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Presentation on theme: "BSBIMN501A QUEENSLAND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ACADEMY."— Presentation transcript:


2 1.1 Identify learning needs of relevant personnel and stakeholders for input into, and use of, an information or knowledge management system.

3  Information and knowledge are arguably the most valuable assets an organisation holds. Identifying those assets and then building, storing, retrieving, maintaining and distributing them so that they are useful for planning, analytical, and decision- making purposes is what information and knowledge management is all about.

4  Knowledge is what happens to information when it is interpreted into something meaningful.  To create meaning, knowledge must exist in a time and place.

5  Two basic types of knowledge-tangible and intangible.  Both types of knowledge are necessary for working effectively and innovatively in business and therefore both must form part of an organisation's learning activities.

6  Knowledge can be considered tangible when it is drawn from explicit information such as that expressed in scientific formulas, instruction manuals, financial figures and other types of data.

7  This type of information can be formally stored, processed and used to verify and substantiate knowledge. Tangible knowledge is relatively easy to impart to others in a formal learning environment such as a classroom or lecture theatre.

8  Intangible knowledge is harder to explain, largely due to its subjective nature.  It originates through values, ideals and emotions and encompasses intuition, instincts and gut feelings.

9  Intangible knowledge is gathered during social or business interactions, observations, by 'reading between the lines' in written communications, or by taking time out to clear the mind and 'listen within'.

10  Intangible knowledge is shared through dialogue, often on an individual basis, such as in a mentor relationship or in an apprenticeship system.  Also, it can sometimes be explained using pictures, icons or designs; we see strong evidence of this in advertising.  Likewise, metaphors in language create images and meanings that might otherwise be indistinct, as in the sentences, 'The contract is set in stone', or 'We have reached the peak of our tolerance'.

11  The characteristics of intangible knowledge make it challenging to capture and process because it is shared by common experiences.  Shared intangible knowledge within an organisation is difficult for others to imitate and therefore it should be exploited to promote a competitive edge

12  Can you separate what you know into tangible and intangible groups 1. List three tangible things you know and explain how you know them 2. List three intangible things and explain how you know them

13  Before we can assess the learning needs of people using and providing input into an information or knowledge management system, we should first consider what these systems do, how they are used within organisations and the value of their output.

14  In the current context, information or knowledge management systems refer to electronic systems that have been developed for a specific purpose.  These systems deal with tangible information

15  Once this information is turned into tangible knowledge, it can be used in combination with the difficult-to-define, organisation- specific, intangible knowledge held by groups and individuals to help devise plans, solve problems, and make decisions.

16  Quality decisions begin with quality information.  A well-run information or knowledge management system will supply answers to crucial who, what, where and when questions.  It will also reveal trends and patterns.  These types of information provide the foundation for making informed decisions.

17  when you make a decision, you need to present valid arguments to convince others of your rationale.  Information retrieved from the system will help you to explain the principles behind your decision and may minimise opposition.

18  present information in different ways  reveal how the most recent information may not represent  an accurate situation  expose inconsistencies  estimate the likelihood of events  demonstrate the relevance of information  persuade others to change a current course of action  portray how different conclusions can be drawn.

19  An organisation may have a number of information or knowledge management systems in place for different organisational functions.  Or it could have one system that integrates different functional areas of the organisation.

20  Individual information or knowledge management information systems can link with one or more other types of systems through an enterprise resource planning system.  An enterprise resource planning system integrates the data from each of the information or knowledge management applications into one collective database.

21  financial management and budgeting  customer service and information records  product and service information  human resource records and management  project management.

22  Systems are also commonly developed for particular industries such as healthcare, media or engineering.  Information or knowledge management systems are sometimes tailored to fit organisation-specific needs.

23  Record management systems  Project management systems  Budget management systems  Financial management systems  Customer information management systems  Product and service management systems  Human resource management systems

24  Record management systems are web-based systems that are designed to manage all types of paper and electronic documents.  Organisations can upload all archival and current records and documents onto one central system that allows for secure delegated access and accountability.

25  Web-based record management systems have a main home page and often other home pages for each organisational department.  Once an organisation's documents have been uploaded to the website the Web-based record management system can become functional

26  search for documents  track documents  create checklists  write file notes for documents  create document templates  generate automated reminders  generate reports for auditing  comply with legal responsibilities.

27  In groups - discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having a web-based IMS or KMS.  Some of the issues that you might consider are:  cost, accessibility, environmental impact, efficiency, security  Present your groups ideas to the class

28  Typically, project management systems incorporate tools to:  schedule tasks.  allocate resources  monitor events and costs.  These systems also provide information to relevant workers about task lists and workload, project progression and potential problems.  They can be web-based or desktop-based.

29  Budget management systems assist organisations to plan for the allocation of resources for various projects and processes and to report on these plans.  They are also useful for monitoring the current- year budget and providing estimates for future-year budgets.

30  Information gathered from budget management systems is used as a basis for:  requesting additional funding  transferring funds  developing initiatives  providing revenue projections  identifying threats to revenue  analysing the history of income and expenditure

31  Incorporate the functions of budget management systems, but their functional scope is wider and includes:  asset management  expense management  financial accounting (general ledger, accounts receivable/payable, purchasing, inventory)  financial forecasting  financial planning

32  Customer information management systems are designed to efficiently manage an organisation's customer relationships.  Their function is therefore to administer the processes involved in:  responding to customer enquiries  generating and managing customer leads

33  automating marketing campaigns  nurturing customer rapport  consolidating customer information  targeting customers  segmenting customers  identifying cross-selling opportunities  ensuring compliance with regulations

34  Product and service management systems provide a centralised location from which information about an organisation's products and services can be accessed and managed.  The products and services are managed with a view to marketing and selling them through one or more distribution channels.

35  These channels could be outputs to a website, print catalogues, electronic data feeds or an enterprise resource planning system.  Output to an enterprise resource planning system would commonly integrate with a customer information management system.

36  coordinating pricing information  detailing size and weight information  controlling supplies and stock  calculating packaging and postage costs  marketing and selling products and services.

37  information contained within a product and service information system often has to cater to different regions, countries, currencies and languages.  By having all the information in one location, managing these complex geographical and linguistic requirements becomes less cumbersome.

38  Most large organisations have a human resource management system to deal with their human resources.  These systems are typically integrated with financial management systems.

39  human resource planning and recruiting  administering payroll and benefits  administering work rosters  organising training and development  keeping performance records  tracking workers' personal data such as experience, skills and education  managing workers' compensation.

40  Different kinds of personnel and stakeholders will have gained different levels and types of formal knowledge that will have been learned in educational institutions or through professional development courses and workshops.

41  To identify the learning needs of relevant personnel and stakeholders, we should start with what these people already know about the new information or knowledge management system.  From there, we can establish what needs to be learned about the system and by whom.

42  Records that are helpful in identifying the learning needs of workers.  job descriptions  descriptions of past training activities  performance criteria and competency standards  data of team performance over time  reports on the impact of technological development in the industry  legal requirements affecting workers  occupational health and safety standards:

43 Old system and ways of doing things Systems Skills Knowledge Policies Processes GAP Training needs New system and ways of doing things Systems Skills Knowledge Policies Processes

44  Information or knowledge management goes far beyond the technological systems that support it.  The systems are only useful when they are properly used and maintained by people who know what they are doing and why.  Consequently, involvement and participation in the system's capabilities across all levels of relevant personnel is integral to successful information or knowledge management.

45  Managers  Owner  Staff, team members, colleagues

46  Clients and customers  Tenderers, suppliers and contractors  Employee representatives  Funding bodies  Sponsors  Industry, professional and trade associations  Regulatory bodies and authorities

47  Managers at different levels of the organisation are likely to have an interest in the information or knowledge management system.  The nature of their involvement, however, will depend largely on the size of the organisation and how close they are to using the system themselves.

48  The interests of all types of managers are addressed in the following questions:  What types of outputs can the system generate?  How can those outputs help me with my duties as a manager/ supervisor/coordinator/team leader?  What is involved in producing those outputs?  How long does it take to perform particular tasks?  Who is able to do particular tasks on the system?  Who is responsible for doing particular tasks on the system?  Who has the authority to do particular tasks on the system?

49  Senior level managers are often on the board of directors and may have shares in the organisation.  They are responsible for looking at the big picture and making key long-term decisions.  Using analytical data gathered from different sources, these managers make plans for the organisation's future strategic direction.  Senior level managers are also ultimately responsible for improving the 'bottom line'-an organisation's yearly profit or loss.

50  Since they are responsible for the financial success of the organisation, senior managers will want to know how the information or knowledge management system justifies its initial and ongoing costs.  They will need to be educated about who uses the system and what the system contributes to the organisation's productivity and bottom line.

51  Because middle managers are responsible for the operational needs of their department, they will want to be aware of workers' responsibilities in relation to the system.  They are interested in how the system improves or streamlines workflow so that they can weigh up issues around human resource requirements

52  The terms supervisor, coordinator and team leader are often interchangeable and their roles are managerial in nature.  Generally, supervisors, coordinators and team leaders are responsible for assigning and overseeing the work that is being carried out on the system.  Like other types of managers, they must be aware of the system's capabilities, but they also need to have 'hands-on‘ knowledge of the system so that they can help team or staff members.

53  The owners of the information or knowledge management system will have made a substantial investment, not only financially, but also strategically.  How much owners need to know depends largely on how much they want to know.  Some owners will have carried out their own research in purchasing the system, whilst others will have followed the advice of trusted consultants.  Whatever the case may be, it is important that the system's owners are kept informed about its implementation and its ongoing operations.

54  Groups of workers like staff, team members and colleagues who operate the information or knowledge management system software are responsible for entering the data and generating various reports for managers and owners.  These workers should have a thorough understanding of what impact one piece of data has on other data within the system.

55  They must be trained in matters such as:  how to access the system  how data is entered into the system  what happens when data is entered into the system  how user-friendly the system is  what reports can be generated from the system.

56  Workers who provide assistance to other groups that operate the system have to be trained in its technical aspects so that they can troubleshoot problems associated with it.  When either a new information or knowledge management system is implemented, or improvements are made to an existing system, these workers need to know what functional impact the changes will have on issues they face

57  Issues for IT support include  tracking complaints  identifying technical problems  solving technical problems  keeping users informed of the status and progress of problem-solving  informing users of any planned or unplanned changes to service and availability

58  External stakeholders in the information or knowledge management system are the institutions and individuals outside of the organisation who have an interest in the system because they are affected by decisions relating to its management.

59  These groups may not be aware of a new or upgraded system, and they probably have no means of participating in any decision- making that relates to its use.  How much these stakeholders are affected by the information or knowledge management system depends on its function.

60  Clients and customers might need to access the information or outputs from the system to make decisions about buying products or services.  It is in an organisation's interest to keep its clients and customers loyal and happy, so that not only will they continue to purchase from the organisation, they will also give the organisation positive word-of-mouth publicity.

61  Clients and customers will want answers to questions such as:  What products do you stock and what services do you offer?  How do I access the system?  How quickly can I receive the products and services?  How much will I have to pay?  What guarantees and warranties do you provide?  Do you have any loyalty programs?  Do you offer any discounts?

62  People who tender their services, contractors who provide services, and those who supply products to an organisation either have a direct interest in how to use the system to carry out the work required of them or, will want to understand how the new system affects their role in providing goods and services to the organisation.  Many of the issues that apply to clients and customers will also be of interest to tenderers, suppliers and contractors.

63  Employee representatives may come in the form of trade union representatives whereby workers are members of a union.  A union is an external organisation that acts on behalf of its members to secure the rights and benefits of workers in the workplace.

64  In situations where all or some of the workers in an organisation are not represented by a union, employee representatives may be appointed either by management or elected by the workers themselves.  Employee representatives are usually workers who are internal to the organisation.

65  Both trade union representatives and employee representatives should be available for consultation with, or on behalf of a group of workers.  They should also be informed of any changes to the roles and conditions of workers.

66  Funding bodies can be government organisations or private entities that have an interest in financially supporting the organisation.  That support might be solely for a specific project or it could be ongoing.  It is in the interests of funding bodies to be made aware of any major purchases and changes of direction for the organisation

67  Sponsors also support organisations, but their support is not limited to financial support-they may also provide goods or services.  In return for their support, sponsors usually expect public recognition for their contributions such as by having their logos printed on marketing publications, signs and promotional clothing.

68  Sponsors will also expect to be publicly thanked for their support. Because of the public nature of sponsorship, a sponsor's reputation is tied to the organisation's reputation, so they should also be kept informed of important changes within the organisation.

69  Industry, professional and trade associations often require members to have fulfilled particular certification criteria such as qualifications in the given field.  These types of associations are usually involved with monitoring professional development and offering skills update programs, as well as providing advocacy for the profession.

70  Industry, professional and trade associations typically publish a regular newsletter or journal for members to keep up-to-date with the latest trends, developments and research into their specialty area.  Keeping associations informed of any new information or knowledge management systems may not only benefit members, but might also encourage the associations to become involved with training programs.

71  Regulatory bodies and authorities have the legislative power to oversee and control the activities of an organisation.  Their principal concerns lie in protecting public interest and safety.  For example, the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) is a regulatory body which, among other things, helps to protect investors and consumers with investments and financial deposits, as well as loans and insurance.


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