Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

John Morris Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University Computer Science/ Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland Research.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "John Morris Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University Computer Science/ Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 John Morris Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University Computer Science/ Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland Research Papers: Techniques and Myths Iolanthe III racing at Jomtien Jan 2014

2 OUTLINE Techniques

3 Outline - journal or conference paper Similar for any other report or your thesis 1.Title 2.Abstract 3.Introduction a)Literature Review 4.Hypotheses and methods 5.Results 6.Analysis 7.Conclusion 8.Future work 9.Acknowledgments 10.References | Bibliography Commonly each item in a separate section –Variations OK – eg combine 3 & 4 or 5 & 6 –Make ‘Literature review’ or ‘Related work’ subsection of Introduction to a separate section Sometimes combined Optional

4 Additional sections Abstract –Always necessary for a paper –Important – may be read more times than your paper! Tables of contents –Only for long survey papers or book chapters Glossaries of terms, symbols and acronyms –Very good idea if you have space –In particular, not all acronyms are obvious to even expert readers Index –Long documents only Lists of tables, figures –Actually of limited use, but can be generated automatically Rarely in a journal paper Never in a conference paper (not enough space!) Consider making one Even for a conference paper (always limited space!)

5 Preparing your paper Choose a journal –Impact factor is essential –There are many ‘fake’ or ‘for-profit’ conferences now! –Your first paper? Choosing a `prestige’ (high impact factor) journal –Good idea but time consuming –Review time is long –Acceptance rate is lower –Google ensures that your paper will be found As long as it is in an indexed journal! –If it can be found, it will be cited if it’s good Citation counts are valuable in your CV too! High citation count will compensate for a low impact factor! Recommendation for your first paper Find a journal with a non-zero impact factor that has reasonable publication delay You can choose a high impact journal for your 2 nd paper!

6 PREPARATION

7 Detailed paper preparation Read topic list for your chosen journal Check papers already published in that journal –Make sure your paper fits with others in the same journal –If your paper is beside others on the same topic, it will be read more often! Read the ‘Instructions for authors’ –Usually available on journal web sites now –Also in front or back of printed journals

8 Detailed preparation Instructions will specify how to format your paper –One or two columns –Font style and size –Style and position of abstract –Style for references –English or American spelling – etc Often you can download templates –LaTeX –Word Format your paper so that it matches the guidelines –EXACTLY! –If you don’t do it now, it will just slow the process down! –This will take a long time – the first time! –Next time it will be easy!

9 SECTIONS Writing

10 Keep It Simple!! Also known as the KISS principle Keep It Simple Stupid! Writing: First principle

11 Keep It Simple!! It is really important! Do NOT forget it! Good technical English is simple Now –50% of readers are NOT native English speakers –Write for them! Did you remember the advice on the previous slide?

12 Keep It Simple!! Myth Editors expect complicate words and phrases: I must write like others!

13 Keep It Simple!! Myth Editors expect complicate words and phrases: I must write like others! Reality Editors, reviewers and readers want clear expression of your ideas, results and conclusions Use simple, uncomplicated English, then nobody will notice! More people will read your paper in full and  Cite it! because they understood it!

14 Keep It Simple!! Myth Editors expect complicate words and phrases: I must write like others! Reality (2) Models and examples  There are many bad papers in the literature Try to find a good one as your model! Can you understand every word?  Do you understand the analysis and conclusion?

15 TITLE Writing

16 Title: Keep It Simple! Start with the title! –It should be short and concise! Remove unnecessary words –Words usually NOT needed in a title Research Method Experiment Procedure Measurement Analysis …. –These are part of every paper!  Obvious and not needed

17 A typical Thai title The Optimization of Single Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) by Improvement of Nafion Content in the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) better Single Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell using Nafion in the Membrane Electrode Optimization, Improvement not needed! –Paper is obviously going to talk about enhancement of the design No Acronyms in the title –Words are already spelt out in full! Assembly, content not needed – full details in abstract or text

18 A typical Thai title The Optimization of Single Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) by Improvement of Nafion Content in the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) or possibly even better Using Nafion in the Membrane Fuel Cell Electrodes Focus on the key words in the title Title should draw readers to the abstract!

19 Your name You should decide NOW how to spell your name –Choose ONE of the many transliterations of your name! Use it consistently –Search tools are using the text of your name Not it’s sound! You want –ALL your papers to be found with the same search –ALL your citations to be grouped together If you change your name –Consider continuing to use your original name on papers –Otherwise your publications will not be found so easily

20 Abstract Summarize results of paper Concise –200 words usually enough –Some editors limit you to less, eg 100 Make every word count! Must include results –Numeric results –If paper has many pages of numeric results, Summarize some key values Bad Abstracts –Force you to read the paper itself to find anything useful!

21 Abstract - Importance Read many more times than the paper! Publishers always make abstracts available on-line –Anyone with a computer and internet access can learn about your work –Not all have access to the full paper Expensive – typically ~$30++ Libraries don’t subscribe to every journal - Too many If you put key results in your abstract, others may cite your paper –Without having read the full paper! Citations are really important! –Employers sometimes count citations before counting your published papers! Good abstracts  more citations

22 Abstract – Bad example Feasibility analysis has been performed to find the financially optimum green building label for buildings in Thailand conforming to the Thailand’s green building standard (Thai’s Rating of Energy and Environmental Sustainability for New Construction and Major Renovation, TREES- NC). Three sample buildings comprising an office building (4 floors, 1, m2), a school building (6 floors, 6, m2), and a hospital building (3 floors, 6, m2) were used in this study. To achieve each level of the green label (i.e., certified, silver, gold, and platinum), 4 groups of green measures according to the 8 topics in the standard were assumed to be implemented to earn credits in the following order: measures with no investment & provide benefits, measures with no investment & no benefits, measures with investment & provide benefits, and measures with investment & no benefits. The EnergyPlus software was used to evaluate the energy savings from the measures in the Energy and Atmosphere topic. It was found that both silver and gold labels were financially feasible. At those levels, energy and water savings were within a range of % and %, respectively. The investment would be % higher than that of the baseline building. The payback period was found to be within a range of years which was the shortest compared with the other labels. The net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR) were found to be within a range of 108, ,486, Baht and %, respectively, which were the highest compared with the other labels. Published in a recent conference in Thailand

23 Abstract – Sentence by sentence Feasibility analysis has been performed to find the financially optimum green building label for buildings in Thailand conforming to the Thailand’s green building standard (Thai’s Rating of Energy and Environmental Sustainability for New Construction and Major Renovation, TREES- NC). Too many words! We show how to earn a green building label for buildings conforming to the Thai green building standard (Thai Rating of Energy and Environmental Sustainability for New Construction and Major Renovation, TREES-NC) economically. Typically … This abstract was printed in the conference proceedings Arguably, more important the full paper! –Many people will read the abstract –How many will continue to the full paper? First aim: keep it concise and attractive to read!

24 Abstract – Sentence by sentence Three sample buildings comprising an office building (4 floors, 1, m2), a school building (6 floors, 6, m2), and a hospital building (3 floors, 6, m2) were used in this study. Reduce to Three buildings - an office (4 floors, 1,300 m 2 ), a school (6 floors, 6,540 m 2 ) and a hospital (3 floors, 6,890 m2) - were studied. Two many words –Repetitions removed ‘ buildings ’ – four instances reduced to ONE! –Active verbs ‘were used in this study’ to ‘were studied’. –Excessive significant figures m 2  1300 m 2 – remove the noise! –Relative sizes are important 1300 : 6540 : 6890  Do you care about the – it’s only 0.5% of 1300 ???

25 Abstract – Sentence by sentence To achieve each level of the green label (i.e., certified, silver, gold, and platinum), 4 groups of green measures according to the 8 topics in the standard were assumed to be implemented to earn credits in the following order: measures with no investment & provide benefits, measures with no investment & no benefits, measures with investment & provide benefits, and measures with investment & no benefits. Reduce to To achieve certified, silver, gold, and platinum levels, 4 groups of measures in 8 standard topics earned credits in the order: measures with no investment but benefits, measures with no investment and no benefits, measures with investment and benefits, and measures with investment and no benefits. –Simplify phrases like ‘ were assumed to be implemented to earn credits ’ –reduced to ‘earned’ ! –Active verb is ‘ earn ’

26 Abstract – Sentence by sentence At those levels, energy and water savings were within a range of % and %, respectively. Reduce to At those levels, energy savings were 30-39% and water savings 22-66%. Authors are like magnets attracted to ‘ respectively ’! but –note how much simpler the sentence is without it!! Again, excessive, meaningless digits … If the range is 30-39, then the margin of error is ~30 % ! So has no significance! And ‘.20’ is pure noise which slows your reader

27 Abstract – Bad example Compare this one.. Feasibility analysis has been performed to find the financially optimum green building label for buildings in Thailand conforming to the Thailand’s green building standard (Thai’s Rating of Energy and Environmental Sustainability for New Construction and Major Renovation, TREES- NC). Three sample buildings comprising an office building (4 floors, 1, m2), a school building (6 floors, 6, m2), and a hospital building (3 floors, 6, m2) were used in this study. To achieve each level of the green label (i.e., certified, silver, gold, and platinum), 4 groups of green measures according to the 8 topics in the standard were assumed to be implemented to earn credits in the following order: measures with no investment & provide benefits, measures with no investment & no benefits, measures with investment & provide benefits, and measures with investment & no benefits. The EnergyPlus software was used to evaluate the energy savings from the measures in the Energy and Atmosphere topic. It was found that both silver and gold labels were financially feasible. At those levels, energy and water savings were within a range of % and %, respectively. The investment would be % higher than that of the baseline building. The payback period was found to be within a range of years which was the shortest compared with the other labels. The net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR) were found to be within a range of 108, ,486, Baht and %, respectively, which were the highest compared with the other labels. With the next slide ……..

28 Abstract – Better! Excellent! We show how to earn a green building label for buildings conforming to the Thai green building standard (Thai Rating of Energy and Environmental Sustainability for New Construction and Major Renovation, TREES-NC) economically. Three buildings - an office (4 floors, 1,300 m 2 ), a school (6 floors, 6,540 m 2 ) and a hospital (3 floors, 6,890 m2) - were studied. To achieve certified, silver, gold, and platinum levels, 4 groups of measures in 8 standard topics earned credits in the order: measures with no investment but benefits, measures with no investment and no benefits, measures with investment and benefits, and measures with investment and no benefits. ‘ EnergyPlus’ software evaluated energy savings from the measures in the Energy and Atmosphere topic. Both silver and gold labels were found to be financially feasible. At those levels, energy savings were 30-39% and water savings 22-66% with only 2-4% added cost. The payback periods of years. The net present value (NPV) was between 100,000 and 9 million Baht and the internal rate of return (IRR) in the range %. Shorter –But still long: I would be trying to make it shorter Simpler wording Comparing the two versions – if you were the journal editor, which one would you prefer? Note the inclusion of actual numeric results!! I could cite these results without reading the paper!!

29 MAIN BODY OF THE PAPER Writing

30 Length of your paper Myth I have to make –My paper longer –Fill the allowed space It will get rejected if it’s not long enough Reality Editors, reviewers and readers are delighted if your paper is shorter They only want a convincing argument  More words will not make it better!  More data, more and better experiments  More comprehensive literature review

31 Actually writing! Keep it simple! –Did I say this before Do NOT try to add words to make it longer! Use the simplest language you can! English is an irregular language –It is hard for native speakers! –It’s harder for you! –Make your task easier with simple language! –Remember >50% of readers struggle with English too! Find some tips for Technical English here:

32 Translators Google and other translators cannot do everything for you!! Some tips –Don’t ask them to translate transliterated versions of European names! Put the Latin characters in –Same for acronyms like DC, AC PID, PIO,.. …. –Amazingly, Google sometimes understands them … –Mainly use Google for single words and terms It makes a good dictionary –It’s really bad at turning Thai into grammatical English

33 Factors to check Background, previous work –You must cover all recent relevant work!  Scary! There are 1000s of papers on every topic! –Check recent (2014, 2013,.. ) papers in Important journals Major international conferences Usually they have references to previous important work Often it will be sufficient to cite most recent work –Look for survey papers Cite them in place of 10’s of individual papers  Missing important recent work  Rejection or  Revision

34 Factors to check Experimental method –Provide sufficient detail of your experiments –Enable someone else to repeat your experiments Methods Equipment used Sample sources Experimental conditions –Detail!!!! eg ‘Room temperature’ in Thailand is typically 30 o C If this is a factor, include it! Repeatability Principle Your work will not be accepted until someone else can reproduce your results

35 Factors to check Presentation of results –Common failings –Omission of error altogether! –Inclusion of excess significant digits in numeric values m = kg With no specified error, this implies m = ± kg (half a gram in 90kg!!!) Write more realistically m = 93.5 kg (implies ± 0.05 ) or (using a spring balance in the field) m = 94 kg (implies ± 0.5 ) Allow for errors!! All measurements have observation errors

36 Factors to check Presentation of results –Adding errors shows that your work was careful –Standard deviation is a minimum m = 93.4 kg (  = 0.6) but remember that the error is an error estimate! m = kg (  = 0.63) –Error is already ± 0.6, so round.43 to.4!! Don’t exaggerate accuracy! –Often you don’t need to! If previous researchers obtained 21% efficiency Your system achieved 27% This is already a good result!! –You don’t need to claim 27.12% ! –(No one will believe the.12% anyway!)

37 Factors to check Graphs Plot the original data points Add the predicted behavior as a smooth curve Usually linear Non-linear models: normalize data and plot as straight line  Do NOT ‘join the dots’ with Excel Your observations have errors! Joining the dots is physically meaningless!  Do NOT add a high-order polynomial trend line with Excel Nice curve, but physically meaningless! Plot the theoretically predicted model

38 REVIEWS Process

39 Blind reviewing Some journals and conferences review papers without authors’ names on them –To prevent bias Reviewer may not believe the work of someone –he’s had an argument with or –who criticized the reviewer’s work before!

40 Blind reviewing Preparing for blind reviews 1.Remove your names and institution from the author list I usually substitute some dummy names like – Author X, Author Y, etc – University ABC 2.Check for references to your institution in the text.. in the Photogrammetry Laboratory at Auckland changes to.. in the XYX Laboratory at PQR University 3.Remove citations to your own work from reference list Again I usually substitute something like – Self citation 1: some journal, 2006 Substituting dummy names makes it easy to put the real ones back when the paper is accepted! –Layout of the paper will not be changed

41 Reviewing Journal editor will send your paper to at least two experts in your area –They will be asked to write a review of your paper –They will comment on Errors Experimental methods Presentation Results Analysis Writing style in fact everything!

42 Reviewing Editor will send the reports back to you If you agree with the comments of the referees –Amend the paper to satisfy referees’ objections –Submit again If you don’t agree, then –Write a carefully argued response and send to the editor Do not attack the referees personally! –Editor may accept your comments and publish your paper or –Send them back to the referee This may take several iterations –Actual procedure depends on journal policy and editor –and may take some time! Allow many months!

43 Reviewing Referees are anonymous –You will not be told who they are –Don’t even ask!! It’s a big mistake of some authors to argue personally with the referees Journal editors will not allow it If you start such an argument, your paper is likely to be rejected immediately –You will be considered unprofessional You must accept the referees’ comments as reasonable –Even if you don’t agree with them! Anonymity is important in the reviewing process –Allows the referees to express their opinions freely! –Even a junior lecturer can criticize a senior professor IF he or she can justify the criticism!!

44 Final preparation Editor has advised you that your paper is accepted –Make any corrections that the editor or the referees have requested –Prepare a final copy of your paper Often referred to as the ‘camera ready’ copy –It will be photographed and bound into the journal –Check it carefully!! Any mistakes will end up in print forever! –Check formatting requirements too Some journals will ask for original LaTeX files and separate image files

45 Technical Reports Many university departments publish research first in a Technical Report –Faster Can be sent to colleagues and other researchers immediately –Publication delays Small conference – 3 months Large international conference – 6 months Journals – up to 2 years! –NOT refereed Informally by your colleagues only! This informal review is valuable –Helps you to improve the paper –Reduces time for formal review by a journal Wait for formal reviews - main reason for publication delay –Referees review papers in their own time –It is not part of our formal job! Remember this when planning to get your (required) journal paper published

46 FINAL WORD Get your paper checked! John Morris, Engineering, EN 110 –PhD (Physical Chemistry) –So most scientific and engineering papers are OK –There are others better qualified for other disciplines It does not take me long … –Bring your paper on a memory stick or send by –LaTeX or Word documents are best I can edit quickly and directly! pdf or paper is less efficient


Download ppt "John Morris Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University Computer Science/ Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland Research."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google