Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 The Revolution Within A New America The American Revolution took three forms: a struggle for national independence, a phase in a long-term."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6 The Revolution Within
A New America The American Revolution took three forms: a struggle for national independence, a phase in a long-term worldwide contest among European empires, and a conflict over what kind of nation the new America would become.
Democratizing Freedom The Dream of Equality – America had the potential to become very democratic. wide property distribution the absence of a legally established hereditary aristocracy weak established churches
Questioning Liberty The idea of liberty caused people to questions both British and domestic American institutions. So did the notion of equality now enshrined in the Declaration of Independence. This caused many in the social order deemed inferior—women, slaves and free blacks, servants and apprentices—to question the authority of their superiors.
Democratizing Freedom Expanding the Political Nation – For free white men the revolution had very democratic effects Lessened limitation of political participation to property owners. – “democracy” - came to mean a form of government that served the interests of all people not the Elite
Equality In the colonies that became states, members of all classes debated universal male suffrage, religious toleration, and even the abolition of slavery. Demands by disenfranchised militiamen for the right to elect their officers and vote in political elections established a precedent for enfranchising veterans.
New State Constitutions Every state adopted a new constitution during or after the Revolution. Almost all Americans agreed that their state government should be republican—meaning that authority should rest on the consent of the governed But Americans disagreed about the form republican governments should take to best promote the public good.
New State Constitutions Many, like John Adams, argued that the new constitutions should establish governments that reflect the division of the society between the wealthy, to be represented in the legislature’s upper house, and the ordinary, the lower house. A powerful governor and judiciary would act as a check on the power of one class to infringe on the rights of the other class.
New State Constitutions Every state except Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Georgia established two-house legislatures, but only Massachusetts gave its governor the power to veto laws passed by the legislature. Americans preferred a strong legislative branch.
Democratizing Freedom The Revolution in Pennsylvania – The Revolution’s radicalism was most evident in Pennsylvania, where almost all the colonial elite opposed independence – Their opposition opened space for pro- independence forces, mainly lower class to organize into militias led by men of modest means. Example: Thomas Paine and Benjamin Rush – These men criticized property qualifications for voting and office-holding.
Democratizing Freedom The Right to Vote – Far more controversial were limits on voting and office-holding. – While conservatives tried to restrict these rights to property owners, arguing that men without property were too dependent on others to have their own judgment, radicals such as Thomas Paine wanted to eliminate traditional social ranks.
Democratizing Freedom Democratizing Government – The new state constitutions reflected the balance of power between conservatives and radicals. – Southern states such as Virginia and South Carolina were least democratic – land holding elites control politics – must own property for voting – the legislature elected the governor.
Democratizing Freedom Con’t Democratizing Government – The more democratic constitutions moved toward making voting an entitlement, rather than a privilege, but they did not establish universal male suffrage. Only Vermont did not require voters to own property or pay taxes
Democratizing Freedom Con’t Ultimately the Revolution greatly expanded voting rights. By the 1780s, except in Virginia, Maryland, and New York, a large majority of adult white men met voting requirements. New Jersey (alone) in its constitution allowed all inhabitants with property to vote. This allowed women to vote in that state until the vote was restricted to men there in 1808.
Toward Religious Toleration The Revolution also expanded religious freedoms. Catholic Americans – The deep anti-Catholicism of colonial America was weakened by the Revolution. – Once the Congress formed an alliance with the Catholic nation of France in 1778, and after France proved essential to American victory, Catholics were seen as having a role in the new nation.
Toward Religious Toleration The Founders and Religion – Revolutionary leaders like Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton wanted to avoid the religious- driven political conflict that had engulfed Europe for centuries. – Remember that they were also skeptics and rationalists steeped in Enlightenment philosophy
Toward Religious Toleration Separating Church and State – The push to separate church and state united Deists like Thomas Jefferson and evangelical Protestants who sought to protect religion from the corruptions of government. Throughout the new United States, states deprived the established churches of their public funding and special legal privileges, and several state constitutions guaranteed the “free exercise of religion.”
Toward Religious Toleration Jefferson and Religious Liberty – In 1779, he wrote a “Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom” for the Virginia legislature. It was adopted in 1786, only after much controversy.
“Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly, That no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in nowise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities.” – Thomas Jefferson
Toward Religious Toleration The Revolution and the Churches – While the Revolution expanded religious freedom, its emphasis on individual rights also challenged religious institutions and authority. How? – Yet, by allowing for the growth of different denominations, the separation of church and state actually expanded religion’s influence in American society.
A Virtuous Citizenry Though they separated church and state, the revolution’s leaders were not anti-religious. – Even Deists who opposed organized churches thought that religious values were the foundation of a republic’s morality. Revolutionary leaders worried about the character of citizens, especially their virtue— their ability to sacrifice self-interest for the public good
Defining Economic Freedom Toward Free Labor – As wage labor became more common, and as republican citizenship seemed not to go with the restraints of apprenticeship and indentured servitude, more white men insisted on economic freedom. – a distinction had hardened between freedom and slavery AND a northern economy based on “free labor” and Southern Slavery based economy.
Defining Economic Freedom The Soul of a Republic – Men such as Thomas Jefferson saw land ownership for all white men as the key to ensuring a republican future for the nation. Many Americans thought the abundance of land, much of it occupied by Indians, would ensure republican liberty and social equality.
The Limits of Liberty The Indians’ Revolution – Indians particularly faced the Revolution as a loss of freedom. After the American Revolution, Americans continued to move westward and claim Indian lands east of the Mississippi.
Indian Land and White Freedom White Freedom, Indian Freedom – Independence created state governments that were democratically accountable to voters who wanted Indian lands. – Many, including Thomas Jefferson, saw the war as an opportunity to secure more land and “liberty” for white Americans by expelling or conquering the Indians.
Slavery and the Revolution The Language of Slavery and Freedom – The war presented an opportunity for freedom. In 1776 about 500,000 people were slaves. – Slavery was central to the language of the revolution. Other than “liberty,” it was the word most often used in this era’s legal and political writings. – Even slave owners fighting the British expressed that they were “enslaved” by their enemies.
Slavery and the Revolution Obstacles to Abolition – Slavery was entrenched in every American State – While writing the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson owned more than 100 slaves. – The rights of self-government and the protection of property from government control, some argued, prevented the government from interfering with their human property. – Government intervention with their slave property, these whites complained, would make slaves of them.
Slavery and the Revolution The Cause of General Liberty – Only with the Revolution, however, did slavery emerge as a subject of public debate and controversy. Petitions for Freedom – African-Americans were the most persistent advocates of freedom as a universal entitlement, – In the early 1770s, enslaved blacks in New England presented petitions to courts and legislatures asking to end the tyranny which Americans exercised over their slaves.
Slavery and the Revolution British Emancipators – 100,000 Escape to fight for British – Of those 20, 000 face being returned to their owners like George Washington, who insisted that they be returned Voluntary Emancipations – In the 1780s, a significant number of slaveholders, especially in Virginia and Maryland, emancipated their slaves. This happened only very rarely in the other southern states.
Slavery and the Revolution Abolition in the North – Between 1777, when Vermont’s new constitution prohibited slavery, and 1804, when New Jersey banned slavery, every state north of Maryland moved towards emancipation. – This was the first time in history that legislatures had acted to end slavery. However, most northern laws allowed for gradual emancipation. Children were Freed.
Slavery and the Revolution Free Black Communities – Emancipation in the North, however gradual, came to distinguish free from slave states, and northern abolition, voluntary emancipation in the south, and slave escapees created large free black communities for the first time in American history.
Daughters of Liberty Revolutionary Women – At least one woman disguised herself as a man, enlisted in the Continental army, and fought in several battles. – Protested – Raised Funds – They became more political Gender and Politics – Nevertheless, gender remained an important boundary of freedom in America.
Daughters of Liberty Republican Motherhood – Yet the Revolution did improve the status of many women. The ideology of “republican motherhood” produced by the revolution gave women the responsibility to train future citizens – Revolutionary leaders believed that the nation’s morality would be developed by women within the household The Arduous Struggle for Liberty
George Washington Gives up his command in Surrenders power as Commander. Washington’s greatest legacy may be civilian control of the military. He took direction from Congress, even when he believed they were wrong. Frustrated by the inadequate support of Congress, he nevertheless never broke away from them.
Washington’s Resignation When he assumed power during the war Washington had said, “I shall constantly bear in mind that as the sword was the last resort for the preservation of our liberties, so it ought to be the first to be laid aside when those liberties are firmly established” Now he followed through with that promise by immediately relinquishing power.
Character of the American Revolution A Conservative Revolution? The American Revolution is often characterized as an intellectual event The leaders of the American Revolution were uniquely sober men, not revolutionaries in the classic sense. The American Revolution did not lead to chaos, a “reign of terror,” or the imposition of a dictator The American Revolutionaries did not devour their own. They also did not redistribute property and, arguably, never abandoned the rule of law
But was it Conservative in Its Effects? Many historians argue, however, that a profound social revolution was both cause and consequence of the American Revolution.
Consequences of the Revolution The Revolution branded slavery as at least a suspect institution. If “all men were created equal,” then how was slavery justified? It is estimated that 100,000 blacks escaped during the American Revolution. More slaves escaped during the American Revolution than in any other time before the Civil War. – Want to Canada – Went to Great Britain – Lived on Indian Lands
Creation of American Identity and Nationhood The American Revolution brought many Americans together for the first time. It began the process of creating a nation from states. Many Americans fought in the Revolution as it came through their state. Congressmen supported the war effort when it came through their state.
The American Revolution and American Exceptionalism Many Americans define the significance of the United States in terms of the Revolution that created it. Our sense of national purpose, our sense of nationhood, and our belief that we are an exceptional nation (one blessed by God with exceptional liberty and that our values and form of government are superior to others) come out of the American Revolution.
Discussion of American Exceptionalism Thomas Paine – “the cause of America is in a great measure the cause of all mankind.” Paine explaining British defeat: You “cannot conquer an idea with an army.” The American Revolution was an intensely religious war at least in the sense that many Americans came to think that God had made them different for a reason and had great plans for them.
The American Revolution as the Beginning to the End of Colonialism Finally, the American Revolution is the first battle in what would become the most sustained source of conflict in the 19 th and 20 th centuries: battles by colonial dependencies to gain independence.
New Land For a New Nation
What is the Northwest Territory? Northwest Territory- a designated area of land that includes the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, and parts of Minnesota.
The Revolutionary War and Land Great Britain has ceded (or given up) all lands extending to the Mississippi River. The new government (Articles of Confederation) need to figure out what to do. The states began making claims in the newly won territory extending to the Mississippi River.
A Solution Thomas Jefferson wants to see the land become new, separate states (where slavery will not exist after 1800). Congress meets and passes the Land Ordinance of a law that established the Northwest Territory and formed a political system for the region; land would be sold at public auction.
What Was Solved? Since Congress could NOT tax the citizens, selling land at a public auction would help to benefit the new U.S. government and solve the greatest problem… Debt
The United States government was unable to pay most veterans of the American Revolution. The value of Continental bank notes had dropped substantially. To repay the veterans, Congress offered them land in the Northwest Territory. Land For Service
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Northwest Ordinance of a law that established the Northwest Territory and formed a political system for the region. – When the territory reaches 5,000 free, adult males they can elect a state legislature. – When the territory reaches 60,000 they can draft a state constitution and apply to Congress to become a state.
How it was Divided The Northwest Territory lands were to be surveyed and divided up into Townships - the largest division of land that was typically 36 square miles and divided into 36 one- square mile sections. Each 1-mile section was 640 acres. To put it in perspective …
Because of the vast amount of land available, the Confederation Congress prepared the surveyed townships for public auctions. 31 of the 36 sections in each township would be made available to the general public in a land auction. Land was available for $1 per acre! All money raised from the initial auctions to the public would be given to Congress to help the new U.S. government get its footing. Land Grabbing
The Catch… In this situation, the public auctions were ONLY available to citizens who could purchase an entire section of 640 acres initially. Therefore, all bidding BEGAN at $640 ($1 per acre). Land speculators who made a bid and won a section could sell individual, smaller portions of it AFTER the initial auction and make a profit.
Off Limits Land Veterans of the war were reserved four sections in each township for payment. Section 16 of the township was reserved for a school. Why do you think schools would be important in this new territory?
So what is the main purpose the Ordinance? Provided the basis for temporary governance as a territory and eventual entry into the United States as states. It set some precedents that influenced how the United States would be governed in later years. New states were to be admitted “into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original States.” …meaning there would be no colonization of the lands as there had been under Great Britain. “Schools and the means of education” were to be encouraged.
Was the Northwest Territory empty? Who lived there?
Revolution and Land While Americans considered this area empty, it was inhabited by 100,000 Indians. Congress and the West – When Congress declared independence from Britain, it argued that Indians had forfeited their rights to the land when they sided with the British Settlers and the West – The war’s end caused a huge number of Americans to migrate westward. They believed their right to take western lands was essential to American freedom.
Challenges to the New Government
George Washington’s Presidency April 30, 1789 Washington (Virginia) is inaugurated (sworn in) as President. John Adams (Mass.) becomes the Vice-President.
George Washington’s Presidency Washington establishes many governmental precedents. PRECEDENT: an example that would become a standard practice.
I.Establishment of the Court System Federal Judiciary Act of 1789: passed by Congress. 1.Created an independent federal court system with the Supreme Court and lower level courts.
2.The U.S. Supreme Court is to have a Chief Justice and five associate justices. 3.Washington appoints John Jay as Chief Justice.
II.Establishment of the Presidential Cabinet A.The Constitution allows Congress to create departments to help the President – the Cabinet. B.The first Presidential Cabinet had four departments:
The First Presidential Cabinet 1.Secretary of War ( Henry Knox ) oversee the nation’s defenses.
2.Secretary of State ( Thomas Jefferson ) oversee the relations between the U.S. and other countries. The First Presidential Cabinet
3.Secretary of the Treasury ( Alexander Hamilton ) to manage the government’s money. The First Presidential Cabinet
4.Attorney General ( Edmond Randolph ) to advise the government on legal matters. The First Presidential Cabinet
Whiskey Rebellion To help pay off the war debt, Washington started to tax whiskey – What does this remind you of? Whiskey is an alcoholic beverage or Spirit as it was often called The farmers who grew the grain to make the whiskey were angry.
Why whiskey? Farmers had a hard time getting their grain to market, so they turned their grain into whiskey, which was easier to transport. They got more money for the whiskey anyway. Farmers traded the whiskey for salt, sugar, and other goods. Farmers used whiskey as money to get whatever supplies they needed. Farmers did not have the money to pay for the tax.
The Rebellion In the summer of 1794, a group of farmers in Western Pennsylvania rebelled against the whiskey tax and staged the Whiskey Rebellion. One group beat up a tax collector and coated him with tar and feathers. – Remind you of anything?
Why do you think tax collectors were tarred and feathered?
The Government Responds Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, wanted the government to look strong. He encouraged President Washington to stop the revolt. Federal troops, led by Washington, marched to Western Pennsylvania and put down the revolt. Washington had proved that the government would deal with people not obeying the law.
Why do you think Washington chose to lead the troops himself?
The Growth of the Two- Party System Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans
Political Parties Despite Washington’s wishes and warnings, political parties began to form. The first two political parties were the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. (Anti-Federalist). The Federalists wanted a strong national government. The Democratic-Republicans thought a strong national government would lead to tyranny.
Hamilton versus Jefferson Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists. Thomas Jefferson led the Democratic- Republicans. Northern merchants and manufacturers became Federalists. Southern farmers and workers became Democratic-Republicans
Divisions Develop Immediately Strong centralized Government Government as the engine of the economy Federal power over state power Limited power in the central government American people as the engine of the economy State power over federal power
Alexander Hamilton Background – Served as Washington’s aid during the war – Favored national sovereignty and a strong, active national government
Hamilton and Financial Plans Report on Public Credit – The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States of America advocated for First Bank of the United States Report on Manufactures – A Report to congress on how to stimulate the economy. Excise Taxes – Place an excise tax, meaning a tax on a specific product, on distilled spirits (alcohol) Whiskey Rebellion
Opposition to Hamilton’s Plan Report on Public Credit – Who would benefit? Who would lose? First Bank of the United States – Was this a constitutional action? Report on Manufactures – What is the vision for the United States? Excise Taxes – Are you replacing an old tyranny with a new one?
Federalists Federalists Wealthy, commercial interests Cities, New England Anglophiles Democratic Republicans Democratic Republicans Poor to middle-class, agriculture Farmlands, South Francophiles
Washington’s Farewell Address Before he retired, Washington gave a farewell address (speech). In it he: – Warned against political parties - he thought they caused arguments, go tin the way. – Urged the nation to remain neutral and not become involved in foreign alliances/wars. – Warned against a powerful military. – Urged Americans to maintain and value a sense of national unity.
1796 Election Results AdamsJefferson
John Adams Becomes 2 nd President After Washington retired, his Vice-President, John Adams became the second president. Thomas Jefferson came in second. He became Vice- President.
XYZ Affair The U.S. was having problems with France. They were seizing American ships so they couldn’t trade with England. Adams sent men to France to work out the problems. – lbridge Gerry, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, and John Marshall They met with French negotiators, who later became known as X,Y,Z after Adams changed their names when releasing the negotiations to the public.
X,YZ, demanded that talks would occur only if the Americans agreed to loan France $10 million and to pay the minister a bribe of $250,000. Meanwhile, Americans refused and began to fight back. U.S. Navy began to fight the French in the Caribbean The French ultimately realized their mistakes and called for peace with America. The incident became known as the XYZ Affair.
Alien and Sedition Acts President Adams was criticized for the XYZ affair by Democratic-Republican newspapers. He blamed the papers and new immigrants for his problems. To silence his critics, the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed. These acts targeted aliens —immigrants who were not yet citizens.
One act increased the waiting period for becoming a U.S. citizen from 5 to 14 years. Other acts gave the president the power to arrest disloyal aliens or order them out of the country during wartime. A fourth act outlawed sedition. Saying or writing anything false or harmful about the government became illegal. Newspaper editors were arrested. Many people thought the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the First Amendment.
Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency
President Thomas Jefferson March 4, 1801 – Thomas Jefferson is the first President inaugurated in the new capital city of Washington D.C. – He delivers his first inaugural address. This address outlines what he feels are the essential principles of government.
First Inaugural Address Essential Principles of Government – “equal and exact justice to all men” – “peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations” – “the support of state governments” – “the preservation of general government” – punishment for those who choose to revolt – compliance with the decisions of the majority
First Inaugural Address Essential Principles of Government Cont… – “a well disciplined militia” – honest payment of debts – maintaining a sound economy – proper distribution of information – freedom of religion – freedom of the press
Louisiana Purchase April 30, 1803 – Robert Livingston & James Monroe signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in Paris – The United States paid $15 million for the land, roughly 4 cents per acre – The purchase added 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi to the United States – July 4 the Louisiana Purchase is publicly announced
Maps of the Louisiana Purchase
Lewis and Clark Expedition January 18, 1803 – Jefferson asks Congress for funds to explore the land west of the Mississippi – His goal is to find a water route to the Pacific May 1804 – Meriwether Lewis and William Clark depart on the expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition January 18, 1803 – Jefferson sends a secret message to congress regarding the Lewis and Clark Expedition – In this message Jefferson asks for permission to establish trading with the Indians
Second Inaugural Address Delivered on March 4, 1805 Stresses the importance of American neutrality in matters of foreign affairs Outlines the Louisiana Purchase and the processes by which the original inhabitants of the land will become citizens of the United States Stresses the importance of harmony amongst all inhabitants of America
Embargo Act of Renewal of the Napoleonic Wars between France and Great Britain America was once again trapped between the two nations Jefferson wanting to stay neutral proposed an embargo on all foreign trade This was highly unsuccessful and devastated the American Economy The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 was put in place to repeal the unsuccessful Embargo Act
Chapter 8 Securing the Republic, 1790–1815
Politics in an Age of Passion Hamilton’s Program – To establish the government’s creditworthiness, Hamilton proposed that it pay off at full face value all national and state debts from the Revolution. He wanted to create a new national debt, issued as interest- bearing bonds to government creditors, that would tie wealthy investors to the national government.
Politics in an Age of Passion The Jefferson-Hamilton Bargain – A compromise secured Hamilton’s fiscal program, minus subsidies for factories, in exchange for locating the nation’s capital between Virginia and Maryland. This became Washington, D.C.
Politics in an Age of Passion An Expanding Public Sphere – The partisanship of the 1790s expanded the public sphere and the democratic content of American freedom. It increased the number of citizens who attended political events and read newspapers. Ordinary men never before active in politics wrote pamphlets and organized political meetings.
Politics in an Age of Passion The Rights of Women – Women were still not part of the body politic. Although women were counted in determining representation in Congress and nothing in the Constitution explicitly limited rights to men, the document and almost all Americans assumed that politics was an exclusively male sphere.
The Adams Presidency The Haitian Revolution – Jeffersonians who celebrated the French Revolution as an advance for liberty were horrified by the slave revolt in 1791 in St. Domingue, France’s most treasured colonial possession, an island of sugar plantations. The slaves defeated British and French forces sent to suppress the rebellion, and they declared an independent nation in – The revolt affirmed the universal appeal of freedom in this age of revolutions, and fostered hopes of freedom among America’s slaves.
Jefferson in Power Judicial Review – The Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall, a Federalist and Adams appointee, increased its power during Jefferson’s administration. In Marbury v. Madison (1803), the Marshall Court established the right of the Supreme Count to determine whether an act of Congress violates the Constitution—the power known as “judicial review.” The Marshall Court also soon established the right of the nation’s highest court to determine the constitutionality of state laws.
The War of 1812 Causes of the War of 1812 The War Begins The Effects of the War on America
The Presidency of James Madison Elected in 1808 Virginian lawyer and student of history Wrote a large part of the U.S. Constitution Stood barely 5’4” and 120 pounds but, an intellectual ahead of his time
Causes for the War of 1812 The British Navy is taking American sailors from American ships to sail on British ships. This is called impressment. British sailors leave British ships to sail on American ships because they are treated better and get paid very well
Causes for the War of 1812 The British army is supporting Native American resistance to Anglo expansion on their land.
Causes for the War of 1812 The United States has a desire to expand into more territory like British Canada The real cause for this land grab is because of a poor transportation system and effects from the Embargo Act Americans believe that seizing more land will end the depression
Causes for the War of 1812 The United States wants to prove to Britain that the victory of the American Revolution was not luck. Americans demand respect from the world.
Tecumseh and Indian Nationalism Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief attempts to unify Indian tribes that have been removed from the Ohio River Valley His brother, the Prophet preached that Indians should reject White ways and embrace their heritage The brothers have a large following but their hopes are destroyed at the battle of fallen Timbers
American Shortcomings in The War of 1812 The military is poorly trained and led The U.S. navy is no match for the British navy American forces attempt to seize Canada but are poorly led and militia forces Americans are forced to fight a defensive war against an invading professional army
The Battle of Thames October 5, 1813, British and Indian forces are defeated by American forces in Canada Tecumseh’s death ends Indian resistance in the Ohio River Valley
The Death of Tecumseh
The British Burn the Capital August 1814, the British Army invades the United States and marches on Washington D.C. After a brief fight the city surrenders and nearly all government buildings are razed by fire Madison rallies the American public after this defeat
“The Star Spangled Banner” Francis Scott Key, a prisoner on a British barge witnessed the British bombardment of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore for 12 hours In the morning he observed that the American flag still flew over the fort and writes a poem called “The Defence of Ft McHenry” it eventually becomes a song “The Star Spangled Banner” Americans rally to the war effort after the capital is burnt down
“The Star Spangled Banner”
Things that make you go hmmm The Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814 ends the War of The war is considered Staus quo ante bellum The Hartford Convention, several New England states fear that the war is lost and actually talk about becoming another country
The Battle of New Orleans The American forces are a multicultural motely band of experienced soldiers and warriors The British, a trained army are virtually mauled by American forces hiding behind earthworks and cannons
The Battle of New Orleans American forces at New Orleans are led by General Andrew Jackson whose army inflicts great casualties on the British army Andrew Jackson will be associated with winning the war. People assume that this victory is responsible for ending the war.
A map of the Battle of New Orleans
The Battle of New Orleans
The Impact of the War of A sense of nationalism sweeps America. Nationalism is a belief and sense of pride in one’s country based on it’s achievements. 2.The nation will embark on foreign trade and begin to build a transportation system in the United States. 3.Native American resistance will be removed from the Ohio River Valley permanently opening the Midwest for expansion.