial review.” The Marshall Court also soon established the right of the nation’s highest court to determine the constitutionality of state laws.At Jefferson’s inauguration in March 1801, he tried to conciliate his Federalist opponents by claiming that both parties shared the same principles, even if they disagreed in their opinions. Jefferson vowed to reduce government, free trade, ensure freedom of religion and the press, and avoid “entangling alliances” with other nations. He sought to dismantle much of the Federalist edifice and prevent the kind of centralized state Federalists promoted. He pardoned those jailed under the Sedition Act, reduced the army and navy and the number of government employees, abolished all taxes except for the tariff, and paid off part of the nation’s debt.Despite Jefferson’s wishes, the Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall, a Federalist and Adams appointee, increased its power during his administration. In Marbury v. Madison (1803), the Marshall Court established the right of the Supreme Count to determine whether an act of Congress violates the Constitution—the power known as “judicial review.” The Marshall Court also soon established the right of the nation’s highest court to determine the constitutionality of state laws.
110The Effects of the War on America The War of 1812Causes of the War of 1812The War BeginsThe Effects of the War on America
111The Presidency of James Madison Elected in 1808Virginian lawyer and student of historyWrote a large part of the U.S. ConstitutionStood barely 5’4” and 120 pounds but, an intellectual ahead of his time
112Causes for the War of 1812The British Navy is taking American sailors from American ships to sail on British ships. This is called impressment.British sailors leave British ships to sail on American ships because they are treated better and get paid very well
113Causes for the War of 1812The British army is supporting Native American resistance to Anglo expansion on their land.
114Causes for the War of 1812The United States has a desire to expand into more territory like British CanadaThe real cause for this land grab is because of a poor transportation system and effects from the Embargo ActAmericans believe that seizing more land will end the depression
115Causes for the War of 1812The United States wants to prove to Britain that the victory of the American Revolution was not luck.Americans demand respect from the world.
116Tecumseh and Indian Nationalism Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief attempts to unify Indian tribes that have been removed from the Ohio River ValleyHis brother, the Prophet preached that Indians should reject White ways and embrace their heritageThe brothers have a large following but their hopes are destroyed at the battle of fallen Timbers
117American Shortcomings in The War of 1812 The military is poorly trained and ledThe U.S. navy is no match for the British navyAmerican forces attempt to seize Canada but are poorly led and militia forcesAmericans are forced to fight a defensive war against an invading professional army
118The Battle of ThamesOctober 5, 1813, British and Indian forces are defeated by American forces in CanadaTecumseh’s death ends Indian resistance in the Ohio River Valley
120The British Burn the Capital August 1814, the British Army invades the United States and marches on Washington D.C.After a brief fight the city surrenders and nearly all government buildings are razed by fireMadison rallies the American public after this defeat
121“The Star Spangled Banner” Francis Scott Key, a prisoner on a British barge witnessed the British bombardment of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore for 12 hoursIn the morning he observed that the American flag still flew over the fort and writes a poem called “The Defence of Ft McHenry” it eventually becomes a song “The Star Spangled Banner”Americans rally to the war effort after the capital is burnt down
124Things that make you go hmmm The Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814 ends the War of The war is considered Staus quo ante bellumThe Hartford Convention, several New England states fear that the war is lost and actually talk about becoming another country
125The Battle of New Orleans The American forces are a multicultural motely band of experienced soldiers and warriorsThe British, a trained army are virtually mauled by American forces hiding behind earthworks and cannons
126The Battle of New Orleans American forces at New Orleans are led by General Andrew Jackson whose army inflicts great casualties on the British armyAndrew Jackson will be associated with winning the war. People assume that this victory is responsible for ending the war.
129The Impact of the War of 1812A sense of nationalism sweeps America. Nationalism is a belief and sense of pride in one’s country based on it’s achievements.The nation will embark on foreign trade and begin to build a transportation system in the United States.Native American resistance will be removed from the Ohio River Valley permanently opening the Midwest for expansion.