Presentation on theme: "Music History and Composer Study Spring 2015 Lake Nona MS Ms. Hobbs."— Presentation transcript:
Music History and Composer Study Spring 2015 Lake Nona MS Ms. Hobbs
Introduction Music has been a part of culture for thousands of years. It has evolved over time to have a variety of sounds and uses. People who study music have divided history into SIX general time periods of music. Each time period has certain characteristics and composers that help define their era.
The six time periods are (in chronological order): Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and 20 th Century (Modern)
Medieval (500-1400) Most medieval music was vocal. Any instrumental music was usually folk-like and social The church was an important place for musicians
Medieval (500- 1400) Gregorian Chant Originally created and sung in monasteries by monks. Chants were religious, often psalms or scripture. Named after Pope Gregory the Great.
Rebirth and Re-discovery Art and music become more important in society Renaissance fairs are held today, and are a spectacle of art, music, and theatre. Time of Christopher Columbus, Leonardo da Vinci, and Shakespeare
Giovanni da Palestrina (1525- 1594) Italian composer of sacred music He greatly influenced the music of the Catholic Church. (He wrote over 100 masses!) One of the first well-known composers of polyphonic music (music with harmonies)
Missa Papae Marcelli Pope Marcellus Mass Pope Marcellus Mass by Pro Cantione Antiqua Pope Marcellus Mass by Pro Cantione Antiqua Composed in honor of Pope Marcellus II Written for six a capella voices – SATTBB (Soprano and Alto parts were not sung by women!) Like all masses, consists of multiple movements (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei)
Baroque Characteristics The Baroque period was a time of extravagance in all forms. Art, music, and architecture reflect a new sense of drama and excess. Instrumental music becomes more important. Music in general continues to be more expressive, less tied to religion.
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Born in Germany to a musical family Played many instruments, but was considered a virtuoso on the organ Church musician throughout his life. Composed an enormous amount of music for the church. Had 20 children!
Toccata and Fugue in D Minor Written by Bach for his most beloved instrument A toccata is a composition written for a keyboard instrument composed in a ‘free style’ (no set structure). A fugue is a very structured piece that repeats one particular theme/melody many times throughout, harmonized with different melodies. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ho9rZjlsyYY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ho9rZjlsyYY
George F. Handel (1685-1759) Originally studied law because his father did not approve of his son becoming a full-time musician. Lived in Germany, Italy, and England at different times in his life and composed in German, Italian, and English
Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah Part of an oratorio (a musical work written for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra). Often with a religious text. Most often performed during the Christmas season. King George II stood upon hearing its magnificence; many audiences still stand today. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUZEtVbJT5c https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUZEtVbJT5c
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Italian composer, also ordained as a priest. Because of this and his fiery red hair, he was nicknamed ‘ The Red Priest’ Spring from The Four Seasons Violin Concerto A concerto is a musical work for solo instrument, often accompanied by an orchestra https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IjpLxlSMJ Po https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IjpLxlSMJ Po
The Classical Time Period Music becomes more formalized, structured, and ‘classical’ in the sense of the word as we use it today The orchestra as we know it today begins to form in terms of instrumentation and size The American Revolution takes place during this period
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Child musical prodigy from Austria. Wrote his first composition at the age of 5, and his first symphony at the age of 8 ! A symphony is a large-scale composition usually with 3-4 movements. Almost always performed by an orchestra.
Eine kleine nachtmusik ‘A Little Night Music’ or ‘A Little Serenade’ Written for string chamber ensemble of full orchestra Four movements: I. Allegro II. Romanze: Andante III. Menuetto: Allegretto IV. Rondo: Allegro
Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827) German composer Began losing his hearing at the age of 20, and eventually became completely deaf. Wrote 9 symphonies His music is thought to be a sort of transition from the Classical period to the Romantic period
Symphony no. 5 Four movement symphony written for orchestra Four movements: I. Allegro con brio II. Andante con moto III. Scherzo: Allegro IV. Allegro One of the best known symphonies of all time First four notes are very memorable and reappear throughout the piece (BABABABAAAA)
Bonus! Symphony no. 9 Beethoven’s last completed symphony “Ode to Joy” Performed by orchestra, chorus, and vocal soloists. Symphony no. 9 is the first major example of a composer using voices in a symphony Composed when Beethoven was completely deaf
Romantic Characteristics Music in the Romantic era was more expressive, emotional, and reflective. Composers began to let go of some of the strict structure of the Classical era Music becomes more available to the common person (not as many “royalty-only” performances)
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) Composer from Germany. Wrote vocal and instrumental music. Though he was a musician his whole life, he achieved little success until he was 40 years old. He was a perfectionist, and was known to destroy pieces that he did not deem good enough
Wiegenlied: Guten Abend, Gute Nacht Widely known as ‘Brahms’ Lullaby’. Literal translation from German to English is ‘Lullaby: Good Evening, Good Night’ Performed by only piano and solo voice A melody known around the world One of Brahms’ most simple compositions, though arguably his most famous
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) Composer from Russia Composed mostly orchestral music Thought of as the first Russian composer to be known and loved internationally Helped create and popularize the Russian classical sound Composed the suites for the famous ballets The Nutcracker, Swan Lake, and Sleeping Beauty
The Nutcracker Tchaikovsky's The Nutcracker is a ballet suite. The story of the ballet is taken from E.T.A. Hoffman’s story The Nutcracker and the Mouse King Performed by orchestra Most often performed during the Christmas season Premiered in 1892 in St. Petersburg, Russia https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wz_f9B4pPtg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wz_f9B4pPtg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q_UK--FYo4Q https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q_UK--FYo4Q