Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11 The Crisis of the Later Middle Ages. MUST KNOWS!!! 800 – Charlemagne is Crowned at Aix-La-Chapelle Pope Leo III crowns Charles “Emperor of."— Presentation transcript:
MUST KNOWS!!! 800 – Charlemagne is Crowned at Aix-La-Chapelle Pope Leo III crowns Charles “Emperor of the Romans” uniting present day Germany, France and Italy 1054 – The Great Schism Split between the eastern and western halves of Christianity 1066 – Norman Conquest of England LAST successful invasion of England by continental army, dramatically changes English culture, language, politics, and diplomacy 1096-1099 – The First Crusade Europe’s arguably first collective effort since the collapse of Roman Empire 1215 – King John signs the Magna Carta Beginning of “consultative government” – First time a monarch agrees to share power with his nobles, establishing meetings that would become Parliament VS
EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES HISTORICAL CONTEXT IN 8 CONCISE THEMES Political/Diplomatic Monarchy is the only form of government present on the continent. In nearly all cases highly influenced or directly controlled by the Church Europe is highly divided. Few large organized kingdoms, patchwork of smaller monarchical entities, usually blood relations ensured allegiance Intellectual/Cultural Higher learning is controlled by Church. Latin is the language of the learned few. All philosophy takes place within the confines of ecclesiastic thought. The masses speak vernacular languages, the vast majority of population is illiterate. Culture is transmitted through word of mouth
Social/Economic Society centers itself around agricultural production. Majority of population involved in growing of food. Feudalism comes to define the social and economic order where peasants are the base of the social pyramid Artistic/Religious Art only seeks to exalt the holy. Controlled also by the Church Most of European Continent follows the Roman Catholic Faith as administered and controlled by the Popes in Rome, Italy. MIDDLE AGES HISTORICAL CONTEXT
THE GREAT FAMINE From the Apocalypse in a Biblia Pauperum illuminated at Erfurt around the time of the Great Famine of 1315– 1317.ErfurtGreat Famine of 1315– 1317 Death "(Mors") sits astride a lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame (Hell). Famine ("Fames") points to her hungry mouth
THE GREAT FAMINE Harvest failures over the course of the early 14 th Century Happened mostly in Northern Europe, Northern France, England, the Low Countries especially in area called Flanders (think BeNeLux), Germany, Scandinavia. Caused due to “Little Ice Age” that sent temperatures plummeting across Europe Ineffectual governments provided little relief to the plight of the peasants
GENESIS 41:29-32 29 Behold, there come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt: 30 And there shall arise after them seven years of famine; and all the plenty shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the famine shall consume the land; 31 And the plenty shall not be known in the land by reason of that famine following; for it shall be very grievous. 32 And for that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice; it is because the thing is established by God, and God will shortly bring it to pass.
FRENCH RULERS Phillip IV (the fair) Phillip V (the tall) Charles IV (also the fair) Louis X (the stubborn)
ENGLISH RULERS King Edward II Kills King Tries to work with Double crossed by Queen Isabella of France
The Decameron is considered his masterpiece of Italian vernacular literature Collection of short stories of 10 Florentines over ten days Decameron is Greek for “ten days” GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO
QUESTIONS TO ANSWER BASED ON READING (TO BE TURNED IN) Find the passage where Boccaccio describes the symptoms of Bubonic Plague 1. What is the first sign of infection? 2. How does the disease progress? 3. Where were the symptoms most visible? Later on in the passage, Boccaccio describes the changes to customs surrounding death 1. Describe in detail what were the common practices surrounding death in 14 th Century Europe? How did the appearance of pestilence change this practice? What were the changes? How did these changes in burial customs differ along class lines?
CONSEQUENCES OF BLACK DEATH Social Death haunts the peasants at every turn, leads to a more austere way of life Economic Lack of workers drives up wages, food prices plummet Cultural Europeans see black death as “divine retribution” Religious Church’s best and brightest are killed by plague leads to incompetent survivors guiding Europe’s strongest institution
THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR ENGLANDFRANCE French Capetian Dynasty died off without male Heir after Charles IV Phillip the VI (the fortunate) is crowned the first King of France of the Valois Dynasty Phillip is crowned in accordance with Salic Law “no woman or her son could succeed to the [French] monarchy” English kings owed their nominal allegiance to the King of France since William, the Duke of Normandy conquered England in 1066 (i.e. the Norman conquest) Edward III as Duke of Normandy also held other French territory of Aquitaine Edward refuses to pledge allegiance to new French king, declares himself rightful King of France as closes living relative
THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR EARLY TIMELINE 1329: Edward III originally pays homage to Philip VI to retain claim on Aquitaine 1337: Provocations from newly crowned Philip: confiscates English possessions in Aquitania setting off war Over time becomes French civil war where vassals became wary of centralizing French power
THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR ECONOMIC FACTORS IN FLANDERS Triangular trade develops between the English, Flemish, and French English and Flemish economies become interdependent on commodity of wool Flemish nobles supported French crown while merchant class supported the English claimants to the French Throne
THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR EARLY ENGLISH VICTORIES YIELD TO ULTIMATE FRENCH WIN 1346 – Crecy - Decisive victory for the English due to the longbow and first use of cannon artillery in Western Europe 1415 – Agincourt – English continue to rout French forces 1419 – English have advanced to the walls of Paris
THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR JEAN D’ARC – JOAN OF ARC Born in 1412 Hears voices Was instrumental in quashing rumors on legitimacy of the Dauphin 1429 - Lifted the siege of Orleans Popular myth surrounding Joan the Maid
CONSEQUENCES OF THE 100 YEARS’ WAR Compounded the after effects of Pestilence and famine Deaths of soldiers and civilians greatly affects population growth Expense England and France both must raise taxes to pay for war debt England spends over £5 million which today would be worth over £2,733,650,000.00 according to the British National Archives Broken Promises Promises of wealth go unkept and spoils of war squandered by returning soldiers
CONSEQUENCES OF THE 100 YEARS’ WAR Development of representative assemblies Since the war proved so disastrous for English Monarchy, English nobles push for more involvement in government 1341 – King Edward III acquiesces to nobles: the King of England can no longer tax without the approval of parliament France – does not develop a national assembly, instead has regional assemblies French monarchy even weaker in the face of nobles than English monarch France despite having 1 king was regionally very different and lack cultural and linguistic unity
CHURCH TERMS AND VOCABULARY Bull, or Papal Bull – an official statement or promulgation made by the Pope. Bull comes from the Latin word for “seal” as in these letters were stamped with the popes personal seal. Excommunication – The Church declares a person no longer in communion with the church, limits person’s spiritual rights. Similar to banishment. Form of shaming. Heretic – A person whose beliefs are strongly in disagreement with established Church belief and custom. Usually also meant implications of collusion with Satan.
CHURCH HIERARCHY Papal Tiara Last Papal Coronation 1963 College of Cardinals
THE BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY (1309-1376) Philip IV (the fair) pressures (bullies) Pope Clement V to move the seat of the Catholic Church to Avignon in southern France YOU!!! GO HERE!
BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY(1309-1376) Named after biblical event Jews are evicted from holy land and taken to Babylon French seek to control Papacy Church is disconnected from spiritual and historical home: ROME Rome is left destitute (poor) 1377 – Pope Gregory XI returns seat of Papacy and Church to Rome Romans now demand an Italian pope and that he stay in Rome 1378 – Pope Urban VI (an Italian) is elected by cardinals with intent to reform church Becomes almost immediately unpopular due to his stinging critiques and provokations
THE WESTERN SCHISM (1378-1418) Pope Urban VI’s dramatic calls for change cause the college of cardinals to elect another pope in secrecy Leads to overlapping claims of legitimacy and “antipopes”
CONSEQUENCES OF SCHISM Faith and trust in the Catholic Church reaches all time low Church leadership looses credibility with kings, nobles, and masses Opens the door to changing government of the churh Monarchs now have a choice of which of the many popes to support, usually aligning themselves against their traditional enemies France recognizes French antipope Clement in Avignon along with Castile, Aragon, and Portugal England recognizes Italian pope Urban in Rome along with Holy Roman Emperor DIVIDED EUROPE (SURPRISE SURPRISE)
THE CONCILIAR MOVEMENT Temporal and Spiritual Power questioned Defensor Pacis (The defender of the peace) - Marsiglio of Padua John Wycliffe – English scholar and theologian Followers called “lollards” Jan Hus in Bohemia ( modern day Czech Republic ) follows in the tradition of Wycliffe Calls for a simplified church structure Supremacy rests on scripture not on man 1414-1418 Council of Constance Called for by HRE Sigismund Ended Western Schism by electing Pope Martin V Jan Hus burned at the stake on accusations of heresy
SOCIETY IN THE 14 TH CENTURY Marriage A vehicle for socio/economic advancement Church forced condition of consent However most marriages were arranged Girls were married as early as 12 years old Men married in their 20s Prostitution is legalized is many regions “a socially definable group of women who earn their living primarily or exclusively from the sexual commerce of their bodies” Craft Guilds Skilled workers in urban areas band together Able to control access to lucrative jobs with high entrance fees Standardized training yields superior products Enforced monopoly on its product
SOCIETY IN THE 14 TH CENTURY “Fur Collar” Crime Nobles resort to crime to raise money after wars Peasant Revolts Erupt in Flanders in 1320s Lasted over 5 years Mostly over taxation 1358 Jacquerie in France Massive French peasant uprising 1381 Revolt in England Combination of taxes, plague and war weariness Revolts are crushed, underlying causes are not resolved Race and Ethnicity War and plague cause migration Slavs and Germanic and Latins live side by side Notions of racial purity Beginnings of racial minorities Vernacular Literature Dante’s Divine Comedy Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales